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Pre Warming

D F Paulo, A M L Azeredo-Espin, L E C Canesin, R Vicentini, A C M Junqueira
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that modulate gene expression through post-transcriptional regulation. Here, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs in two closely related screwworm flies with different feeding habits: Cochliomyia hominivorax and Cochliomyia macellaria. The New World screwworm, C. hominivorax, is an obligatory parasite of warm-blooded vertebrates, whereas the secondary screwworm, C. macellaria, is a free-living organism that feeds on decaying organic matter. Here, the small RNA transcriptomes of adults and third-instar larvae of both species were sequenced...
October 24, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
Luca Villa, Roberta Buono, Mara Ferrandi, Isabella Molinari, Fabio Benigni, Arianna Bettiga, Giorgia Colciago, Masami Ikehata, Elisabetta Messaggio, Maria Pia Rastaldi, Francesco Montorsi, Andrea Salonia, Paolo Manunta
Warm renal ischemia performed during partial nephrectomy has been found to be associated with kidney disease. Since endogenous ouabain (EO) is a neuro-endocrine hormone involved in renal damage, we evaluated the role of EO in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). We measured plasma and renal EO variations and markers of glomerular and tubular damage (nephrin, KIM-1, Kidney-Injury-Molecule-1, α1 Na-K ATPase) and the protective effect of the ouabain inhibitor, rostafuroxin. We studied five groups of rats: (1) normal; (2) infused for eight weeks with ouabain (30 µg/kg/day, OHR) or (3) saline; (4) ouabain; or (5) saline-infused rats orally treated with 100 µg/kg/day rostafuroxin for four weeks...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
P Cordery, N Peirce, R J Maughan, P Watson
Catecholamine reuptake inhibition improves the performance of male volunteers exercising in warm conditions, but sex differences in thermoregulation, circulating hormones, and central neurotransmission may alter this response. With local ethics committee approval, nine physically active women (mean ± SD age 21 ± 2 years; height 1.68 ± 0.08 m; body mass 64.1 ± 6.0 kg; VO2peak 51 ± 7 mL/kg/min) were recruited to examine the effect of pre-exercise administration of Bupropion (BUP; 4 × 150 mg) on prolonged exercise performance in a warm environment...
October 13, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Hsuan Su, Nai-Jen Chang, Wen-Lan Wu, Lan-Yuen Guo, I-Hua Chu
CONTEXT: Foam rolling has been proposed to improve muscle function, performance, and joint range of motion (ROM). However, whether a foam rolling protocol can be adopted as a warm-up to improve flexibility and muscle strength is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine and compare the acute effects of foam rolling, static stretching, and dynamic stretching used as part of warm-up on flexibility and muscle strength of knee flexion and extension. DESIGN: Crossover study...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
William M Adams, Yuri Hosokawa, Luke N Belval, Robert A Huggins, Rebecca L Stearns, Douglas J Casa
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between pacing, gastrointestinal temperature (TGI), and percent body mass loss (%BML) on relative race performance during a warm weather 11.3km road race. DESIGN: Observational study of a sample of active runners competing in the 2014 Falmouth Road Race. METHODS: Participants ingested a TGI pill and donned a GPS enabled watch with heart rate monitoring capabilities prior to the start of the race...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Mary Caitlin Stevenson Wilcoxson, Samantha Louise Johnson, Veronika Pribyslavska, James Mathew Green, Eric Kyle O'Neal
Runners are unlikely to consume fluid during training bouts increasing the importance of recovery rehydration efforts. This study assessed urine specific gravity (USG) responses following runs in the heat with different recovery fluid intake volumes. Thirteen male runners completed 3 evening running sessions resulting in approximately 2,200±300 mL of sweat loss (3.1±0.4% body mass) followed by a standardized dinner and breakfast. Beverage fluid intake (pre/post-breakfast) equaled 1,565/2,093 mL (low; L), 2,065/2,593 mL (moderate; M) and 2,565/3,356 mL (high; H)...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Marc Michel, Louis Terriou, Francoise Roudot-Thoraval, Mohamed Hamidou, Mikael Ebbo, Guillaume Le Guenno, Lionel Galicier, Sylvain Audia, Bruno Royer, Anne Sophie Morin, Jean Marie Michot, Arnaud Jaccard, Laurent Frenzel, Mehdi Khellaf, Bertrand Godeau
This phase 3 multicentre randomized double-blind and placebo-controlled trial aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of rituximab (RTX) to placebo for treating newly diagnosed warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (wAIHA) in adults receiving prednisone. Adults with a confirmed diagnosis of wAIHA who previously received corticosteroids for less than 6 weeks could be included. At inclusion, all patients received prednisone at a daily dose of 1 mg/kg for 2 weeks, then tapered according to a pre-defined recommended reduction scheme...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Hematology
G De-Deus, F G Belladonna, E J N L Silva, E M Souza, J C A Carvalhal, R Perez, R T Lopes, M A Versiani
AIM: To evaluate the frequency of dentinal micro-cracks after root canal filling procedures with GuttaCore (GC), cold lateral compaction (CLC) and warm vertical compaction (WVC) techniques in mandibular molars using micro-computed tomographic analysis. METHODOLOGY: Thirty mesial roots of mandibular molars, with a type II Vertucci's canal configuration, were prepared to working length with a Reciproc R40 instrument and randomly assigned to one of 3 experimental groups (n = 10), according to the technique used for root filling: GC, CLC or WVC...
September 30, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
L Dumont, A Oblette, C Rondanino, F Jumeau, A Bironneau, D Liot, V Duchesne, J Wils, N Rives
STUDY QUESTION: Does vitamin A (retinol, Rol) prevent round spermatid nuclear damage and increase the production of motile sperm during in vitro maturation of vitrified pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue? SUMMARY ANSWER: The supplementation of an in vitro culture of ~0.75 mm(3) testicular explants from pre-pubertal mice with Rol enhances spermatogenesis progression during the first spermatogenic wave. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The production of functional spermatozoa in vitro has only been achieved in the mouse model and remains a rare event...
September 25, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
Carolyn W Snyder
Reconstructions of Earth's past climate strongly influence our understanding of the dynamics and sensitivity of the climate system. Yet global temperature has been reconstructed for only a few isolated windows of time, and continuous reconstructions across glacial cycles remain elusive. Here I present a spatially weighted proxy reconstruction of global temperature over the past 2 million years estimated from a multi-proxy database of over 20,000 sea surface temperature point reconstructions. Global temperature gradually cooled until roughly 1...
September 26, 2016: Nature
James T Julian, Victoria A Gould, Gavin W Glenney, Robert P Brooks
Few studies have documented seasonal variation of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infection rates in larval amphibians. We identified 4 natural populations of northern green frogs Lithobates clamitans melanota in Pennsylvania (USA) that contained Bd-infected tadpoles during post-wintering collections in May and June, after hibernating tadpoles had overwintered in wetlands. However, we failed to detect infected tadpoles at those wetlands when pre-wintering collections were made in late July through early September...
September 26, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Zhaofei Wen, Shengjun Wu, Jilong Chen, Mingquan Lü
Natural and social environmental changes in the China's Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) have received worldwide attention. Identifying interannual changes in vegetation activities in the TGRR is an important task for assessing the impact these changes have on the local ecosystem. We used long-term (1982-2011) satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets and climatic and anthropogenic factors to analyze the spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation activities in the TGRR, as well as their links to changes in temperature (TEM), precipitation (PRE), downward radiation (RAD), and anthropogenic activities...
September 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Pierre-Olivier Delpech, Raphael Thuillier, Thibault SaintYves, Jerome Danion, Sylvain Le Pape, Edwin S van Amersfoort, Beatrijs Oortwijn, Gilles Blancho, Thierry Hauet
BACKGROUND: Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) induced immune response is a critical issue in transplantation. Complement and contact system activation are among its key mechanisms. STUDY DESIGN: We investigated the benefits of pre-reperfusion treatment with recombinant human C1INH (rhC1INH), inhibitor of both complement and contact activation, in a pig model of kidney autotransplantation, subjecting the organ to 60 min warm ischemia prior to 24 h static preservation to maximize damage...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Michael C Zourdos, Caleb D Bazyler, Edward Jo, Andy V Khamoui, Bong-Sup Park, Sang-Rok Lee, Lynn B Panton, Jeong-Su Kim
PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a submaximal running warm-up on running performance in male endurance athletes (n = 16, Mage = 21 ± 2 years, MVO2max = 69.3 ± 5.1 mL/kg/min). METHOD: Endurance performance was determined by a 30-min distance trial after control and submaximal running warm-up conditions in a randomized crossover fashion. The warm-up began with 5 min of quiet sitting, followed by 6 min of submaximal running split into 2-min intervals at speeds corresponding to 45%, 55%, and 65% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)...
September 16, 2016: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
S Hetzinger, M Pfeiffer, W-Chr Dullo, J Zinke, D Garbe-Schönberg
Coral reefs are biologically diverse ecosystems threatened with effective collapse under rapid climate change, in particular by recent increases in ocean temperatures. Coral bleaching has occurred during major El Niño warming events, at times leading to the die-off of entire coral reefs. Here we present records of stable isotopic composition, Sr/Ca ratios and extension rate (1940-2004) in coral aragonite from a northern Venezuelan site, where reefs were strongly impacted by bleaching following the 1997-98 El Niño...
2016: Scientific Reports
Lorenz Leitner, Matthias Walter, Behnaz Jarrahi, Johann Wanek, Jörg Diefenbacher, Lars Michels, Martina D Liechti, Spyros S Kollias, Thomas M Kessler, Ulrich Mehnert
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the applicability and precision of a novel infusion-drainage device (IDD) for standardised filling paradigms in neuro-urology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of lower urinary tract (LUT) (dys)function. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: The IDD is based on electrohydrostatic actuation which was previously proven feasible in a prototype setup. The current design includes hydraulic cylinders and a motorised slider to provide force and motion...
September 12, 2016: BJU International
Yann Le Meur, Martin Buchheit, Anaël Aubry, Aaron J Coutts, Christophe Hausswirth
PURPOSE: Faster heart rate recovery (HRR) following high-to-maximal exercise (≥90% HRmax) has been reported in athletes suspected of functional overreaching (f-OR). This study investigated whether this response would also occur at lower exercise intensity. METHODS AND RESULTS: HRR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) responses were compared during an incremental intermittent running protocol to exhaustion in twenty experienced male triathletes (8 control and 13 overload subjects led to f-OR) before (Pre), immediately after an overload training period (Mid) and following a 1-week taper (Post)...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Scott L Collins, Laura M Ladwig, Matthew D Petrie, Sydney K Jones, John M Mulhouse, James R Thibault, William T Pockman
Global environmental change is altering temperature, precipitation patterns, resource availability, and disturbance regimes. Theory predicts that ecological presses will interact with pulse events to alter ecosystem structure and function. In 2006, we established a long-term, multifactor global change experiment to determine the interactive effects of nighttime warming, increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, and increased winter precipitation on plant community structure and aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in a northern Chihuahuan Desert grassland...
September 9, 2016: Global Change Biology
Veli-Matti Pakanen, Markku Orell, Emma Vatka, Seppo Rytkönen, Juli Broggi
Correct reproductive timing is crucial for fitness. Breeding phenology even in similar species can differ due to different selective pressures on the timing of reproduction. These selection pressures define species' responses to warming springs. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis suggests that timing of breeding in animals is selected to match with food availability (synchrony). Alternatively, time-dependent breeding success (the date hypothesis) can result from other seasonally deteriorating ecological conditions such as intra- or interspecific competition or predation...
2016: PloS One
Yinli Jin, Peiyu Chen, Yanfang Zhang, Guo Tian, Hongqiang Feng, Youming Hou
The green mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is a regional pest of multiple crops in northern China, and the survival and development of diapausing eggs during winter plays an important role in the population dynamics of this species. The effect of water on the survival and development of A. lucorum eggs was investigated using laboratory-induced diapause. Diapausing eggs were exposed to various humidity regimes under three conditions: (1) termination of diapause with exposure to warm long-day (WLD) conditions (i.e...
2016: PloS One
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