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Hepatitis, Inflammatory bowel disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079621/effects-of-education-and-information-on-vaccination-behavior-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
Sofie Coenen, Ellen Weyts, Cedric Jorissen, Paul De Munter, Maja Noman, Vera Ballet, Séverine Vermeire, Gert Van Assche, Marc Ferrante
BACKGROUND: Despite the existence of international guidelines, vaccination in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been integrated optimally. We developed a thorough education program, and compared its influence on vaccination rates with routine clinical practice in a tertiary IBD center. METHODS: Between December 2014 and March 2015, we included 505 consecutive patients with IBD visiting our outpatient clinic (53% men, 72% Crohn's disease, median age 44 years)...
January 10, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069287/feline-cholangitis
#2
REVIEW
Lara Boland, Julia Beatty
Cholangitis is common in felines, including neutrophilic, lymphocytic, and chronic cholangitis (liver fluke). History, physical examination, laboratory testing, and abdominal ultrasound support a diagnosis. Diagnosis using hepatic histopathology and/or bile analysis is ideal but not always practical. Neutrophilic cholangitis is associated with bacterial cholecystitis, pancreatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. The typical presentation is a short illness with lethargy, inappetence, pyrexia, and jaundice. Lymphocytic cholangitis, suspected to be immune-mediated, can have a prolonged clinical course with weight loss and ascites as the predominant features...
January 6, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059612/fecal-microbial-transplantation-as-a-therapeutic-option-in-patients-colonized-with-antibiotic-resistant-organisms
#3
Michael Laffin, Braden Millan, Karen L Madsen
Despite increasing interest in fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), its full therapeutic potential has yet to be determined. Since its increase in popularity, FMT has been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of both Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and its recurrent form. Interest in FMT now expands well beyond the treatment of CDI to other processes with known associations to the microbiota such as antibiotic resistant infections, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), hepatic encephalopathy, neuropsychiatric disorders, and metabolic disease...
January 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984347/hepatic-issues-and-complications-associated-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-clinical-report-from-the-naspghan-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-hepatology-committees
#4
Lawrence J Saubermann, Mark Deneau, Richard A Falcone, Karen F Murray, Sabina Ali, Rohit Kohli, Udeme D Ekong, Pamela L Valentino, Andrew B Grossman, Elizabeth B Rand, Maureen M Jonas, Shehzad A Saeed, Binita M Kamath
Hepatobiliary disorders are very common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, and persistent abnormal liver function tests are found in approximately 20-30% of individuals with IBD. In most cases, the cause of these elevations will fall into one of three main categories. They can be as a result of extraintestinal manifestations of the disease process, related to medication toxicity, or the result of an underlying primary hepatic disorder unrelated to IBD. This latter possibility is beyond the scope of this review article, but does need to be considered in anyone with elevated liver function tests...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957759/systematic-review-recurrent-autoimmune-liver-diseases-after-liver-transplantation
#5
REVIEW
A J Montano-Loza, R A Bhanji, S Wasilenko, A L Mason
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune liver diseases (AILD) constitute the third most common indication for liver transplantation (LT) worldwide. Outcomes post LT are generally good but recurrent disease is frequently observed. AIMS: To describe the frequency and risk factors associated with recurrent AILD post-LT and provide recommendations to reduce the incidence of recurrence based on levels of evidence. METHODS: A systematic review was performed for full-text papers published in English-language journals, using the keywords 'autoimmune hepatitis (AIH)', 'primary biliary cholangitis and/or cirrhosis (PBC)', 'primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)', 'liver transplantation' and 'recurrent disease'...
December 12, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921168/the-2016-diagnostic-criteria-for-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#6
Takahiro Nakazawa, Kenji Notohara, Susumu Tazuma, Atsushi Tanaka, Hiroyuki Isayama, Toshio Tsuyuguchi, Toshiyuki Mori, Hajime Takikawa
BACKGROUND: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown cause that is characterized pathologically by an inflammatory and fibrotic process centered on the epithelium, leading to diffuse biliary stenosis and increased wall thickness throughout the intra- and extra-hepatic biliary trees. A nationwide survey in Japan revealed several differences in the clinical aspects of PSC between Japan and Western countries. PSC was recently designated an intractable hepatobiliary disease in Japan...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917091/vaccinating-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
Jason Reich, Sharmeel Wasan, Francis A Farraye
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not vaccinated at the same rate as general medical patients. IBD places patients at increased risk for developing vaccine-preventable illnesses, and this risk is further exacerbated by immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, gastroenterologists should familiarize themselves with health maintenance measures pertaining to patients with IBD. This article highlights the vaccinations required for patients with IBD, especially those who are immunosuppressed: influenza; pneumococcal pneumonia; hepatitis A and B viruses; human papilloma virus; meningococcal disease; tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis; measles, mumps, and rubella; varicella zoster; and herpes zoster...
September 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826994/diagnostic-efficacy-of-single-pass-abdominal-multidetector-row-ct-prospective-evaluation-of-a-low-dose-protocol
#8
Luigi Camera, Immacolata Liccardo, Federica Romano, Raffaele Liuzzi, Antonio Rispo, Massimo Imbriaco, Anna Testa, Gaetano Luglio, Simona De Fronzo, Fabiana Castiglione, Luigi Bucci, Arturo Brunetti
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of single-pass contrast-enhanced multidetector CT (CE-MDCT) performed with a low-radiation high-contrast (LR-HC) dose protocol in selected patients with non-traumatic acute bowel disease. METHODS: 65 (32 males, 33 females; aged 20-67 years) consecutive patients with non-traumatic acute bowel disease underwent single-pass CE-MDCT performed 70-100 s after i.v. bolus injection of a non-ionic iodinated contrast medium (CM) (370 mgI ml(-1))...
February 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770449/polymorphic-variation-in-tpmt-is-the-principal-determinant-of-tpmt-phenotype-a-meta-analysis-of-three-genome-wide-association-studies
#9
Riin Tamm, Reedik Mägi, Roman Tremmel, Stefan Winter, Evelin Mihailov, Alenka Smid, Anja Möricke, Kathrin Klein, Martin Schrappe, Martin Stanulla, Richard Houlston, Richard Weinshilboum, Irena Mlinarič Raščan, Andres Metspalu, Lili Milani, Matthias Schwab, Elke Schaeffeler
Thiopurine-related hematotoxicity in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and inflammatory bowel diseases has been linked to genetically defined variability in thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) activity. While gene testing of TPMT is being clinically implemented, it is unclear if additional genetic variation influences TPMT activity with consequences for thiopurine-related toxicity. To examine this possibility, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of red blood cell TPMT activity in 844 Estonian individuals and 245 paediatric ALL-cases...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759636/concomitant-herpes-simplex-virus-colitis-and-hepatitis-in-a-man-with-ulcerative-colitis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Varun K Phadke, Rachel J Friedman-Moraco, Brian C Quigley, Alton B Farris, J P Norvell
BACKGROUND: Herpesvirus infections often complicate the clinical course of patients with inflammatory bowel disease; however, invasive disease due to herpes simplex virus is distinctly uncommon. METHODS: We present a case of herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis, review all the previously published cases of herpes simplex virus colitis, and discuss common clinical features and outcomes. We also discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of herpes simplex virus infections, focusing specifically on patients with inflammatory bowel disease...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753658/immunohistochemical-expression-of-antitissue-transglutaminase-2-in-tissue-injuries-an-interpretation-beyond-celiac-disease
#11
Prasenjit Das, Ramakant Rawat, Anil K Verma, Geetika Singh, Archana G Vallonthaiel, Rajni Yadav, Gaurav P S Gahlot, Amit K Dinda, Vineet Ahuja, Siddhartha Datta Gupta, Sanjay K Agarwal, Govind K Makharia
Tissue transglutaminase 2 enzyme plays a diverse role in intracellular and extracellular functioning. Aberrant expression of anti-TG2 antibody has recently been proposed for extraintestinal identification of celiac disease (CeD), but its utility is questionable. To examine whether anti-TG2 immunohistochemical (IHC) staining can be of diagnostic value in identifying extraintestinal involvement in CeD, tissue blocks of patients with IgA nephropathies (IgAN), minimal change disease, membranous glomerulonephritis, membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis, normal kidney, intestinal biopsies from CeD, tropical sprue, nonspecific duodenitis, and inflammatory bowel disease; liver biopsies from patients with chronic hepatitis B and C, acute liver failure (ALF), and CeD-associated liver diseases were retrieved and subjected to IHC staining for anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 enzyme...
October 7, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741173/gut-microbiome-and-gastrointestinal-cancer-les-liaisons-dangereuses
#12
Nurdan Tözün, Eser Vardareli
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. These cancers are the end result of a complex interplay between gene and environment. Bacteria, parasites, and viruses have been implicated in some cancers. Recent data have put at focus the gut microbiome as the key player firing tumorigenesis. Experimental and human studies have provided evidence on the role of microbiota in cancer development. Although subject to changes in different settings such as antibiotic treatment, diet or lifestyle, our microbiome is quite stable and is capable of increasing susceptibility to cancer or decrease and halt its progression...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723166/understanding-the-complications-of-anti-tnf-therapy-in-east-asian-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
REVIEW
Jae Hee Cheon
Remarkable advances have been made in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) since the introduction of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents, especially for patients who are refractory to or cannot tolerate conventional therapies. Currently, infliximab, adalimumab, and golimumab are available in the East Asian medical market, and these agents have been shown to be effective for inducing and maintaining long-term remission of IBD. Despite their clinical benefits, anti-TNF therapy can also lead to increased vulnerability to infections, development of autoimmune diseases and malignancy, and decreased immunogenicity of vaccinations...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718758/challenges-in-treating-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-concurrent-viral-hepatitis-infection
#14
Elisabetta Degasperi, Flavio Caprioli, Omar El Sherif, David Back, Massimo Colombo, Alessio Aghemo
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) require long-term administration of immunomodulatory treatments to maintain disease remission. Due to the high worldwide prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV) virus infections, presence of concurrent hepatitis can be a relevant clinical issue to manage when treating IBD. Areas covered: The paper summarizes epidemiological data about IBD and HBV/HCV infection and reviews current knowledge about the natural history of HBV and HCV in the IBD setting, concentrating on risk of hepatitis reactivation during immunosuppressive treatment...
December 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712010/hepatic-manifestations-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#15
Sophie Restellini, Olivier Chazouillères, Jean-Louis Frossard
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with various hepatobiliary disorders, reported both in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). They may occur at any moment in the natural course of the disease. The prevalence of liver dysfunction rises from 3% to 50% accordingly to definitions. Fatty liver is considered as the most common hepatobiliary complication in IBD whilst primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) the most specific one. Less frequently, IBD-associated hepatobiliary disorders include: autoimmune hepatitis/PSC overlap syndrome, IgG4-associated cholangiopathy, primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), hepatic amyloidosis, granulomatous hepatitis, cholelithiasis, portal vein thrombosis, and liver abscess...
October 6, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678354/co-existence-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-review-article
#16
REVIEW
Che-Yung Chao, Robert Battat, Alex Al Khoury, Sophie Restellini, Giada Sebastiani, Talat Bessissow
Emerging data have highlighted the co-existence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and inflammatory bowel disease; both of which are increasingly prevalent disorders with significant complications and impact on future health burden. Cross-section observational studies have shown widely variable prevalence rates of co-existing disease, largely due to differences in disease definition and diagnostic tools utilised in the studies. Age, obesity, insulin resistance and other metabolic conditions are common risks factors in observational studies...
September 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660198/pd-1-pd-l-and-autoimmunity-a-growing-relationship
#17
Mohammad Reza Zamani, Saeed Aslani, Arash Salmaninejad, Mohammad Reza Javan, Nima Rezaei
Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands, namely PD-L1 and PD-L2, are one of the key factors responsible for inhibitory T cell signaling, mediating the mechanisms of tolerance and providing immune homeostasis. Mounting evidence demonstrates that impaired PD-1:PD-L function plays an important role in a variety of autoimmune diseases such as Type 1 diabetes (T1D), encephalomyelitis, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), Behcet's disease (BD), myasthenia gravis (MG), autoimmune uveitis (AU), Sjögren's syndrome (SjS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), myocarditis, and ankylosing spondylitis (AS)...
September 15, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658328/a-case-of-hepatic-portal-venous-gas-after-colonoscopy
#18
Tevfik Solakoglu, Sevil O Sari, Huseyin Koseoglu, Murat Basaran, Mustafa Akar, Semnur Buyukasik, Osman Ersoy
Hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) is a rare radiologic finding that is usually precipitated by intestinal ischaemia, intra-abdominal abscesses, necrotising enterocolitis, abdominal trauma, infectious enteritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we present a case of HPVG in a 66-year-old female patient who underwent colonoscopy for evaluation of haematochezia and a review of the literature focused on HPVG following colonoscopy.
September 2016: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648552/azathioprine-and-6-mercaptopurine-induced-liver-injury-clinical-features-and-outcomes
#19
Einar S Björnsson, Jiezhun Gu, David E Kleiner, Naga Chalasani, Paul H Hayashi, Jay H Hoofnagle
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to define the clinical, biochemical, and histologic features of liver injury from thiopurines. BACKGROUND: Azathioprine (Aza) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) can cause liver injury, but no large series exist. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data and 6-month outcomes of patients with thiopurine hepatotoxicity from the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network Prospective Study were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were identified, 12 due to Aza and 10 due to 6-MP, with a median age of 55 years; the majority were female (68%)...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647428/gut-and-liver-t-cells-of-common-clonal-origin-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
Eva Kristine Klemsdal Henriksen, Kristin Kaasen Jørgensen, Fatemeh Kaveh, Kristian Holm, David Hamm, Johanna Olweus, Espen Melum, Brian K Chung, Tor J Eide, Knut E A Lundin, Kirsten Muri Boberg, Tom H Karlsen, Gideon M Hirschfield, Evaggelia Liaskou
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recruitment of gut-derived memory T-cells to the liver is believed to drive hepatic inflammation in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). However, whether gut-infiltrating and liver-infiltrating T-cells share T cell receptors (TCRs) and antigenic specificities is unknown. We used paired gut and liver samples from PSC patients with concurrent inflammatory bowel disease (PSC-IBD), and normal tissue samples from colon cancer controls, to assess potential T cell clonotype overlap between the two compartments...
January 2017: Journal of Hepatology
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