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gender, depression

Claudia Luck-Sikorski, Franziska Jung, Katharina Schlosser, Steffi G Riedel-Heller
PURPOSE: Orthorexia is described as a strict, health-oriented eating pattern with clinically significant impairment in everyday life. Its prevalence varied widely in previous studies due to heterogenous assessment procedures. Determinants for the eating pattern and its prevalence have not been investigated in larger representative studies. METHODS: A population-based telephone survey in Germany was conducted in n = 1007 participants. The Dusseldorf Orthorexia Scale with a cut-off of 30 was used to assess orthorexic behavior...
March 21, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Mahnaz Fallahi Khesht-Masjedi, Somayeh Shokrgozar, Elahe Abdollahi, Mahbuobe Golshahi, Zahra Sharif-Ghaziani
Introduction: Symptoms of depression vary between the males and females. Depressed men show behaviors such as irritability, restlessness, difficulty in concentrating, and instead of the usual behaviors. Sleep disturbance is a common symptom in depressed men. Men are less likely to go to doctors and unconsciously show other behaviors such as anger instead of the sadness. It seems that considering depression as "feminine" is a great injustice toward male patients whom their illness will not be diagnosed nor treated...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Reem Jarrad, Sawsan Hammad, Tagreed Shawashi, Naser Mahmoud
Aim: This study aimed to detect if there were differences in compassion fatigue (CF) among nurses based on substance use and demographic variables of gender, marital status, type of health institution and income. Background: Compassion fatigue is considered an outcome of poorly handled stressful situations in which nurses may respond with self-harming behaviours like substance use. Evidence in this area is critically lacking. Methods: This study used a descriptive design to survey differences in CF of 282 nurses...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
Abdullah Alhuzaimi, Alwaleed Aljohar, Ahmad N Alhadi, Abdulqudous Aljenedil, Ahmad S Hersi
Purpose: Syncope is a common condition affecting almost one-third of the general population. The present study measures the prevalence of psychiatric traits in patients presenting with syncope (unexplained and vasovagal) and whether recurrent attacks have an impact on psychiatric profiles. Patients and methods: This is a case-control study in a tertiary hospital enrolling all patients aged ≥12 years with single or recurrent syncopal attacks. A self-reporting psychometric questionnaire (The Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised) was used to screen for depression, anxiety, somatization disorder, and phobia...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
Jennifer Jane Hardes
The positive relationship between exercise and mental health is often taken for granted in today's society, despite the lack of academic literature evidencing this symbiosis. Gender is considered a significant determinant in a number of mental health diagnoses. Indeed, women are considered twice as likely as men to experience the most pervasive mental health condition, depression. Exercise for women's mental health is promoted through various macrolevel charity, as well as microlevel, campaigns that influence government healthcare policy and National Health Service guidelines...
March 21, 2018: Medical Humanities
Mina Ansari, Sahand Adib Moradi, Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Abozar Hedayatnia, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
OBJECTIVE: Research on psychobiological markers of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains a hot topic. Non-motor symptoms such as depression and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) each attribute to a particular neurodegenerative cluster in PD, and might enlighten the way for early prediction/detection of PD. The neuropathology of mood disturbances remains unclear. In fact, a few studies have investigated depression using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion MRI). METHOD: Diffusion MRI of PD patients without comorbid RBD was used to assess whether microstructural abnormalities are detectable in the brain of 40 PD patients with depression compared to 19 patients without depression...
March 21, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Min-Gu Kang, Chul-Hyun Kim, Eunhee Park, Jae-Won Huh, Won-Jong Yang, Tae-Woo Nam, Yu-Sun Min, Tae-Du Jung
Objective: To investigate the effect of family caregiving on depression in the first 3 months after spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: A retrospective study was carried out on 76 patients diagnosed with an SCI from January 2013 to December 2016 at the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of Kyungpook National University Hospital, Korea. Clinical characteristics including age, gender, level of injury, completeness of the injury, time since injury, caregiver information, etiology, and functional data were collected through a retrospective review of medical records...
February 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Yongwoog Andrew Jeon, Brent Hale, Eric Knackmuhs, Michael Mackert
BACKGROUND: Anonymous verbal attacks against overweight individuals on social media are common and widespread. These comments often use negative, misogynist, or derogatory words, which stigmatize the targeted individuals with obesity. These verbal attacks may cause depression in overweight individuals, which could subsequently promote unhealthy eating behavior (ie, binge eating) and further weight gain. To develop an intervention policy and strategies that tackle the anonymous, Web-based verbal attacks, a thorough understanding of the comments is necessary...
March 20, 2018: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
Han-Yun Tseng, Shu-Han Yu, Chun-Yi Lee, Wen-Hao Huang, Seng-Loong Huang, Chi-Shin Wu, Yen-Feng Chiu, Chao A Hsiung
BACKGROUND: Sedative-hypnotic medication use has been related to severe adverse events and risks. This study investigated the prevalence of and characteristics associated with the use of sedatives and hypnotics among community-dwelling elderly persons aged 65 years and over in Taiwan. METHODS: A representative sample of community-dwelling adults was recruited. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected for assessing physical, mental, and cognitive functioning and disorders...
March 21, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Mercilene Machisa, Simukai Shamu
BACKGROUND: Over the years, researchers have relied on data from women victims to understand the profile on male perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV studies with male participants in the general population are still emerging in Africa. The contribution of mental ill health to IPV perpetration in the general population that has been documented elsewhere is emergent. Notwithstanding, research with male perpetrators is essential to informing effective prevention programmes and interventions...
March 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
E K Hopper, L D Gonzalez
Human trafficking is a form of interpersonal trauma that has significant mental health impacts on survivors. This study examined psychological symptoms in 131 survivors of sex and labor trafficking, including people trafficked into or within the U.S. High rates of depression (71%) and PTSD (61%) were identified. Two thirds of survivors also met criteria for multiple categories of Complex PTSD (C-PTSD), including affect dysregulation and impulsivity; alterations in attention and consciousness; changes in interpersonal relationships; revictimization; somatic dysregulation; and alterations in self-perception...
March 20, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Kristen Anzaldi, Kim Shifren
Few published studies exist on how individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) deal with their disease. We conducted this study to examine the relationship between optimism, pessimism, coping strategies, and depressive symptoms in individuals with PD. Specifically, we assessed the possible mediator role of optimism and pessimism on the relation between coping strategies and depressive symptoms in those with PD. Seventy individuals with PD (35 females and 35 males) were assessed with the Brief COPE scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised, and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
Bertil Damato, Laura Hope-Stone, Bruce Cooper, Steve Brown, Peter Salmon, Heinrich Heimann, Laura Dunn
PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that patients treated with radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma enjoy better quality of life (QoL) than patients who have undergone enucleation. METHODS: In this non-randomized study, patients with choroidal melanoma treated at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital, UK, were invited to complete QoL questionnaires approximately six months post-operatively and then on each anniversary of their primary treatment. These instruments consisted of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)-QLQ_OPT30 questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale (HADS), and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Treatment (FACT-G) questionnaire...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Sushanth Bhat, Genevieve Pinto-Zipp, Hinesh Upadhyay, Peter G Polos
OBJECTIVES: The use of mobile device-based electronic social media (ESM) in bed is rapidly becoming commonplace, with potentially adverse impacts on sleep and daytime functioning. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which in-bed ESM use is associated with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, mood, and sleep duration in adults. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional observational study conducted among 855 hospital employees and university students (mean age, 43...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Samantha K Henry, Merida M Grant, Karen L Cropsey
BACKGROUND: Screening instruments are urgently needed to rapidly and efficiently identify those in need of mental health treatment, particularly among underserved populations. Although designed initially for use in research, the CES-D has become a widely used clinical screening tool for the presence of major depression. Despite four decades and three major revisions to the DSM since the CES-D was first introduced, the cutoff score of 16 remains the marker by which individuals are assessed...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Sabina O Nduaguba, Kentya H Ford, Karen Rascati
Objectives: Non-smoking status and physical activity have, individually, been shown to be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The objective of this study was to assess whether the relationship between smoking status and HRQoL is modified or influenced by physical activity. Methods: Data were extracted from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey dataset (N=332,680) in 2015. Logistic regression models were used to address study objectives...
March 15, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
P H M Burger, M Scholz
BACKGROUND: In Germany, currently two out of three medical students are female. Several studies corroborate that medical students show a significantly higher prevalence of stress-related mental disorders than the population in general. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate, if gender has an influence on the distribution of mental stress parameters and learning style among male and female medical students. METHODS: We investigated a total of 758 students of the medical faculty at the University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Germany, using standardized and validated psychological questionnaires on depressive symptoms (BDI-II), burnout (BOSS-II) and quality of life (SF-12)...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Victoria Pile, Sally Robinson, Elystan Roberts, Marta Topor, Tammy Hedderly, Jennifer Y F Lau
OBJECTIVE: Depression is common in Tourette syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders (TS/CTD) and contributes to significant impairment. The specificity of autobiographical memories is implicated in an individual's sense of self and their daily functioning but also in the onset and development of depression in the general population. Here, we examined whether memory specificity is reduced in young people with TS/CTD, relative to control participants, and whether memory specificity is associated with depression...
March 6, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Antonio Cano-Vindel, Roger Muñoz-Navarro, Leonardo Adrián Medrano, Paloma Ruiz-Rodríguez, César González-Blanch, María Dolores Gómez-Castillo, Antonio Capafons, Fernando Chacón, Francisco Santolaya
BACKGROUND: The Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) is an ultra-brief self-report consisting of a 2-item depression scale (PHQ-2) and a 2-item anxiety scale (GAD-2). The aim of the present study is to determine the psychometric properties of a computerized version of the PHQ-4 used to detect emotional disorders (anxiety and depression) in the primary care setting. METHOD: A total of 1052 patients with suspected anxiety, depression, or somatic symptoms were recruited from 28 primary care centres participating in the PsicAP trial and completed the full version of the computerized PHQ...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Sanju Silwal, Ragnhild Dybdahl, Roshan Chudal, Andre Sourander, Lars Lien
BACKGROUND: In 2015, Nepal was hit by two major earthquakes, which caused 8900 deaths and displaced more than 450,000 people. We assessed the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depressive symptoms and explored potential risk factors among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 893 students aged 11-17 in school grades 7-10. They lived in two districts affected by the earthquakes: Sindhupalchok and Kathmandu. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using Child PTSD symptom scale and Depression Self-Rating Scale...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
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