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Hepatitis, Inflammatory bowel disease

Varun K Phadke, Rachel J Friedman-Moraco, Brian C Quigley, Alton B Farris, J P Norvell
BACKGROUND: Herpesvirus infections often complicate the clinical course of patients with inflammatory bowel disease; however, invasive disease due to herpes simplex virus is distinctly uncommon. METHODS: We present a case of herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis, review all the previously published cases of herpes simplex virus colitis, and discuss common clinical features and outcomes. We also discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of herpes simplex virus infections, focusing specifically on patients with inflammatory bowel disease...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Prasenjit Das, Ramakant Rawat, Anil K Verma, Geetika Singh, Archana G Vallonthaiel, Rajni Yadav, Gaurav P S Gahlot, Amit K Dinda, Vineet Ahuja, Siddhartha Datta Gupta, Sanjay K Agarwal, Govind K Makharia
Tissue transglutaminase 2 enzyme plays a diverse role in intracellular and extracellular functioning. Aberrant expression of anti-TG2 antibody has recently been proposed for extraintestinal identification of celiac disease (CeD), but its utility is questionable. To examine whether anti-TG2 immunohistochemical (IHC) staining can be of diagnostic value in identifying extraintestinal involvement in CeD, tissue blocks of patients with IgA nephropathies (IgAN), minimal change disease, membranous glomerulonephritis, membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis, normal kidney, intestinal biopsies from CeD, tropical sprue, nonspecific duodenitis, and inflammatory bowel disease; liver biopsies from patients with chronic hepatitis B and C, acute liver failure (ALF), and CeD-associated liver diseases were retrieved and subjected to IHC staining for anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 enzyme...
October 7, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Nurdan Tözün, Eser Vardareli
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. These cancers are the end result of a complex interplay between gene and environment. Bacteria, parasites, and viruses have been implicated in some cancers. Recent data have put at focus the gut microbiome as the key player firing tumorigenesis. Experimental and human studies have provided evidence on the role of microbiota in cancer development. Although subject to changes in different settings such as antibiotic treatment, diet or lifestyle, our microbiome is quite stable and is capable of increasing susceptibility to cancer or decrease and halt its progression...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Jae Hee Cheon
Remarkable advances have been made in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) since the introduction of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents, especially for patients who are refractory to or cannot tolerate conventional therapies. Currently, infliximab, adalimumab, and golimumab are available in the East Asian medical market, and these agents have been shown to be effective for inducing and maintaining long-term remission of IBD. Despite their clinical benefits, anti-TNF therapy can also lead to increased vulnerability to infections, development of autoimmune diseases and malignancy, and decreased immunogenicity of vaccinations...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Elisabetta Degasperi, Flavio Caprioli, Omar El Sherif, David Back, Massimo Colombo, Alessio Aghemo
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) require long-term administration of immunomodulatory treatments to maintain disease remission. Due to the high worldwide prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV) virus infections, presence of concurrent hepatitis can be a relevant clinical issue to manage when treating IBD. Areas covered: The paper summarizes epidemiological data about IBD and HBV/HCV infection and reviews current knowledge about the natural history of HBV and HCV in the IBD setting, concentrating on risk of hepatitis reactivation during immunosuppressive treatment...
October 8, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Sophie Restellini, Olivier Chazouillères, Jean-Louis Frossard
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with various hepatobiliary disorders, reported both in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). They may occur at any moment in the natural course of the disease. The prevalence of liver dysfunction rises from 3% to 50% accordingly to definitions. Fatty liver is considered as the most common hepatobiliary complication in IBD whilst primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) the most specific one. Less frequently, IBD-associated hepatobiliary disorders include: autoimmune hepatitis/PSC overlap syndrome, IgG4-associated cholangiopathy, primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), hepatic amyloidosis, granulomatous hepatitis, cholelithiasis, portal vein thrombosis, and liver abscess...
October 6, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Che-Yung Chao, Robert Battat, Alex Al Khoury, Sophie Restellini, Giada Sebastiani, Talat Bessissow
Emerging data have highlighted the co-existence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and inflammatory bowel disease; both of which are increasingly prevalent disorders with significant complications and impact on future health burden. Cross-section observational studies have shown widely variable prevalence rates of co-existing disease, largely due to differences in disease definition and diagnostic tools utilised in the studies. Age, obesity, insulin resistance and other metabolic conditions are common risks factors in observational studies...
September 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Mohammad Reza Zamani, Saeed Aslani, Arash Salmaninejad, Mohammad Reza Javan, Nima Rezaei
Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands, namely PD-L1 and PD-L2, are one of the key factors responsible for inhibitory T cell signaling, mediating the mechanisms of tolerance and providing immune homeostasis. Mounting evidence demonstrates that impaired PD-1:PD-L function plays an important role in a variety of autoimmune diseases such as Type 1 diabetes (T1D), encephalomyelitis, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), Behcet's disease (BD), myasthenia gravis (MG), autoimmune uveitis (AU), Sjögren's syndrome (SjS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), myocarditis, and ankylosing spondylitis (AS)...
September 15, 2016: Cellular Immunology
Tevfik Solakoglu, Sevil O Sari, Huseyin Koseoglu, Murat Basaran, Mustafa Akar, Semnur Buyukasik, Osman Ersoy
Hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) is a rare radiologic finding that is usually precipitated by intestinal ischaemia, intra-abdominal abscesses, necrotising enterocolitis, abdominal trauma, infectious enteritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we present a case of HPVG in a 66-year-old female patient who underwent colonoscopy for evaluation of haematochezia and a review of the literature focused on HPVG following colonoscopy.
September 2016: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
Einar S Björnsson, Jiezhun Gu, David E Kleiner, Naga Chalasani, Paul H Hayashi, Jay H Hoofnagle
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to define the clinical, biochemical, and histologic features of liver injury from thiopurines. BACKGROUND: Azathioprine (Aza) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) can cause liver injury, but no large series exist. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data and 6-month outcomes of patients with thiopurine hepatotoxicity from the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network Prospective Study were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were identified, 12 due to Aza and 10 due to 6-MP, with a median age of 55 years; the majority were female (68%)...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Eva Kristine Klemsdal Henriksen, Kristin Kaasen Jørgensen, Fatemeh Kaveh, Kristian Holm, David Hamm, Johanna Olweus, Espen Melum, Brian K Chung, Tor J Eide, Knut E A Lundin, Kirsten Muri Boberg, Tom H Karlsen, Gideon M Hirschfield, Evaggelia Liaskou
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recruitment of gut-derived memory T cells to the liver is believed to drive hepatic inflammation in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). However, whether gut-infiltrating and liver-infiltrating T cells share T-cell receptors (TCRs) and antigenic specificities is unknown. We used paired gut and liver samples from PSC patients with concurrent inflammatory bowel disease (PSC-IBD), and normal tissue samples from colon cancer controls, to assess potential T-cell clonotype overlap between the two compartments...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Thomas S Maldonado, Sheila N Blumberg, Sharvil U Sheth, Gabriel Perreault, Mikel Sadek, Todd Berland, Mark A Adelman, Caron B Rockman
BACKGROUND: Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) is a relatively uncommon but potentially lethal condition associated with bowel ischemia and infarction. The natural history and long-term outcomes are poorly understood and under-reported. METHODS: A single-institution retrospective review of noncirrhotic patients diagnosed with MVT from 1999 to 2015 was performed using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and radiology codes. Patients were excluded if no radiographic imaging was available for review...
October 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
Carlos Moctezuma-Velázquez, Jonathan Aguirre-Valadez
Diet is considered an important triggering factor for gastrointestinal symptoms whose physiopathology includes not only measurable, inflammatory reactions, but also functional disorders, where no organic effects may be measured or demonstrated. Moreover, the prevalence of the perceived intolerance to certain foods ranges from 20-25% (within the general population) to 50-70% in diseases like irritable bowel syndrome. This intolerance has been observed particularly after the consumption of milk and dairy products, which are frequently considered as causative of gastrointestinal symptoms, thus limiting their ingestion...
September 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
Monika Rau, Bruno Stieger, Maria J Monte, Johannes Schmitt, Daniel Jahn, Isabelle Frey-Wagner, Tina Raselli, Jose J G Marin, Beat Müllhaupt, Gerhard Rogler, Andreas Geier
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15/19 is part of the gut-liver crosstalk accounting for bile acid (BA) metabolism regulation. Dysregulation of fibroblast growth factor 15/19 signaling is observed in different pathological conditions, for example, in gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To understand the molecular bases, we analyzed the enterohepatic regulation of Fgf15-mediated pathway in 2 different inflammatory bowel disease mouse models. METHODS: Target genes of the BA-farnesoid-X-receptor (Fxr)-Ffg15 axis were quantified by RT-PCR or western blotting in gut and liver of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated and IL10 mice...
October 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Vanessa Mateus, João Rocha, Paula Alves, Hélder Mota-Filipe, Bruno Sepodes, Rui Manuel Amaro Pinto
Erythropoietin is a potent stimulator of erythroid progenitor cells, which is able to inhibit NF-kB activation, due to its pleiotropic properties, thus promoting an anti-inflammatory effect. Since inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic disease with reduced quality of life, and the current pharmacotherapy only induces or maintains the patient in remission, there is a crucial need of new pharmacological approaches. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of erythropoietin in the TNBS-induced colitis model in mice with a normal intestinal flora...
August 31, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Dan Ilkovitch, Laura K Ferris
Psoriasis is a debilitating chronic inflammatory disease. In addition to the characteristic effects on the skin, chronic inflammation associated with the disease is recognized to contribute to cardiovascular, hepatic and renal comorbidities. Immature myeloid regulatory cells, known as myeloid‑derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), have been demonstrated to accumulate in various diseases and chronic inflammatory states, including inflammatory bowel disease and various types of cancer. The results of the present study, obtained using flow cytometry and cell culture analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from psoriasis and healthy patients, revealed that MDSC levels are significantly increased in the blood of patients with psoriasis compared with healthy controls...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Seung Hyun Oh, Chan Ran You, Eun Ok Kim, Si Hyun Bae, Jong Young Choi, Seung Kew Yoon, Sang Wook Choi
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection varies in its clinical manifestations and severity. EBV can be a causative agent of hepatitis and may have a role in the pathogenesis of chronic autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel disease. A 24-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital, presenting with fever and elevated liver enzymes. She was diagnosed with acute hepatitis and EBV infection according to serologic tests and liver biopsy. Within two months, she was re-admitted to our hospital, presenting with hematochezia and lower abdominal pain...
August 25, 2016: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
Heyson C H Chan, Vincent W S Wong, Grace L H Wong, Whitney Tang, Justin C Y Wu, Siew C Ng
BACKGROUND: Little is known of the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its effect on choice of therapy and disease course in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We assessed the prevalence of HBV in Hong Kong as well as determinants of altered transaminases, effects of HBV infection on therapeutic strategy and clinical course in IBD. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), liver function tests, and IBD disease characteristics were recorded...
2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Veena Nannegari, Saenz Roque, David T Rubin, Rodrigo Quera
Although inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) rarely arises in the setting of solid organ transplantation, IBD has a higher incidence in this setting than in the general population and poses challenging management issues. The most common association is hepatic orthotopic transplant for primary sclerosing cholangitis. This article discusses IBD in the setting of liver transplantation, including both the development of de novo IBD and the evolution of preexisting IBD posttransplant, as well as management considerations in addressing colorectal cancer risk in this patient population...
October 2014: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Andrea Tenca, Martti Färkkilä, Johanna Arola, Tytti Jaakkola, Roberto Penagini, Kaija-Leena Kolho
BACKGROUND: The natural history of pediatric-onset primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and overlap with autoimmune hepatitis (PSC/AIH) is poorly known. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of patients with pediatric-onset disease in a tertiary referral center. METHODS: We traced 33 patients (median age at diagnosis 16 years), with PSC or PSC/AIH in cholangiography and liver histology diagnosed between December 1993 and 2011, at Helsinki University Hospital...
August 2016: United European Gastroenterology Journal
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