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Candida auris

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345117/candida-auris-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-current-updates-on-an-emerging-multidrug-resistant-pathogen
#1
John Osei Sekyere
From 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a multidrug-resistant ascomycete yeast pathogen with the capacity for easy transmission between patients and hospitals, as well as persistence on environmental surfaces. Its association with high mortalities, breakthrough and persistent candidaemia, inconsistencies in susceptibility testing results, misidentification by available commercial identification systems and treatment failure, complicates its management and detection. Within the last nine years, C. auris has been increasingly reported from far-Eastern Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Europe, South and North America with substantial fatalities and misidentification...
January 18, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325167/a-multicentre-study-of-antifungal-susceptibility-patterns-among-350-candida-auris-isolates-2009-17-in-india-role-of-the-erg11-and-fks1-genes-in-azole-and-echinocandin-resistance
#2
Anuradha Chowdhary, Anupam Prakash, Cheshta Sharma, Milena Kordalewska, Anil Kumar, Smita Sarma, Bansidhar Tarai, Ashutosh Singh, Gargi Upadhyaya, Shalini Upadhyay, Priyanka Yadav, Pradeep K Singh, Vikas Khillan, Neelam Sachdeva, David S Perlin, Jacques F Meis
Background: Candida auris has emerged globally as an MDR nosocomial pathogen in ICU patients. Objectives: We studied the antifungal susceptibility of C. auris isolates (n = 350) from 10 hospitals in India collected over a period of 8 years. To investigate azole resistance, ERG11 gene sequencing and expression profiling was conducted. In addition, echinocandin resistance linked to mutations in the C. auris FKS1 gene was analysed. Methods: CLSI antifungal susceptibility testing of six azoles, amphotericin B, three echinocandins, terbinafine, 5-flucytosine and nystatin was conducted...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311065/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-the-antifungal-activity-of-apx001a-apx001-against-candida-auris
#3
Christopher L Hager, Emily L Larkin, Lisa Long, Fatima Z Abidi, Karen J Shaw, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that has been responsible for invasive infections associated with high morbidity and mortality. C. auris strains often demonstrate high fluconazole and amphotericin B minimum inhibitory concentration values, and some strains are resistant to all 3 major antifungal classes. Here we evaluated the susceptibility of 16 C. auris clinical strains, isolated from a wide geographical area, to 10 antifungal agents including APX001A, a novel agent that inhibits the fungal protein Gwt1 (GPI-anchored wall transfer protein 1)...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304214/biofilms-and-beyond-expanding-echinocandin-utility
#4
Emily L Larkin, Sharvari Dharmaiah, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
Echinocandins have been in use for over 15 years, starting with the first approval in 2001. Current trends, such as increasing resistance to fluconazole and shifts toward non-albicans spp. of Candida, suggest a growing role for echinocandins, as reflected by recent (2016) updates to guidelines that recommend echinocandins as first-line treatment for candidaemia. The efficacy, tolerability, and safety of echinocandins and their target site of action (1,3-β-d-glucan synthesis) have prompted research into potential new uses, such as for treatment of biofilm infections, MDR Candida auris and dermatophytes...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304208/what-has-changed-in-the-treatment-of-invasive-candidiasis-a-look-at-the-past-10-years-and-ahead
#5
Matteo Bassetti, Elda Righi, Philippe Montravers, Oliver A Cornely
The treatment of invasive candidiasis has changed greatly in the past decade and must continue to evolve if we are to improve outcomes in this serious infection. A review of recent history may provide insights for the future. The morbidity and mortality of invasive candidiasis remain difficult to measure despite an obvious clinical burden. Current treatment guidelines now recommend echinocandins as first-line empirical treatment, with fluconazole as an acceptable alternative for selected patients, reflecting the efficacy demonstrated by echinocandins and increasing resistance observed with fluconazole...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304207/changes-in-the-epidemiological-landscape-of-invasive-candidiasis
#6
Frederic Lamoth, Shawn R Lockhart, Elizabeth L Berkow, Thierry Calandra
The epidemiology of invasive candidiasis has evolved in recent years, warranting a review of the changes and the implications for current and future diagnosis and treatment. The overall burden of invasive candidiasis remains high, particularly in the expanding populations of patients at risk of opportunistic infection, such as the elderly or immunosuppressed. Progressive shifts from Candida albicans to non-albicans Candida spp. have been observed globally. The recent emergence of novel, multiresistant species, such as Candida auris, amplifies the call for vigilance in detection and advances in treatment...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208056/importation-mitigation-and-genomic-epidemiology-of-candida-auris-at-a-large-teaching-hospital
#7
Emil P Lesho, Melissa Z Bronstein, Patrick McGann, Jason Stam, Yoon Kwak, Rosslyn Maybank, Jodi McNamara, Megan Callahan, Jean Campbell, Mary K Hinkle, Edward E Walsh
OBJECTIVE Candida auris (CA) is an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen associated with increased mortality. The environment may play a role, but transmission dynamics remain poorly understood. We sought to limit environmental and patient CA contamination following a sustained unsuspected exposure. DESIGN Quasi-experimental observation. SETTING A 528-bed teaching hospital. PATIENTS The index case patient and 17 collocated ward mates. INTERVENTION Immediately after confirmation of CA in the bloodstream and urine of a patient admitted 6 days previously, active surveillance, enhanced transmission-based precautions, environmental cleaning with peracetic acid-hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet light, and patient relocation were undertaken...
December 6, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203448/surface-disinfection-challenges-for-candida-auris-an-in-vitro-study
#8
Ryan Kean, Leighann Sherry, Eleanor Townsend, Emily McKloud, Bryn Short, Ayorinde Akinbobola, William G Mackay, Craig Williams, Brian L Jones, Gordon Ramage
The emerging pathogenic multidrug-resistant yeast Candida auris is an important source of healthcare-associated infections and of growing global clinical concern. The ability of this organism to survive on surfaces and withstand environmental stressors creates a challenge for eradicating it from hospitals. A panel of C. auris clinical isolates was evaluated on different surface environments against the standard disinfectant sodium hypochlorite and high level disinfectant peracetic acid. C. auris was shown to selectively tolerate clinically relevant concentrations of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid in a surface dependent manner, which may explain its ability to successfully persist within the hospital environment...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187562/development-and-validation-of-a-real-time-pcr-assay-for-rapid-detection-of-candida-auris-from-surveillance-samples
#9
L Leach, Y Zhu, S Chaturvedi
Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast causing invasive healthcare-associated infection with high mortality worldwide. Rapid identification of C. auris is of primary importance for the implementation of public health measures to control the spread of infection. To achieve these goals, we developed and validated a TaqMan based real-time PCR assay targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the ribosomal gene. The assay was highly specific, reproducible, and sensitive with the detection limit of one C...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170093/a-synthetic-construct-for-genetic-engineering-of-the-emerging-pathogenic-yeast-candida-auris
#10
Tatiana A Defosse, Yohann Le Govic, Patrick Vandeputte, Vincent Courdavault, Marc Clastre, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Anuradha Chowdhary, Nathalie Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nicolas Papon
Candida auris has recently emerged as a global cause of severe hospital-acquired fungal infections. To enable functional genomic approaches for this prominent pathogen, we designed a synthetic construct that can be used to genetically transform the genome-sequenced strain VPCI 479/P/13 of C. auris following an efficient electroporation procedure.
November 20, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167291/candida-auris-an-emerging-fungal-pathogen
#11
Emily S Spivak, Kimberly E Hanson
Candida auris has emerged globally as a multidrug resistant, healthcare-associated fungal pathogen. Recent reports highlight ongoing challenges due to organism misidentification, high rates of antifungal drug resistance and significant patient mortality. The predilection for intra and inter-healthcare facility transmission possibly promoted by virulence factors that facilitate skin colonization and environmental persistence is unique among Candida species. This minireview details the global emergence of C. auris and discusses issues relevant to clinical microbiology laboratories, hospital infection control and antimicrobial stewardship efforts...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158282/fluconazole-resistant-candida-auris-is-susceptible-to-salivary-histatin-5-killing-and-to-intrinsic-host-defenses
#12
Ruvini U Pathirana, Justin Friedman, Hannah L Norris, Ornella Salvatori, Andrew D McCall, Jason Kay, Mira Edgerton
Candida auris is a newly identified species causing invasive candidemia and candidiasis, and has broad multidrug resistance (MDR) not observed for other pathogenic Candida species. Histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a well-studied salivary cationic peptide with significant antifungal activity against C. albicans, and is an attractive candidate to treat MDR fungi since antimicrobial peptides induce minimal drug resistance. We investigated the susceptibility of C. auris to Hst 5 and neutrophils, two first-line innate defenses in the human host...
November 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157326/relative-resistance-of-the-emerging-fungal-pathogen-candida-auris-and-other-candida-species-to-killing-by-ultraviolet-light
#13
Jennifer L Cadnum, Aaron A Shaikh, Christina T Piedrahita, Annette L Jencson, Emily L Larkin, Mahmoud A Ghannoum, Curtis J Donskey
Mobile ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light room decontamination devices are frequently used as an adjunct to standard cleaning in healthcare facilities, but their efficacy in killing Candida species is not clear. In laboratory testing, the emerging multidrug-resistant Candida auris and 2 other Candida species were significantly less susceptible to killing by UV-C than methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-3.
November 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142078/candida-auris-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
Anna Jeffery-Smith, Surabhi K Taori, Silke Schelenz, Katie Jeffery, Elizabeth M Johnson, Andrew Borman, Rohini Manuel, Colin S Brown
The emerging pathogen Candida auris has been associated with nosocomial outbreaks on five continents. Genetic analysis indicates the simultaneous emergence of separate clades of this organism in different geographical locations. Invasive infection and colonization have been detected predominantly in patients in high-dependency settings and have garnered attention due to variable antifungal resistance profiles and transmission within units instituting a range of infection prevention and control measures. Issues with the identification of C...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122404/are-we-ready-for-the-global-emergence-of-multidrug-resistant-candida-auris-in-taiwan
#15
REVIEW
Po-Liang Lu, Wei-Lun Liu, Hsiu-Jung Lo, Fu-Der Wang, Wen-Chien Ko, Po-Ren Hsueh, Mao-Wang Ho, Chun-Eng Liu, Yen-Hsu Chen, Yee-Chun Chen, Yin-Ching Chuang, Shan-Chwen Chang
Candida auris is a recently identified multi-resistant Candida species, first reported in Japan in 2009, and poses a serious global health threat. Lack of awareness of this new Candida species and difficulties with laboratory identification have impacted significantly on outbreak detection and management, and compromised patient outcome. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to raise awareness of healthcare personnel to this emerging pathogen and determine its prevalence, impact, and challenges to the Taiwan healthcare system...
November 6, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110544/containment-strategies-to-address-the-expanding-threat-of-multidrug-resistant-candida-auris
#16
Matthew William McCarthy, Thomas J Walsh
Candida auris is an emerging multidrug resistant human yeast pathogen associated with nosocomial transmission and high mortality. The organism can be a challenge to diagnose, may be even more difficult to treat, and continues to pose an expanding threat to patients. Areas covered: Our medical center and others in the surrounding area have seen a concerning rise in confirmed cases of C. auris infection and substantial resources have been dedicated to containment measures. We draw on our in vitro and in vivo work with this organism to examine the most effective ways to curb the current outbreak...
December 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095200/emerging-multidrug-resistant-candida-species
#17
Arnaldo L Colombo, João N de Almeida Júnior, Jesus Guinea
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the epidemiology, strategies for early detection, and clinical management of infections caused by the most commonly found multidrug-resistant (MDR) Candida spp. RECENT FINDINGS: Increasing numbers of reports describing invasive infections by MDR Candida auris and Candida glabrata has been reported in medical centers worldwide. SUMMARY: We checked all papers published along the last 10 years describing epidemiological, diagnostic, and clinical aspects of infections by MDR Candida spp...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038271/evaluation-of-antifungal-efficacy-of-three-new-cyclic-lipopeptides-of-the-class-bacillomycin-from-bacillus-subtilis-rlid-12-1
#18
Ramya R, Manjari Shrivastava, Namitha N N, Ram Lal Thakur, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Utpal Roy
New lipopeptide homologues (AF3, AF4 and AF5) with antifungal activities against Candida and Cryptococcus spp. were purified from the cell free supernatant of Bacillus subtilis RLID 12.1. The lipopeptides AF3, AF4 and AF5 were identified with the same peptide sequence Asn-Pro-Tyr-Asn-Gln-Thr-Ser with variations in the fatty acid branching type and chain length (anteiso-C17, iso-C17 and iso-C18 respectively). Comparing the three homologues for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against 81 Candida (64 no...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020224/approach-to-the-investigation-and-management-of-patients-with-candida-auris-an-emerging-multidrug-resistant-yeast
#19
Sharon Tsay, Alexander Kallen, Brendan R Jackson, Tom M Chiller, Snigdha Vallabhaneni
Candida auris is an emerging, multidrug-resistant yeast that can spread in healthcare settings. It can cause invasive infections with high mortality and is difficult to identify using traditional yeast identification methods. C. auris has been reported in over a dozen countries, and as of July 2017, 99 clinical cases have been reported in the United States;.C. auris can colonize skin and persist in the healthcare environment, allowing for transmission between patients. Prompt investigation and aggressive interventions, including notification of public health agencies, implementation of contact precautions, thorough environmental cleaning and disinfection, infection control assessments, contact tracing and screening contacts to assess for colonization, and retrospective review of microbiology records and prospective surveillance for cases at laboratories are all needed to limit the spread of C...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945325/isolation-of-candida-auris-from-9-patients-in-central-america-importance-of-accurate-diagnosis-and-susceptibility-testing
#20
Ana Belen Araúz, Diego H Caceres, Erika Santiago, Paige Armstrong, Susan Arosemena, Carolina Ramos, Andres Espinosa-Bode, Jovanna Borace, Lizbeth Hayer, Israel Cedeño, Brendan R Jackson, Nestor Sosa, Elizabeth L Berkow, Shawn R Lockhart, Amalia Rodriguez-French, Tom Chiller
Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) fungus associated with invasive infections and high mortality. This report describes 9 patients from whom C. auris was isolated at a hospital in Panama City, Panama, the first such cases in Central America, and highlights the challenges of accurate identification and methods for susceptibility testing.
January 2018: Mycoses
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