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Nonopioid pain control

Allison Scheetz, Richard J Ackermann
End-of-life care often involves management of pain. A patient's pain should be assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale, which uses a 0 to 10 score, with 0 indicating no pain and 10 the worst pain imaginable. Mild pain typically is managed with nonopioids (eg, acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). More severe pain is managed with opioids. Opioid therapy should start with an immediate-release opioid to determine the dose needed to achieve pain control. This can be used to create a regimen with an extended-release formulation for daily pain management plus an immediate-release formulation for breakthrough pain...
August 2016: FP Essentials
Sabrina J Poon, Lewis S Nelson, Jason A Hoppe, Jeanmarie Perrone, Margaret K Sande, Donald M Yealy, Michael S Beeson, Knox H Todd, Sergey M Motov, Scott G Weiner
BACKGROUND: Increased prescribing of opioid pain medications has paralleled the subsequent rise of prescription medication-related overdoses and deaths. We sought to define key aspects of a pain management curriculum for emergency medicine (EM) residents that achieve the balance between adequate pain control, limiting side effects, and not contributing to the current public health opioid crisis. METHODS: We convened a symposium to discuss pain management education in EM and define the needs and objectives of an EM-specific pain management curriculum...
August 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
So Yeon Kim, Nam Kyu Kim, Seung Hyuk Baik, Byung Soh Min, Hyuk Hur, Jinae Lee, Hyun-Young Noh, Jong Ho Lee, Bon-Neyo Koo
There has been a rising interest in the possible association between perioperative opioid use and postoperative outcomes in cancer patients. Continuous surgical wound infiltration with local anesthetics is a nonopioid analgesic technique that can be used as a postoperative pain management alternative to opioid-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA). The aim of this study was to compare the effects of an opioid-based analgesic regimen versus a local anesthetic wound infiltration-based analgesic regimen on immune modulation and short-term cancer recurrence or metastasis in patients undergoing laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancer...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Donna-Ann Thomas, Mary West, Aron Legler, Benjamin Maslin, Richard K Kim, Nalini Vadivelu
Opioids have been the mainstay for management of acute postoperative pain for several decades. Extensive use, however, has been associated with multiple side effects. Multimodal approaches that incorporate nonopioid medications and techniques have been observed to achieve optimum pain control whilst decreasing side effects. Such strategies are particularly important to consider for opioid-dependent and tolerant patients with various comorbidities undergoing different types of surgery. This review assesses recent data on nonopioid analgesics for postoperative pain control, highlighting evidence of their safety profiles in contemporary pain management...
2016: Current Drug Safety
Natalie M Wilson, Matthew S Ripsch, Fletcher A White
Aim. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or opioids are commonly used to control surgical pain following veterinary and clinical procedures. This study evaluated the efficacy of postoperative ketorolac or buprenorphine following abdominal surgery. Main Methods. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, animal activity, corticosterone levels, and a nociceptive sensitivity assay were used to evaluate 18 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats which underwent aortic artery occlusion for implantation of a radiotelemetry device...
2016: Pain Research and Treatment
Deborah Dowell, Tamara M Haegerich, Roger Chou
IMPORTANCE: Primary care clinicians find managing chronic pain challenging. Evidence of long-term efficacy of opioids for chronic pain is limited. Opioid use is associated with serious risks, including opioid use disorder and overdose. OBJECTIVE: To provide recommendations about opioid prescribing for primary care clinicians treating adult patients with chronic pain outside of active cancer treatment, palliative care, and end-of-life care. PROCESS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) updated a 2014 systematic review on effectiveness and risks of opioids and conducted a supplemental review on benefits and harms, values and preferences, and costs...
April 19, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Paola Nicoletti, Anneke N Werk, Ashley Sawle, Yufeng Shen, Thomas J Urban, Sally A Coulthard, Einar S Bjornsson, Ingolf Cascorbi, Aris Floratos, Thomas Stammschulte, Ursula Gundert-Remy, Matthew R Nelson, Guruprasad P Aithal, Ann K Daly
OBJECTIVE: Flupirtine is a nonopioid analgesic with regulatory approval in a number of European countries. Because of the risk of serious liver injury, its use is now limited to short-term pain management. We aimed to identify genetic risk factors for flupirtine-related drug-induced liver injury (DILI) as these are unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six flupirtine-related DILI patients from Germany were included in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving a further 614 European cases of DILI because of other drugs and 10,588 population controls...
May 2016: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
Elizabeth K Glisic, Linda Gardiner, Linda Josti, Elizabeth Dermanelian, Sandra Ridel, John Dziodzio, Barbara McCrum, Ben Enos, Patricia Lerwick, Gilles L Fraser, Paul Muscat, Richard R Riker, Robert Ecker, Jeffrey Florman, David B Seder
BACKGROUND: Headache profoundly affects management of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage but is poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: To characterize headache after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS: Medical records of patients with Hunt and Hess grades I-III subarachnoid hemorrhage admitted from 2011 to 2013 were reviewed. Demographics, clinical and radiographic features, medications, and pain scores were recorded through day 14 after hemorrhage...
March 2016: American Journal of Critical Care: An Official Publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses
Amy R Knowlton, Trang Q Nguyen, Allysha C Robinson, Paul T Harrell, Mary M Mitchell
Current or former injection drug users with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at high risk for pain, which adversely affects their quality of life and may increase their risk for illicit drug use or relapse. We explored associations between pain symptoms and substance use among injection-drug-using study participants with HIV who had histories of heroin use. Using generalized estimating equations and controlling for prior substance use, we found that pain in each six-month period was associated with the use of heroin and prescription opioids, but not the use of nonopioid drugs or alcohol...
2015: Journal of Palliative Care
Eduardo N Novais, Lauryn Kestel, Patrick M Carry, Ernest Sink, Kim Strupp
BACKGROUND: Open treatment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) through a surgical hip dislocation (SHD) approach has been reported to allow for improvement in pain and function. However, the approach require a trochanteric osteotomy and may be associated with high level of pain after surgery. Currently, there is no systematic approach for pain management after SHD for treatment of FAI. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was used to collect data from 121 subjects (12 to 21 y and below) who received periarticular local infiltration analgesia (LIA, n=20), epidural analgesia (n=72), or intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA, n=29) after SHD from January 2003 to June 2014...
February 2, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Calin Stefan Moucha, Mitchell C Weiser, Emily J Levin
Total knee arthroplasty is associated with substantial postoperative pain that may impair mobility, reduce the ability to participate in rehabilitation, lead to chronic pain, and reduce patient satisfaction. Traditional general anesthesia with postoperative epidural and patient-controlled opioid analgesia is associated with an undesirable adverse-effect profile, including postoperative nausea and vomiting, hypotension, urinary retention, respiratory depression, delirium, and an increased infection rate. Multimodal anesthesia--incorporating elements of preemptive analgesia, neuraxial perioperative anesthesia, peripheral nerve blockade, periarticular injections, and multimodal oral opioid and nonopioid medications during the perioperative and postoperative periods--can provide superior pain control while minimizing opioid-related adverse effects, improving patient satisfaction, and reducing the risk of postoperative complications...
February 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Yuchen Wang, Matthew S Klein, Scott Mathis, Germin Fahim
BACKGROUND: Appropriate postoperative pain control following total knee arthroplasty is important in patient recovery. Adductor canal block (ACB) is a novel method to deliver anesthesia. There are currently no studies using bupivacaine liposome with ACB while also taking into account cost. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and cost of using bupivacaine liposome to ropivacaine pain ball (RPB) for postsurgical pain control in total knee replacement surgery. The primary efficacy endpoint is mean pain score...
March 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Sonia Podvin, Tony Yaksh, Vivian Hook
Notable findings point to the significance of the dynorphin peptide neurotransmitter in chronic pain. Spinal dynorphin neuropeptide levels are elevated during development of chronic pain and sustained during persistent chronic pain. Importantly, knockout of the dynorphin gene prevents development of chronic pain in mice, but acute nociception is unaffected. Intrathecal (IT) administration of opioid and nonopioid dynorphin peptides initiates allodynia through a nonopioid receptor mechanism; furthermore, antidynorphin antibodies administered by the IT route attenuate chronic pain...
2016: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Jeffrey Jai Cherian, Ali Muzaffar, John W Barrington, Randa D K Elmallah, Morad Chughtai, Jaydev B Mistry, Michael A Mont
When orthopedists consider which analgesia to use after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the primary objective is to relieve pain with fewer adverse side effects. Over the last decade, substantial efforts have been made to improve pain control following TKA, but it is still very challenging to obtain optimal control. Current modalities in use, such as opioids, epidurals, and nerve blocks, provide substantial pain relief, but they are associated with substantial side effects and serious complications. Recently, bupivacaine, a commonly used nonopioid analgesic, has been formulated into an aqueous suspension of multivesicular liposomes that provide long-lasting analgesia, while avoiding significant adverse effects of opioids...
April 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
Louise Taber, Shau Yu Lynch, Ellie He, Steven R Ripa
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term use of Hysingla(®) ER (HYD), a single-entity, extended-release, once-daily hydrocodone bitartrate tablet with abuse-deterrent properties in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic noncancer and nonneuropathic pain. METHODS: This open-label study consisted of a dose-titration period (up to 45 days), a 52-week maintenance period and a 24-week extension period. Opioid-naïve or opioid-experienced patients with controlled or uncontrolled chronic pain conditions were treated with HYD 20-120 mg daily...
January 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Laura Murphy, Karen Wk Ng, Victoria Ch Su, Sarah Woodworth-Giroux, Todd S Levy, Beth A Sproule, Andrea D Furlan
This paper provides an overview of research, guidelines, and clinical considerations for the use of medications for chronic pain in the management of patients with an alcohol use disorder. A review of the literature identified randomized controlled trials, epidemiological cohort studies, consensus guidelines, and one systematic review and meta-analysis. Where gaps in the literature existed, clinical experience of the authors is included. Use of nonopioid medications should be given priority and may offer a more favorable risk profile as well as benefits beyond pain management, such as improvement in anxiety, depression, or insomnia...
2015: Journal of Pain Research
Brent J Morris, Aaron D Sciascia, Cale A Jacobs, T Bradley Edwards
BACKGROUND: Preoperative opioid use has been associated with worse clinical outcomes after orthopedic surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of preoperative opioid use on outcomes and patient satisfaction after anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). METHODS: We identified 224 TSAs performed for primary glenohumeral joint osteoarthritis with 2- to 5-year follow-up in a prospective shoulder arthroplasty registry. Sixty patients with a history of preoperative opioid use for shoulder pain were compared with a control group of 164 patients...
April 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Michael T Kenes, Mandy C Leonard, Seth R Bauer, Marcia J Wyman
PURPOSE: The duration of analgesia and comparative efficacy of liposomal bupivacaine and an elastomeric bupivacaine pump in a diverse surgical population were determined. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate patient outcomes following liposomal bupivacaine and elastomeric bupivacaine pump use from January through June 2013. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate 24-hour postoperative opioid use (in morphine equivalents). RESULTS: Sixty-seven liposomal bupivacaine and 262 elastomeric bupivacaine pump patients were included...
December 1, 2015: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Veronica Carullo, Ingrid Fitz-James, Ellise Delphin
Opioids are utilized frequently for the treatment of moderate to severe acute pain in the perioperative setting, as well as in the treatment of cancer-related pain. When prescribing chronic opioid therapy to patients with chronic pain, it is crucial for the practitioner to be aware not only of the issues of tolerance and withdrawal, but also to have knowledge of the possibility for opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). An understanding of the differences between tolerance and OIH when escalating opioid therapy allows the titration of opioid as well as nonopioid analgesics in order to obtain maximum control of both chronic and acute pain...
2015: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
Sheng Jia Low, Stanley Sau Ching Wong, Qiu Qiu, Yvonne Lee, Timmy Chi Wing Chan, Michael G Irwin, Chi Wai Cheung
Acute pain services (APS) have evolved over time. Strategies nowadays emphasize multimodal analgesic regimes using a combination of nonopioid adjuvant analgesic drugs, peripheral nerve blocks, and local anaesthetic wound infiltration where appropriate. APS should be assessed over time to evaluate changes in outcomes which form the basis for future development. In this audit, data of patients under APS care in Queen Mary hospital, Hong Kong, between 2009 and 2012 were analyzed and compared with data from a previous audit between 1992 and 1995...
October 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
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