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Chloroquine and cancer

Yuyin Li, Yuejun Sun, Lifang Jing, Jianjun Wang, Yali Yan, Yajuan Feng, Yueying Zhang, Zhenxing Liu, Long Ma, Aipo Diao
The lysosome inhibitors bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine have both lysosomotropic properties and autophagy inhibition ability, and are promising clinical agents to be used in combination with anticancer drugs. In order to investigate this combination effect, HepG2 cells were treated with bafilomycin A1, chloroquine, or/and doxorubicin, and their proliferative ability, induction of apoptosis, and the changes of lysosomal membrane permeabilization and mitochondrial membrane potential were studied. The results demonstrate that treatment with bafilomycin A1 or chloroquine alone at a relatively low concentration promotes the inhibitory effect of doxorubicin on cell growth and apoptosis...
October 21, 2016: Chemotherapy
Liza J Burton, Mariela Rivera, Ohuod Hawsawi, Jin Zou, Tamaro Hudson, Guangdi Wang, Qiang Zhang, Luis Cubano, Nawal Boukli, Valerie Odero-Marah
Muscadine grape skin extract (MSKE) is derived from muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia), a common red grape used to produce red wine. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) that serves as a survival mechanism to relieve ER stress and restore ER homeostasis. However, when persistent, ER stress can alter the cytoprotective functions of the UPR to promote autophagy and cell death. Although MSKE has been documented to induce apoptosis, it has not been linked to ER stress/UPR/autophagy...
2016: PloS One
Gregory R Bean, Jeff C Kremer, Bethany C Prudner, Aaron D Schenone, Juo-Chin Yao, Matthew B Schultze, David Y Chen, Munir R Tanas, Douglas R Adkins, John Bomalaski, Brian P Rubin, Loren S Michel, Brian A Van Tine
Sarcomas comprise a large heterogeneous group of mesenchymal cancers with limited therapeutic options. When treated with standard cytotoxic chemotherapies, many sarcomas fail to respond completely and rapidly become treatment resistant. A major problem in the investigation and treatment of sarcomas is the fact that no single gene mutation or alteration has been identified among the diverse histologic subtypes. We searched for therapeutically druggable targets that are common to a wide range of histologies and hence could provide alternatives to the conventional chemotherapy...
October 13, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Yuran Xie, Bryan Killinger, Anna Moszczynska, Olivia M Merkel
The use of small interference RNA (siRNA) to target oncogenes is a promising treatment approach for cancer. However, siRNA cancer therapies are hindered by poor delivery of siRNA to cancer cells. Transferrin receptor (TfR) is overexpressed in many types of tumor cells and therefore is a potential target for the selective delivery of siRNA to cancer cells. Here, we used the TfR binding peptide HAIYPRH (HAI peptide) conjugated to cationic polymer branched polyethylenimine (bPEI), optimized the coupling strategy, and the TfR selective delivery of siRNA was evaluated in cells with high (H1299) and low TfR expression (A549 and H460)...
October 10, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Evie H Carchman, Kristina A Matkowskyj, Louise Meske, Paul F Lambert
INTRODUCTION: Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that removes and recycles unnecessary/dysfunctional cellular components, contributing to cellular health and survival. Autophagy is a highly regulated cellular process that responds to several intracellular signals, many of which are deregulated by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection through the expression of HPV-encoded oncoproteins. This adaptive inhibitory response helps prevent viral clearance. A strong correlation remains between HPV infection and the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anus, particularly in HIV positive and other immunosuppressed patients...
2016: PloS One
Tomohiko Fukuda, Katsutoshi Oda, Osamu Wada-Hiraike, Kenbun Sone, Kanako Inaba, Yuji Ikeda, Chinami Makii, Aki Miyasaka, Tomoko Kashiyama, Michihiro Tanikawa, Takahide Arimoto, Tetsu Yano, Kei Kawana, Yutaka Osuga, Tomoyuki Fujii
Resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenolic compound derived from red wine, inhibits the proliferation of various types of cancer. RSV induces apoptosis in cancer cells, while enhancing autophagy. Autophagy promotes cancer cell growth by driving cellular metabolism, which may counteract the effect of RSV. The present study aimed to elucidate the correlation between RSV and autophagy and to examine whether autophagy inhibition may enhance the antitumor effect of RSV in endometrial cancer cells. Cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis were examined, following RSV exposure, by performing MTT assays, flow cytometry and annexin V staining, respectively, in an Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell line...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Bin Sun, Lei Gao, Anil Ahsan, Peng Chu, Yanlin Song, Hailong Li, Zonghui Zhang, Yuan Lin, Jinyong Peng, Zhicheng Song, Shisheng Wang, Zeyao Tang
Oleanolic acid (OA) and its several derivatives possess various pharmacological activities, such as antitumor and anti-inflammation. In present study, anticancer effect of SZC015, an OA derivative, and its underlying mechanisms were investigated. We demonstrated that cell viability was significantly decreased in SZC015-treated lung cancer cells, but has less cytotoxicity in human bronchial epithelial cell line. Further investigation verified that apoptosis and autophagy induction and G0/G1 phase arrest were observed in SZC015-treated H322 cells...
September 30, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Paul Zarogoulidis, Savvas Petanidis, Kalliopi Domvri, Efrosini Kioseoglou, Doxakis Anestakis, Lutz Freitag, Konstantinos Zarogoulidis, Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wilfried Eberhardt
Chemoresistance is a major challenge in lung cancer treatment. Recent findings have revealed that autophagic mechanism contributes significantly to immunosuppressive related chemoresistance. For that reason, targeting autophagy-related immunosuppression is an important approach to reverse tumor drug resistance. In this study, we report for the first time that autophagy inhibition triggers upregulation of CD4(+), Foxp3(+) tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in late metastatic lung cancer tissues. Furthermore, autophagy blockage induces chemosensitization to carboplatin, immune activation and cell cycle arrest...
September 16, 2016: Molecular Oncology
Baoqing Guo, Adam Tam, Stacey A Santi, Amadeo M Parissenti
BACKGROUND: The roles and mechanisms involved in starvation-induced autophagy in mammalian cells have been extensively studied. However, less is known about the potential role for autophagy as a survival pathway in acquired drug resistance in cancer cells under nutrient-rich conditions. METHODS: We selected MCF-7 breast tumor cells for survival in increasing concentrations of doxorubicin and assessed whether the acquisition of doxorubicin resistance was accompanied by changes in doxorubicin and lysosome localization and the activation of autophagy, as assessed by laser scanning confocal microscopy with or without immunohistochemical approaches...
September 29, 2016: BMC Cancer
Yan Zhou, Yuan Li, Hong-Min Ni, Wen-Xing Ding, Hua Zhong
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. Icotinib and Gefitinib are two epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that have been used to treat NSCLC. While it is well known that mutations of EGFR can affect the sensitivity of NSCLC to the EGFR-TKI, other mechanisms may also be adopted by lung cancer cells to develop resistance to EGFR-TKI treatment. Cancer cells can use multiple adaptive mechanisms such as activation of autophagy and Nrf2 to protect against various stresses and chemotherapeutic drugs...
November 1, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
David A Gewirtz
The finding that cancer chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiation often promote autophagy has provided the foundation for clinical trials combining autophagy-blocking agents with antitumor drugs and radiation. The premise driving these trials is that therapy-induced autophagy is cytoprotective; consequently, inhibition of autophagy is anticipated to sensitize malignancies to therapy. However, it is well-established that autophagy may also mediate the toxicity of antitumor drugs while evidence also exists for a nonprotective function of autophagy...
October 1, 2016: Cancer Research
Qing-Yu Zhang, Rui Jin, Xian Zhang, Ji-Po Sheng, Fang Yu, Ren-Xiang Tan, Ying Pan, Jun-Jian Huang, Ling-Dong Kong
Curcumin has shown promise as a safe and specific anticancer agent. The COP9 signalosome (CSN) component CSN5, a known specific target for curcumin, can control p53 stability by increasing its degradation through ubiquitin system. But the correlation of CSN5-controlled p53 to anticancer therapeutic effect of curcumin is currently unknown. Here we showed that CSN5-controlled p53 was transcriptional inactive and responsible for autophagy in human normal BJ cells and cancer HepG2 cells under curcumin treatment...
September 10, 2016: Oncotarget
Alessia Garufi, Giuseppa Pistritto, Mara Cirone, Gabriella D'Orazi
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the p53 oncosuppressor gene are highly frequent in human cancers. These alterations are mainly point mutations in the DNA binding domain of p53 and disable p53 from transactivating target genes devoted to anticancer activity. Mutant p53 proteins are usually more stable than wild-type p53 and may not only impair wild-type p53 activity but also acquire pro-oncogenic functions. Therefore, targeting mutant p53 to clear the hyperstable proteins or change p53 conformation to reactivate wild-type p53 protein functions is a powerful anticancer strategy...
2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Hui Ren, Hua Guo, Asmitananda Thakur, Shuo Zhang, Ting Wang, Yiqian Liang, Puyu Shi, Lei Gao, Feng Liu, Jing Feng, Tianjun Chen, Tian Yang, Dong Shang, Johnson J Liu, Feng Xu, Mingwei Chen
NVP-BKM120 (BKM120) is a new pan-class I phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor and has been tested in clinical trials as an anticancer agent. In this study, we determined whether BKM120 induces autophagy and the impact of autophagy induction on BKM120's growth-inhibitory activity. BKM120 potently induced elevation of autophagosome-bound type II LC3 (LC3-II) protein, predominantly in cell lines insensitive to BKM120, thereby inducing autophagy. The presence of lysosomal protease inhibitor chloroquine further enhanced the levels of LC3-II...
August 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Wen-Yue Xie, Xiang-Dong Zhou, Juan Yang, Ling-Xiu Chen, Dan-Hua Ran
The occurrence and mechanisms of autophagy induced by heat stress are not well known in lung cancer cells. Here, we have demonstrated that heat stress induces autophagy in A549 and NCI-H460 cells through morphological and biochemical analyses. The inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine, 3-methyladenine and Beclin 1 siRNA enhanced heat-induced apoptosis. Moreover, the combination of chloroquine and heat stress inhibited tumor growth and enhanced apoptosis in vivo experiments. In addition, heat-induced autophagy involved the ER stress pathway (PERK- or IRE1-dependent)...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Mengtian Yang, Lu Huang, Xiaojuan Li, Ersheng Kuang
Lytic infection is essential for the persistent infection and pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and inhibiting KSHV lytic replication may effectively prevent the occurrence of KSHV-related diseases. Chloroquine (CQ), a well-known antimalarial drug and autophagy inhibitor, exerts broad-spectrum antiviral effects and shows anti-cancer therapeutic potential. However, the ability of CQ and its derivatives to control infection of oncogenic γ-herpesvirus remains undefined. Here we reveal that CQ suppresses KSHV lytic gene expression and virion production, and shows cytotoxicity toward KSHV lytically infected B cells at clinically acceptable doses...
September 2016: Antiviral Research
Birce Akpinar, Barbora Safarikova, Jarmila Laukova, Shubhranshu Debnath, Alena Hyrslova Vaculova, Boris Zhivotovsky, Magnus Olsson
To examine reciprocal or unilateral implications between two cell destruction processes, autophagy and apoptosis, in 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-treated tumor cells, a combination of chemical inhibitors, RNAi and genetic approaches were used. In contrast to cancer cells harboring obstructed apoptosis, either at the DISC or the mitochondrial level, p53-deficiency generated signs of autophagy deregulation upon chemotherapy. On the other, hand disruption of lysosomal function by chloroquine, caused a profound decrease in apoptotic markers appearing in response to 5-FU...
August 5, 2016: Oncotarget
Kwan-Hwa Chi, Yu-Shan Wang, Yi-Chun Huang, Hsin-Chien Chiang, Mau-Shin Chi, Chau-Hwa Chi, Hsin-Ell Wang, Shang-Jyh Kao
While combined chemotherapy (CT) with an autophagy inducer and an autophagy inhibitor appears paradoxical, it may provide a more effective perturbation of autophagy pathways. We used two dissimilar cell lines to test the hypothesis that autophagy is the common denominator of cell fate after CT. HA22T cells are characterized by CT-induced apoptosis and use autophagy to prevent cell death, while Huh7.5.1 cells exhibit sustained autophagic morphology after CT. Combined CT and rapamycin treatment resulted in a better combination index (CI) in Huh7...
July 28, 2016: Oncotarget
Tameryn Stringer, Carmen De Kock, Hajira Guzgay, John Okombo, Jenny Liu, Sierra Kanetake, Jihwan Kim, Christina Tam, Luisa W Cheng, Peter J Smith, Denver T Hendricks, Kirkwood M Land, Timothy J Egan, Gregory S Smith
A series of mono- and multimeric polyamine-containing ferrocenyl complexes containing a quinoline motif were prepared. The complexes were characterised by standard techniques. The molecular structure of the monomeric salicylaldimine derivative was elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction and was consistent with the proposed structure. The antiplasmodial activity of the compounds were evaluated in vitro against both the NF54 (chloroquine-sensitive) and K1 (chloroquine-resistant) strains of Plasmodium falciparum...
September 14, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Md Masud Alam, Ryusho Kariya, Azusa Kawaguchi, Kouki Matsuda, Eriko Kudo, Seiji Okada
Autophagy plays a crucial role in cancer cell survival and the inhibition of autophagy is attracting attention as an emerging strategy for the treatment of cancer. Chloroquine (CQ) is an anti-malarial drug, and is also known as an inhibitor of autophagy. Recently, it has been found that CQ induces cancer cell death through the inhibition of autophagy; however, the underlying mechanism is not entirely understood. In this study, we identified the role of CQ-induced cancer cell death using Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL) cells...
October 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
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