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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054733/disrupted-ionic-homeostasis-in-ischemic-stroke-and-new-therapeutic-targets
#1
REVIEW
Hui-Jie Hu, Mingke Song
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability. All neuroprotectants targeting excitotoxicity have failed to become stroke medications. In order to explore and identify new therapeutic targets for stroke, we here reviewed present studies of ionic transporters and channels that are involved in ischemic brain damage. METHOD: We surveyed recent literature from animal experiments and clinical reports in the databases of PubMed and Elsevier ScienceDirect to analyze ionic mechanisms underlying ischemic cell damage and suggest promising ideas for stroke therapy...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051728/exacerbation-of-brain-injury-by-post-stroke-exercise-is-contingent-upon-exercise-initiation-timing
#2
Fengwu Li, Xiaokun Geng, Hajra Khan, John T Pendy, Changya Peng, Xiaorong Li, Jose A Rafols, Yuchuan Ding
Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that post-stroke physical rehabilitation may reduce morbidity. The effectiveness of post-stroke exercise, however, appears to be contingent upon exercise initiation. This study assessed the hypothesis that very early exercise exacerbates brain injury, induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and promotes energy failure. A total of 230 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion for 2 h, and randomized into eight groups, including two sham injury control groups, three non-exercise and three exercise groups...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050383/early-detection-of-consciousness-in-patients-with-acute-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Brian L Edlow, Camille Chatelle, Camille A Spencer, Catherine J Chu, Yelena G Bodien, Kathryn L O'Connor, Ronald E Hirschberg, Leigh R Hochberg, Joseph T Giacino, Eric S Rosenthal, Ona Wu
See Schiff (doi:10.1093/awx209) for a scientific commentary on this article. Patients with acute severe traumatic brain injury may recover consciousness before self-expression. Without behavioural evidence of consciousness at the bedside, clinicians may render an inaccurate prognosis, increasing the likelihood of withholding life-sustaining therapies or denying rehabilitative services. Task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography techniques have revealed covert consciousness in the chronic setting, but these techniques have not been tested in the intensive care unit...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049053/treatment-options-for-posttraumatic-epilepsy
#4
Lara L Zimmermann, Ryan M Martin, Fady Girgis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Posttraumatic seizures (PTS) and posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) are common and debilitating consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Early PTS result in secondary brain injury by raising intracranial pressure and worsening cerebral edema and metabolic crisis. PTE is a localization-related epilepsy strongly associated with TBI severity, but risk factors for PTE and epileptogenesis are incompletely understood and are active areas of research. Medical management of PTS in adults and children is reviewed...
October 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048243/mithramycin-a-improves-functional-recovery-by-inhibiting-bscb-disruption-and-hemorrhage-after-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Jee Youn Lee, Hye Y Choi, Chan S Park, Bong G Ju, Tae Y Yune
After spinal cord injury (SCI), blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption and progressive hemorrhage lead to secondary injury, subsequent apoptosis and/or necrosis of neuron and glia, causing permanent neurological deficits. Growing evidences indicate that mithramycin A (MA), an anticancer drug, has neuroprotective effects in ischemic brain injury and Huntington's disease. However, the precise mechanism underlying its protective effects is largely unknown. Here, we examined the effect of MA on BSCB breakdown and hemorrhage as well as subsequent inflammation after SCI...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046917/effects-of-an-injectable-functionalized-self-assembling-nanopeptide-hydrogel-on-angiogenesis-and-neurogenesis-for-regeneration-of-the-central-nervous-system
#6
Tzu-Wei Wang, Kai-Chieh Chang, Liang-Hsin Chen, Shih-Yung Liao, Chia-Wei Yeh, Yung-Jen Chuang
Brain injury is a devastating medical condition and represents a major health problem. Tissue and organ reconstruction have been regarded as promising therapeutic strategies. Here, we propose a regenerative methodology focusing on the provision of functionalized nanopeptide scaffolds to facilitate angiogenesis and neurogenesis at the brain injury site. The peptide RADA16-SVVYGLR undergoes self-assembly to construct an interconnected network with intertwining nanofibers, and can be controlled to display various physicochemical properties by the adjustment of microenvironmental factors such as pH and ion concentration...
October 19, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044603/comorbid-masticatory-impairment-delays-recovery-from-acute-cerebral-ischemia-and-locomotor-hypoactivity-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-mice
#7
Ikuho Kojima, Tatsushi Mutoh, Kazumasu Sasaki, Yasuko Tatewaki, Yasuyuki Taki, Tatsuya Ishikawa
Tooth loss and related changes in the functionality may lead to worse outcome of stroke patients, but the link involved in this pathway remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the effect of comorbid masticatory impairment on acute cerebral ischemia and neurobehavioral outcome after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Thirty C57BL/6 mice with (molar-less) or without (control) prior treatment of cutting off the upper molars (separated by at least one week), were subjected to SAH by endovascular perforation...
October 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043545/early-brain-injury-associated-with-systemic-inflammation-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#8
Jude Savarraj, Kaushik Parsha, Georgene Hergenroeder, Sungho Ahn, Tiffany R Chang, Dong H Kim, H Alex Choi
BACKGROUND: Early brain injury (EBI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is defined as brain injury occurring within 72 h of aneurysmal rupture. Although EBI is the most significant predictor of outcomes after aSAH, its underlying pathophysiology is not well understood. We hypothesize that EBI after aSAH is associated with an increase in peripheral inflammation measured by cytokine expression levels and changes in associations between cytokines. METHODS: aSAH patients were enrolled into a prospective observational study and were assessed for markers of EBI: global cerebral edema (GCE), subarachnoid hemorrhage early brain edema score (SEBES), and Hunt-Hess grade...
October 17, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039533/sirt1-activation-by-resveratrol-reduces-brain-edema-and-neuronal-apoptosis-in-an-experimental-rat-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-model
#9
Cong Qian, Jianxiang Jin, Jingyin Chen, Jianru Li, Xiaobo Yu, Hangbo Mo, Gao Chen
Early brain injury is considered to be a major risk that is related to the prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In SAH model rats, brain edema and apoptosis have been closely related with death rate and neurological function. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) was reported to be involved in apoptosis in cerebral ischemia and brain tumor formation through p53 deacetylation. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of SIRT1 in a rat endovascular perforation model of SAH. The SIRT1 activator resveratrol (RES) was administered 48 h prior to SAH induction and the SIRT1 inhibitor Sirtinol (SIR) was used to reverse the effects of RES on SIRT1 expression...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038505/punctate-white-matter-lesions-associated-with-altered-brain-development-and-adverse-motor-outcome-in-preterm-infants
#10
Nora Tusor, Manon J Benders, Serena J Counsell, Phumza Nongena, Moegamad A Ederies, Shona Falconer, Andrew Chew, Nuria Gonzalez-Cinca, Joseph V Hajnal, Sunay Gangadharan, Vasiliki Chatzi, Karina J Kersbergen, Nigel Kennea, Denis V Azzopardi, A David Edwards
Preterm infants who develop neurodevelopmental impairment do not always have recognized abnormalities on cerebral ultrasound, a modality routinely used to assess prognosis. In a high proportion of infants, MRI detects punctate white matter lesions that are not seen on ultrasonography. To determine the relation of punctate lesions to brain development and early neurodevelopmental outcome we used multimodal brain MRI to study a large cohort of preterm infants. Punctate lesions without other focal cerebral or cerebellar lesions were detected at term equivalent age in 123 (24...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036831/dementia-pugilistica-revisited
#11
Rudy J Castellani, George Perry
 Extensive exposure of boxers to neurotrauma in the early 20th century led to the so-called punch drunk syndrome, which was formally recognized in the medical literature in 1928. "Punch drunk" terminology was replaced by the less derisive 'dementia pugilistica' in 1937. In the early case material, the diagnosis of dementia pugilistica required neurological deficits, including slurring dysarthria, ataxia, pyramidal signs, extrapyramidal signs, memory impairment, and personality changes, although the specific clinical substrate has assumed lesser importance in recent years with a shift in focus on molecular pathogenesis...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034376/exploring-the-pregnant-guinea-pig-as-a-model-for-group-b-streptococcus-intrauterine-infection
#12
Maria I Harrell, Kellie Burnside, Christopher Whidbey, Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Infection of the amniotic cavity remains a major cause of preterm birth, stillbirth, fetal injury and early onset, fulminant infections in newborns. Currently, there are no effective therapies to prevent in utero infection and consequent co-morbidities. This is in part due to the lack of feasible and appropriate animal models to understand mechanisms that lead to in utero infections. Use of mouse and rat models do not fully recapitulate human pregnancy, while pregnant nonhuman primate models are limited by ethical considerations, technical constraints, and cost...
September 2017: J Infect Dis Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034235/coagulofibrinolytic-changes-in-patients-with-post-cardiac-arrest-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Takeshi Wada
Whole-body ischemia and reperfusion due to cardiac arrest and subsequent return of spontaneous circulation constitute post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS), which consists of four syndromes including systemic ischemia/reperfusion responses and post-cardiac arrest brain injury. The major pathophysiologies underlying systemic ischemia/reperfusion responses are systemic inflammatory response syndrome and increased coagulation, leading to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), which clinically manifests as obstruction of microcirculation and multiple organ dysfunction...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030415/comorbidity-and-outcomes-in-traumatic-brain-injury-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-on-functional-status-and-risk-of-death
#14
Tatyana Mollayeva, Chen Xiong, Sara Hanafy, Vincy Chan, Zheng Jing Hu, Mitchell Sutton, Michael Escobar, Angela Colantonio
INTRODUCTION: Reports on the association between comorbidity and functional status and risk of death in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been inconsistent; it is currently unknown which additional clinical entities (comorbidities) have an adverse influence on the evolution of outcomes across the lifespan of men and women with TBI. The current protocol outlines a strategy for a systematic review of the current evidence examining the impact of comorbidity on functional status and early-term and late-term mortality, taking into account known risk factors of these adverse outcomes (ie, demographic (age and sex) and injury-related characteristics)...
October 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030054/inhibiting-the-cd38-cadpr-pathway-protected-rats-against-sepsis-associated-brain-injury
#15
Qian-Yi Peng, Yi-Min Wang, Cai-Xia Chen, Yu Zou, Li-Na Zhang, Song-Yun Deng, Yu-Hang Ai
BACKGROUND: The CD38/cADPR pathway has been found to play roles in various inflammatory conditions. However, whether CD38 plays a protective or detrimental effect in the central nervous system (CNS) is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of CD38/cADPR pathway in sepsis associated brain injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were undergone cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomies. NAD(+), cADPR and CD38 were measured in the hippocampus of septic rats at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after CLP surgery...
October 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029289/post-traumatic-hydrocephalus-in-children-a-retrospective-study-in-42-pediatric-hospitals-using-the-pediatric-health-information-system
#16
Robert H Bonow, Assaf P Oron, Brian W Hanak, Samuel R Browd, Randall M Chesnut, Richard G Ellenbogen, Monica S Vavilala, Frederick P Rivara
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) is a potentially treatable cause of poor recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI) that remains poorly understood, particularly among children. OBJECTIVE: To better understand the risk factors for pediatric PTH using a large, multi-institutional database. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using administrative data from 42 pediatric hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information System...
October 6, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028764/the-prognostic-value-of-mri-in-moderate-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Hourmazd Haghbayan, Amélie Boutin, Mathieu Laflamme, François Lauzier, Michèle Shemilt, Lynne Moore, Ryan Zarychanski, Vincent Douville, Dean Fergusson, Alexis F Turgeon
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of death and disability, yet many predictors of outcome are not precise enough to guide initial clinical decision-making. Although increasingly used in the early phase following traumatic brain injury, the prognostic utility of MRI remains uncertain. We thus undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the predictive value of acute MRI lesion patterns for discriminating clinical outcome in traumatic brain injury...
October 12, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027859/quantitative-cerebral-blood-flow-using-xenon-enhanced-ct-after-decompressive-craniectomy-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Aditya Vedantam, Claudia S Robertson, Shankar P Gopinath
OBJECTIVE Few studies have reported on changes in quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) after decompressive craniectomy and the impact of these measures on clinical outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate global and regional CBF patterns in relation to cerebral hemodynamic parameters in patients after decompressive craniectomy for traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS The authors studied clinical and imaging data of patients who underwent xenon-enhanced CT (XeCT) CBF studies after decompressive craniectomy for evacuation of a mass lesion and/or to relieve intractable intracranial hypertension...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025196/prenatal-molecular-diagnosis-in-rasa1-related-disease
#19
Aurélien Palmyre, Mélanie Eyries, Marie-Victoire Senat, Augustin Ozanne, Stéphanie Staraci, Philippe Dufour, Thierry Chinet, Pascal Lacombe, Florent Soubrier, Philippe Charron
RASA1-related disease is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by capillary malformations, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and/or arteriovenous fistulas (AFVs). Penetrance is nearly complete and vascular malformations may cause serious complications such as organ injury due to oxygenation disorder, brain abscess, hemorrhage and stroke. Early diagnosis is useful in order to discuss optimal management, including AVMs/AVFs embolization or surgical procedures, and try to prevent some of the complications...
October 12, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021779/xenon-reduces-neuronal-hippocampal-damage-and-alters-the-pattern-of-microglial-activation-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-randomized-controlled-animal-trial
#20
Michael Veldeman, Mark Coburn, Rolf Rossaint, Hans Clusmann, Kay Nolte, Benedikt Kremer, Anke Höllig
OBJECTIVE: The neuroprotective properties of the noble gas xenon have already been demonstrated using a variety of injury models. Here, we examine for the first time xenon's possible effect in attenuating early brain injury (EBI) and its influence on posthemorrhagic microglial neuroinflammation in an in vivo rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 22) were randomly assigned to receive either Sham surgery (n = 9; divided into two groups) or SAH induction via endovascular perforation (n = 13, divided into two groups)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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