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Gene network inference

Srikanth Ravichandran, Alessandro Michelucci, Antonio Del Sol
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major neurodegenerative disease and is one of the most common cause of dementia in older adults. Among several factors, neuroinflammation is known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, studies of brains affected by AD show a clear involvement of several inflammatory pathways. Furthermore, depending on the brain regions affected by the disease, the nature and the effect of inflammation can vary. Here, in order to shed more light on distinct and common features of inflammation in different brain regions affected by AD, we employed a computational approach to analyze gene expression data of six site-specific neuronal populations from AD patients...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Malgorzata A Gazda, Pedro Andrade, Sandra Afonso, Jolita Dilyte, John P Archer, Ricardo J Lopes, Rui Faria, Miguel Carneiro
Racing pigeons have been selectively bred to find their way home quickly over what are often extremely long distances. This breed is of substantial commercial value and is also an excellent avian model to gain empirical insights into the evolution of traits associated with flying performance and spatial orientation. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of the superior athletic and navigational capabilities of racing pigeons using whole-genome and RNA sequencing data. We inferred multiple signatures of positive selection distributed across the genome of racing pigeons...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Wouter Saelens, Robrecht Cannoodt, Yvan Saeys
A critical step in the analysis of large genome-wide gene expression datasets is the use of module detection methods to group genes into co-expression modules. Because of limitations of classical clustering methods, numerous alternative module detection methods have been proposed, which improve upon clustering by handling co-expression in only a subset of samples, modelling the regulatory network, and/or allowing overlap between modules. In this study we use known regulatory networks to do a comprehensive and robust evaluation of these different methods...
March 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Darren A Cusanovich, James P Reddington, David A Garfield, Riza M Daza, Delasa Aghamirzaie, Raquel Marco-Ferreres, Hannah A Pliner, Lena Christiansen, Xiaojie Qiu, Frank J Steemers, Cole Trapnell, Jay Shendure, Eileen E M Furlong
Understanding how gene regulatory networks control the progressive restriction of cell fates is a long-standing challenge. Recent advances in measuring gene expression in single cells are providing new insights into lineage commitment. However, the regulatory events underlying these changes remain unclear. Here we investigate the dynamics of chromatin regulatory landscapes during embryogenesis at single-cell resolution. Using single-cell combinatorial indexing assay for transposase accessible chromatin with sequencing (sci-ATAC-seq), we profiled chromatin accessibility in over 20,000 single nuclei from fixed Drosophila melanogaster embryos spanning three landmark embryonic stages: 2-4 h after egg laying (predominantly stage 5 blastoderm nuclei), when each embryo comprises around 6,000 multipotent cells; 6-8 h after egg laying (predominantly stage 10-11), to capture a midpoint in embryonic development when major lineages in the mesoderm and ectoderm are specified; and 10-12 h after egg laying (predominantly stage 13), when each of the embryo's more than 20,000 cells are undergoing terminal differentiation...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Kumar Parijat Tripathi, Marina Piccirillo, Mario Rosario Guarracino
BACKGROUND: The endomembrane system, known as secretory pathway, is responsible for the synthesis and transport of protein molecules in cells. Therefore, genes involved in the secretory pathway are essential for the cellular development and function. Recent scientific investigations show that ER and Golgi apparatus may provide a convenient drug target for cancer therapy. On the other hand, it is known that abundantly expressed genes in different cellular organelles share interconnected pathways and co-regulate each other activities...
March 8, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Guangyong Zheng, Tao Huang
In post-genomic era, an important task is to explore the function of individual biological molecules (i.e., gene, noncoding RNA, protein, metabolite) and their organization in living cells. For this end, gene regulatory networks (GRNs) are constructed to show relationship between biological molecules, in which the vertices of network denote biological molecules and the edges of network present connection between nodes (Strogatz, Nature 410:268-276, 2001; Bray, Science 301:1864-1865, 2003). Biologists can understand not only the function of biological molecules but also the organization of components of living cells through interpreting the GRNs, since a gene regulatory network is a comprehensively physiological map of living cells and reflects influence of genetic and epigenetic factors (Strogatz, Nature 410:268-276, 2001; Bray, Science 301:1864-1865, 2003)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Heng Yao, Xiaoxuan Wang, Pengcheng Chen, Ling Hai, Kang Jin, Lixia Yao, Chuanzao Mao, Xin Chen
An advanced functional understanding of omics data is important for elucidating the design logic of physiological processes in plants and effectively controlling desired traits in plants. We present the latest version of the predicted Arabidopsis interactome resource (PAIR) and of the gene set linkage analysis (GSLA) tool, which enable the interpretation of an observed transcriptomic change (differentially expressed genes, DEGs) in Arabidopsis with respect to its functional impact for biological processes. PAIR v5...
March 12, 2018: Plant Physiology
Filip Huyghe, Marc Kochzius
In this contribution, we determine the genetic population structure in the Skunk Clownfish (Amphiprion akallopsisos) across the Indian Ocean, and on a smaller geographic scale in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). Highly restricted gene flow was discovered between populations on either side of the Indian Ocean using the control region as a mitochondrial marker (mtDNA). We verify this conclusion using 13 microsatellite markers and infer fine scale genetic structuring within the WIO. In total 387 samples from 21 sites were analysed using mtDNA and 13 microsatellite loci...
2018: PloS One
Lu Jiang, Graham Ball, Charlie Hodgman, Anne Coules, Han Zhao, Chungui Lu
Nitrogen (N) fertilizer has a major influence on the yield and quality. Understanding and optimising the response of crop plants to nitrogen fertilizer usage is of central importance in enhancing food security and agricultural sustainability. In this study, the analysis of gene regulatory networks reveals multiple genes and biological processes in response to N. Two microarray studies have been used to infer components of the nitrogen-response network. Since they used different array technologies, a map linking the two probe sets to the maize B73 reference genome has been generated to allow comparison...
March 8, 2018: Genes
Wenfang Dai, Weina Yu, Lixia Xuan, Zhen Tao, Jinbo Xiong
It is now recognized that some gut diseases attribute to polymicrobial pathogens infections. Thus, traditional isolation of single pathogen from disease subjects could bias the identification of causal agents. To fill this gap, using Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, we explored the dynamics of gut bacterial communities over a shrimp disease progression. The results showed significant differences in the gut bacterial communities between healthy and diseased shrimp. Potential pathogens were inferred by a local pathogens database, of which two OTUs (affiliated with Vibrio tubiashii and Vibrio harveyi) exhibited significantly higher abundances in diseased shrimp as compared to healthy subjects...
March 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Dingqiao Wen, Yun Yu, Jiafan Zhu, Luay Nakhleh
PhyloNet was released in 2008 as a software package for representing and analyzing phylogenetic networks. At the time of its release, the main functionalities in PhyloNet consisted of measures for comparing network topologies and a single heuristic for reconciling gene trees with a species tree. Since then, PhyloNet has grown significantly. The software package now includes a wide array of methods for inferring phylogenetic networks from data sets of unlinked loci while accounting for both reticulation (e.g...
March 5, 2018: Systematic Biology
Qianli Huang, Ming-An Sun, Ping Yan
In recent years, transcriptome sequencing has become very popular, encompassing a wide variety of applications from simple mRNA profiling to discovery and analysis of the entire transcriptome. One of the most common aims of transcriptome sequencing is to identify genes that are differentially expressed (DE) between two or more biological conditions, and to infer associated pathways and gene networks from expression profiles. It can provide avenues for further systematic investigation into potential biologic mechanisms...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
José Ferreira Saraiva, Raimundo Nonato Picanço Souto, Vera Margarete Scarpassa
Recent studies have shown that Anopheles oswaldoi sensu lato comprises a cryptic species complex in South America. Anopheles konderi, which was previously raised to synonymy with An. oswaldoi, has also been suggested to form a species complex. An. oswaldoi has been incriminated as a malaria vector in some areas of the Brazilian Amazon, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela, but was not recognized as a vector in the remaining regions in its geographic distribution. The role of An. konderi as a malaria vector is unknown or has been misattributed to An...
2018: PloS One
Ilga Porth, Richard White, Barry Jaquish, Kermit Ritland
In plants, there can be a trade-off between resource allocations to growth vs defense. Here, we use partial correlation analysis of gene expression to make inferences about the nature of this interaction. We studied segregating progenies of Interior spruce subject to weevil attack. In a controlled experiment, we measured pre-attack plant growth and post-attack damage with several morphological measures, and profiled transcriptomes of 188 progeny. We used partial correlations of individual transcripts (expressed sequence tags, ESTs) with pairs of growth/defense traits to identify important nodes and edges in the inferred underlying gene network, for example, those pairs of growth/defense traits with high mutual correlation with a single EST transcript...
March 5, 2018: New Phytologist
Amit Katiyar, Sujata Sharma, Tej P Singh, Punit Kaur
Women with endometriosis (EMS) appear to be at a higher risk of developing other autoimmune diseases predominantly multiple sclerosis (MS). Though EMS and MS are evidently diverse in their phenotype, they are linked by a common autoimmune condition or immunodeficiency which could play a role in the expansion of endometriosis and possibly increase the risk of developing MS in women with EMS. However, the common molecular links connecting EMS with MS are still unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis of microarray experiments focused on EMS and MS with their respective controls...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Marisol De-la-Mora, Daniel Piñero, Ken Oyama, Brian Farrell, Susana Magallón, Juan Núñez-Farfán
The family Curculionidae (Coleoptera), the "true" weevils, have diversified tightly linked to the evolution of flowering plants. Here, we aim to assess diversification at a lower taxonomic level. We analyze the evolution of the genus Trichobaris in association with their host plants. Trichobaris comprises eight to thirteen species; their larvae feed inside the fruits of Datura spp. or inside the stem of wild and cultivated species of Solanaceae, such as potato, tobacco and tomato. We ask the following questions: 1) does the rostrum of Trichobaris species evolve according to the plant tissue used to oviposit, i...
February 24, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Maria Pliatska, Maria Kapasa, Antonis Kokkalis, Alexander Polyzos, Dimitris Thanos
Transcription-factor-induced reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency is mediated via profound alterations in the epigenetic landscape. The histone variant macroH2A1 (mH2A1) is a barrier to the cellular reprogramming process. We demonstrate here that mH2A1 blocks reprogramming and contributes to the preservation of cell identity by trapping cells at the very early stages of the process, namely at the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). We provided a comprehensive analysis of the genomic sites occupied by the mH2A1 nucleosomes in human fibroblasts and Embryonic Stem Cells and how they affect the reprogramming of fibroblasts to pluripotency...
February 26, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Pingjian Ding, Jiawei Luo, Cheng Liang, Qiu Xiao, Buwen Cao
The emergence of network medicine has provided great insight into the identification of disease-related molecules, which could help with the development of personalized medicine. However, the state-of-the-art methods could neither simultaneously consider target information and the known miRNA-disease associations nor effectively explore novel gene-disease associations as a by-product during the process of inferring disease-related miRNAs. Computational methods incorporating multiple sources of information offer more opportunities to infer disease-related molecules, including miRNAs and genes in heterogeneous networks at a system level...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Vân Anh Huynh-Thu, Pierre Geurts
The elucidation of gene regulatory networks is one of the major challenges of systems biology. Measurements about genes that are exploited by network inference methods are typically available either in the form of steady-state expression vectors or time series expression data. In our previous work, we proposed the GENIE3 method that exploits variable importance scores derived from Random forests to identify the regulators of each target gene. This method provided state-of-the-art performance on several benchmark datasets, but it could however not specifically be applied to time series expression data...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yan Zhang, Lin An, Jie Xu, Bo Zhang, W Jim Zheng, Ming Hu, Jijun Tang, Feng Yue
Although Hi-C technology is one of the most popular tools for studying 3D genome organization, due to sequencing cost, the resolution of most Hi-C datasets are coarse and cannot be used to link distal regulatory elements to their target genes. Here we develop HiCPlus, a computational approach based on deep convolutional neural network, to infer high-resolution Hi-C interaction matrices from low-resolution Hi-C data. We demonstrate that HiCPlus can impute interaction matrices highly similar to the original ones, while only using 1/16 of the original sequencing reads...
February 21, 2018: Nature Communications
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