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Candida auris

Shawn R Lockhart, Elizabeth L Berkow, Nancy Chow, Rory M Welsh
Candida auris is a newly emerging species that was first identified in Asia in 2009 but has rapidly spread across the world. C. auris differs from most other Candida species in that antifungal resistance is the norm rather than the exception, it is a commensal of human skin rather than the human gut, and it can be easily transmitted from person to person in a healthcare setting. This review discusses the emergence of C. auris , global epidemiology, identification, antifungal susceptibility testing, and precautions to be taken when it is identified from a patient specimen...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Microbiology Newsletter
Shigekazu Iguchi, Ryo Mizushima, Keisuke Kamada, Yasutomo Itakura, Atsushi Yoshida, Yutaka Uzawa, Yuko Arai, Miyako Takaoka, Sumie Sato, Aeko Goto, Toshiko Karasawa, Naoki Tsuruoka, Daisuke Totsuka, Erika Ono, Manabu Nonaka, Koichi Makimura, Ken Kikuchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Mary Snayd, Feliciano Dias, Raymond W Ryan, Donna Clout, David B Banach
Candida auris is an emerging public health threat.….
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Hamed Fakhim, Afsane Vaezi, Eric Dannaoui, Anuradha Chowdhary, Davood Nasiry, Leila Faeli, Jacques F Meis, Hamid Badali
The incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) caused by uncommon Candida species with diverse virulence and susceptibility profiles has increased in recent years. Due to scarce clinical and experimental data on the pathogenicity of Candida auris, the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the virulence of two rare clinically relevant species, C. auris and Candida haemulonii with Candida glabrata and Candida albicans in an immunocompetent murine model of disseminated infection. Immunocompetent ICR female mice were infected with three inoculum sizes (1×105 , 1×106 and 1×107 CFU/mouse) of two C...
February 19, 2018: Mycoses
Adnan Alatoom, Mohammad Sartawi, Karen Lawlor, Laila AbdelWareth, Jens Thomsen, Ahmad Nusair, Imran Mirza
In this case, we report an elderly patient with multiple chronic conditions and prolonged intensive care units (ICU) stay who had recurrent Candida auris (C. auris) in blood despite antifungal therapy. C. auris was misidentified using conventional automated identification system as Candida haemulonii resulting in delayed diagnosis. The isolate showed increasing minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to different antifungal drugs and persisted in the patient's blood before the patient deceased. This is the first case of C...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Claudia M Parra-Giraldo, Sandra L Valderrama, Gloria Cortes-Fraile, Javier R Garzón, Beatriz E Ariza, Florent Morio, Melva Y Linares-Linares, Andrés Ceballos-Garzón, Alejandro de la Hoz, Catalina Hernandez, Carlos Alvarez-Moreno, Patrice Le Pape
BACKGROUND: Candida auris is a recently reported Candida species which is phenotypically similar to Candida haemulonii and related to hospital outbreaks. This organism can be misidentified as C. haemulonii, C. famata, C. catenulata or Rhodotorula glutinis by phenotypic approaches. MALDI-TOF MS and DNA sequence analysis using ITS rDNA barcoding provide an accurate identification. CASE PRESENTATIONS: Three cases of C. auris infection in patients with risk factors for fungal infection (Admitted to the intensive care unit, lymphoma and HIV respectively, all three with previous antibiotic use) and not epidemiologically related...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Ilan S Schwartz, Thomas F Patterson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The global emergence of antifungal resistance among Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. will disproportionately affect transplantation recipients, who are prone to invasive fungal disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Invasive candidiasis is increasingly caused by non-albicans Candida species with reduced susceptibility to first-line antifungals. Echinocandin resistance in Candida glabrata is increasing in some settings. Candida auris has rapidly emerged as a global concern due to multidrug resistance and efficient nosocomial spread in healthcare settings...
February 5, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Maria N Gamaletsou, Thomas J Walsh, Nikolaos V Sipsas
Invasive fungal infections caused by drug-resistant organisms, are an emerging threat to heavily immunosuppressed patients with haematological malignancies. Modern early antifungal treatment strategies, such as prophylaxis, empirical and pre-emptive therapy result in long term exposure to antifungal agents, which is a major driving force for the development of resistance. The extended use of central venous catheters, the non-linear pharmacokinetics of certain antifungal agents, neutropenia, other forms of intense immunosuppression, and drug toxicities are other contributing factors...
February 2, 2018: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
Frederic Lamoth, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ratna Mohd Tap, Teck Choon Lim, Nur Amalina Kamarudin, Stephanie Jane Ginsapu, Mohd Fuat Abd Razak, Norazah Ahmad, Fairuz Amran
We report a fatal case of Candida auris that was involved in mixed candidemia with Candida tropicalis, isolated from the blood of a neutropenic patient. Identification of both isolates was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer and D1/D2 domain of large subunit in rRNA gene. Antifungal susceptibility test by E-test method revealed that C. auris was resistant to amphotericin B, anidulafungin, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole. On the other hand, C. tropicalis was sensitive to all antifungal tested...
January 30, 2018: Mycopathologia
Miao Zhao, Alexander J Lepak, Brian VanScoy, Justin C Bader, Karen Marchillo, Jamie Vanhecker, Paul G Ambrose, David R Andes
APX001 is the prodrug of APX001A, which is a first in class small molecule with a unique mechanism of action that inhibits the fungal enzyme (Gwt1) in the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis pathway. The goal of the present study was to determine which pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index and magnitude best correlated with efficacy in the murine disseminated candidiasis model for Candida albicans (n=5), C. glabrata (n=5) and C. auris (n=4). MIC values ranged from 0.002 to 0.03 mg/L for C...
January 29, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Harsimran Kaur, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
Candidemia, the commonest invasive fungal infection, is associated with high morbidity and mortality in developing countries, though the exact prevalence is not known due to lack of systematic epidemiological data from those countries. The limited studies report a very high incidence of candidemia and unique epidemiology with a different spectrum of Candida species. The recent global emergence of multi-drug resistant Candida auris is looming large as an important threat in hospitalized patients of developing countries...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Jian R Bao, Ronald N Master, Kamran N Azad, Dale A Schwab, Richard B Clark, Robert S Jones, Elizabeth C Moore, Kileen L Shier
The newly emerging multidrug resistant yeast Candida auris can cause serious infections and may be underrepresented as it can be misidentified as other species (e.g., Candida haemulonii, Candida duobushaemulonii, or Saccharomyces cerevisiae) by some biochemical-based testing systems (1-4).….
January 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
John Osei Sekyere
From 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a multidrug-resistant ascomycete yeast pathogen with the capacity for easy transmission between patients and hospitals, as well as persistence on environmental surfaces. Its association with high mortalities, breakthrough and persistent candidaemia, inconsistencies in susceptibility testing results, misidentification by available commercial identification systems and treatment failure, complicates its management and detection. Within the last nine years, C. auris has been increasingly reported from far-Eastern Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Europe, South and North America with substantial fatalities and misidentification...
January 18, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Anuradha Chowdhary, Anupam Prakash, Cheshta Sharma, Milena Kordalewska, Anil Kumar, Smita Sarma, Bansidhar Tarai, Ashutosh Singh, Gargi Upadhyaya, Shalini Upadhyay, Priyanka Yadav, Pradeep K Singh, Vikas Khillan, Neelam Sachdeva, David S Perlin, Jacques F Meis
Background: Candida auris has emerged globally as an MDR nosocomial pathogen in ICU patients. Objectives: We studied the antifungal susceptibility of C. auris isolates (n = 350) from 10 hospitals in India collected over a period of 8 years. To investigate azole resistance, ERG11 gene sequencing and expression profiling was conducted. In addition, echinocandin resistance linked to mutations in the C. auris FKS1 gene was analysed. Methods: CLSI antifungal susceptibility testing of six azoles, amphotericin B, three echinocandins, terbinafine, 5-flucytosine and nystatin was conducted...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Christopher L Hager, Emily L Larkin, Lisa Long, Fatima Z Abidi, Karen J Shaw, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that has been responsible for invasive infections associated with high morbidity and mortality. C. auris strains often demonstrate high fluconazole and amphotericin B minimum inhibitory concentration values, and some strains are resistant to all 3 major antifungal classes. Here we evaluated the susceptibility of 16 C. auris clinical strains, isolated from a wide geographical area, to 10 antifungal agents including APX001A, a novel agent that inhibits the fungal protein Gwt1 (GPI-anchored wall transfer protein 1)...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Emily L Larkin, Sharvari Dharmaiah, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
Echinocandins have been in use for over 15 years, starting with the first approval in 2001. Current trends, such as increasing resistance to fluconazole and shifts toward non-albicans spp. of Candida, suggest a growing role for echinocandins, as reflected by recent (2016) updates to guidelines that recommend echinocandins as first-line treatment for candidaemia. The efficacy, tolerability, and safety of echinocandins and their target site of action (1,3-β-d-glucan synthesis) have prompted research into potential new uses, such as for treatment of biofilm infections, MDR Candida auris and dermatophytes...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Matteo Bassetti, Elda Righi, Philippe Montravers, Oliver A Cornely
The treatment of invasive candidiasis has changed greatly in the past decade and must continue to evolve if we are to improve outcomes in this serious infection. A review of recent history may provide insights for the future. The morbidity and mortality of invasive candidiasis remain difficult to measure despite an obvious clinical burden. Current treatment guidelines now recommend echinocandins as first-line empirical treatment, with fluconazole as an acceptable alternative for selected patients, reflecting the efficacy demonstrated by echinocandins and increasing resistance observed with fluconazole...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Frederic Lamoth, Shawn R Lockhart, Elizabeth L Berkow, Thierry Calandra
The epidemiology of invasive candidiasis has evolved in recent years, warranting a review of the changes and the implications for current and future diagnosis and treatment. The overall burden of invasive candidiasis remains high, particularly in the expanding populations of patients at risk of opportunistic infection, such as the elderly or immunosuppressed. Progressive shifts from Candida albicans to non-albicans Candida spp. have been observed globally. The recent emergence of novel, multiresistant species, such as Candida auris, amplifies the call for vigilance in detection and advances in treatment...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Emil P Lesho, Melissa Z Bronstein, Patrick McGann, Jason Stam, Yoon Kwak, Rosslyn Maybank, Jodi McNamara, Megan Callahan, Jean Campbell, Mary K Hinkle, Edward E Walsh
OBJECTIVE Candida auris (CA) is an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen associated with increased mortality. The environment may play a role, but transmission dynamics remain poorly understood. We sought to limit environmental and patient CA contamination following a sustained unsuspected exposure. DESIGN Quasi-experimental observation. SETTING A 528-bed teaching hospital. PATIENTS The index case patient and 17 collocated ward mates. INTERVENTION Immediately after confirmation of CA in the bloodstream and urine of a patient admitted 6 days previously, active surveillance, enhanced transmission-based precautions, environmental cleaning with peracetic acid-hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet light, and patient relocation were undertaken...
January 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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