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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821777/decompressive-craniectomy-in-the-management-of-intracranial-hypertension-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Danfeng Zhang, Qiang Xue, Jigang Chen, Yan Dong, Lijun Hou, Ying Jiang, Junyu Wang
We aim to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the prognostic value of decompressive craniectomy (DC) in patients with traumatic intracranial hypertension. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Web of Science, http://clinicaltrials.gov/ were searched for eligible studies. Ten studies were included in the systematic review, with four randomized controlled trials involved in the meta-analysis, where compared with medical therapies, DC could significantly reduce mortality rate [risk ratio (RR), 0...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821608/the-transmembrane-domain-of-the-p75-neurotrophin-receptor-stimulates-phosphorylation-of-the-trkb-tyrosine-kinase-receptor
#2
Khalil Saadipour, Michael MacLean, Sean Pirkle, Solav Ali, Maria Luisa Lopez-Redondo, David L Stokes, Moses V Chao
The function of protein products generated from intramembraneous cleavage by the γ-secretase complex is not well defined. The γ-secretase complex is responsible for the cleavage of several transmembrane proteins, most notably the amyloid precursor protein which results in Aβ, a transmembrane (TM) peptide. Another protein that undergoes a very similar γ-secretase cleavage is the p75 neurotrophin receptor. However, the fate of the cleaved p75 TM domain is unknown. p75 neurotrophin receptor is highly expressed during early neuronal development and regulates survival and process formation of neurons...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816834/effect-of-amantadine-on-agitation-in-critically-ill-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Jawaher A Gramish, Brian J Kopp, Asad E Patanwala
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the presence of agitation in traumatic brain injury patients treated with amantadine with those not treated with amantadine in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study conduced in a trauma ICU of a tertiary care institution in the United States. Patients who received amantadine were compared with patients who did not receive amantadine. The primary outcome measure was the presence of agitation, defined as the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale score of +2 or higher...
August 14, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816089/medusa-s-head-the-complement-system-in-traumatic-brain-and-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Francesco Roselli, Ebru Karasu, Clara Volpe, Markus Huber-Lang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Spinal cord injury (SCI) are critical medical conditions and public health problem for which limited therapeutic options are available. Complement cascade is activated after TBI and SCI and the resulting effects have been investigated in gene-knockout and pharmacological models. Multiple experimental studies support a net detrimental role of C3 and C5 activation in the early stages of TBI and SCI. Less firm experimental evidence suggests that, downstream of C3/C5, effector mechanisms including the generation of MAC and direct damage to membranes and neutrophils infiltration may bring about the direct damage of CNS tissue and the enhancement of neuroinflammation...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814631/face-percept-formation-in-human-ventral-temporal-cortex
#5
Kai J Miller, Dora Hermes, Franco Pestilli, Gagan S Wig, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Loci in ventral temporal cortex are selectively active while viewing faces and other objects, but it remains unclear whether these areas represent accumulation of simple visual information, or processing of intact percept. We measured broadband electrocorticographic changes from implanted electrodes on the ventral temporal brain surface while showing patients noise-degraded images of faces and houses. In a subset of posterior fusiform gyrus face-selective regions, cortical activity decreased parametrically with noise increase, until the perceptual threshold...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814247/fluid-and-medication-considerations-in-the-traumatized-patient
#6
Amita Misir
This article reviews fluid therapy and medications in pediatric trauma. For resuscitation in the setting of hemorrhagic shock, isotonic crystalloid solution is the first-line agent of choice. Colloid solutions offer no additional benefit, introduce possible increased risks and cost more than crystalloids. Blood products, starting with pRBCs, should be introduced after 20-40 ml/kg of crystalloid has been administered if there is ongoing need for volume replacement. The use of a massive transfusion protocol of 1:1:1 (if >30 kg) or 30:20:20 (if <30 kg) of pRBCs:FFP:platelets is suggested after an initial 30 ml/kg of pRBcs have been administered...
August 14, 2017: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812367/the-usefulness-of-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-performed-in-the-acute-phase-as-an-early-predictor-of-delayed-neuropsychiatric-sequelae-in-acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#7
Y S Kim, Y S Cha, M S Kim, H J Kim, Y S Lee, H Youk, H I Kim, O H Kim, K-C Cha, H Kim, K H Lee, S O Hwang
Delayed onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms after apparent recovery from acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning has been described as delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS). No previous study has determined whether early use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) can predict which patients will develop DNS in the acute CO poisoning. This retrospective observational study was performed on adult patients with acute CO poisoning consecutively treated over a 17-month period. All included patients with acute CO poisoning underwent DWI to evaluate brain injury within 72 h after CO exposure...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812113/-pathophysiology-of-intracranial-injuries
#8
REVIEW
D Lahner, G Fritsch
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a heterogeneous condition that affects the most complex organ of the human body. It is commonly classified by its location as focal injury (e.g. epidural hematoma) and diffuse injury (e.g. diffuse axonal shearing injury) as well as by primary and secondary tissue injury. Accordingly, direct mechanical force causes the primary insult. The tissue damage occurring afterwards is subsumed under the term secondary brain damage. Some of these processes are overlapping and include in the early phase local cerebral ischemia resulting in excitotoxicity, which together with the triggered neuroinflammatory cascade causes the formation of cerebral edema and ultimately increased intracranial pressure once the intracranial compliance is exhausted...
August 15, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810572/diffusion-weighted-imaging-of-injuries-to-the-visual-centers-of-the-brain-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-retinopathy
#9
Ming Liang, Xing Chen, Feng Xue, Lingna Meng, Yunfeng Cong
The present study aimed to investigate the ability of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to identify injury to the visual centers of the brain in patients with type 2 diabetes with retinopathy. The study included 84 cases (63 patients with type 2 diabetic retinopathy and 21 healthy individuals) that were assessed using DWI. Diabetic patients were equally divided into three groups: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and diabetic without retinopathy. The results demonstrated that individuals in the PDR group had significantly higher disease duration and glycated hemoglobin levels than the diabetic without retinopathy group (P<0...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807504/bone-up-craniomandibular-development-and-hard-tissue-biomineralization-in-neonate-mice
#10
Khari D Thompson, Holly E Weiss-Bilka, Elizabeth B McGough, Matthew J Ravosa
The presence of regional variation in the osteogenic abilities of cranial bones underscores the fact that the mechanobiology of the mammalian skull is more complex than previously recognized. However, the relationship between patterns of cranial bone formation and biomineralization remains incompletely understood. In four strains of mice, micro-computed tomography was used to measure tissue mineral density during perinatal development in three skull regions (calvarium, basicranium, mandible) noted for variation in loading environment, embryological origin, and ossification mode...
January 29, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806641/acute-ethanol-administration-results-in-a-protective-cytokine-and-neuroinflammatory-profile-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Akila Chandrasekar, Florian Olde Heuvel, Annette Palmer, Birgit Linkus, Albert C Ludolph, Tobias M Boeckers, Borna Relja, Markus Huber-Lang, Francesco Roselli
Ethanol intoxication is a common comorbidity in traumatic brain injury. To date, the effect of ethanol on TBI pathogenic cascades and resulting outcomes remains debated. A closed blunt weight-drop murine TBI model has been implemented to investigate behavioral (by sensorimotor and neurological tests), and neuro-immunological (by tissue cytokine arrays and immuno-histology) effects of ethanol intoxication on TBI. The effect of the occurrence of traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage was also studied. The results indicate that ethanol pretreatment results in a faster and better recovery after TBI with reduced infiltration of leukocytes and reduced microglia activation...
August 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806209/refractory-intracranial-hypertension-the-role-of-decompressive-craniectomy
#12
Martin Smith
Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) is associated with worse outcomes after acute brain injury, and clinical guidelines advocate early treatment of intracranial hypertension. ICP-lowering therapies are usually administered in a stepwise manner, starting with safer first-line interventions, while reserving higher-risk options for patients with intractable intracranial hypertension. Decompressive craniectomy is a surgical procedure in which part of the skull is removed and the underlying dura opened to reduce brain swelling-related raised ICP; it can be performed as a primary or secondary procedure...
August 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805078/occurrence-and-predictive-factors-of-heterotopic-ossification-in-severe-acquired-brain-injured-patients-during-rehabilitation-stay-cross-sectional-survey
#13
Stefano Bargellesi, Luisa Cavasin, Federico Scarponi, Antonio De Tanti, Donatella Bonaiuti, Michelangelo Bartolo, Paolo Boldrini, Anna Estraneo
OBJECTIVES: To report occurrence and identify patient's features and risk factors of heterotopic ossifications in patients with severe acquired brain injury in intensive rehabilitation centres. DESIGN: Multicentre cross-sectional survey. SETTING: A total of 48 severe acquired brain injury rehabilitation institutes. PARTICIPANTS: Traumatic and non-traumatic severe brain-injured patients ( N = 689) in rehabilitation centres on 28 May 2016...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800927/oligomeric-proantho-cyanidins-provides-neuroprotection-against-early-brain-injury-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-possibly-via-anti-oxidative-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-apoptotic-effects
#14
Guang-Xu Zhang, Jun Ma, Hu-Chen Lu, Zhen-Nan Ye, Jing Liu, Cheng-Bin Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797597/environmental-enrichment-protects-spatial-learning-and-hippocampal-neurons-from-the-long-lasting-effects-of-protein-malnutrition-early-in-life
#15
Roberto O Soares, Everton Horiquini-Barbosa, Sebastião S Almeida, João-José Lachat
As early protein malnutrition has a critically long-lasting impact on the hippocampal formation and its role in learning and memory, and environmental enrichment has demonstrated great success in ameliorating functional deficits, here we ask whether exposure to an enriched environment could be employed to prevent spatial memory impairment and neuroanatomical changes in the hippocampus of adult rats maintained on a protein deficient diet during brain development (P0-P35). To elucidate the protective effects of environmental enrichment, we used the Morris water task and neuroanatomical analysis to determine whether changes in spatial memory and number and size of CA1 neurons differed significantly among groups...
August 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796104/seizure-after-cranioplasty-incidence-and-risk-factors
#16
Haifeng Wang, Kewei Zhang, Hongshi Cao, Xiaohong Zhang, Ye Li, Qiang Wei, Dezhi Zhang, Qian Jia, Li Bie
BACKGROUND: To investigate clinical characteristics of postcranioplasty seizures (PCS) first observed after cranioplasty after decompressive craniectomy (DC) to treat traumatic brain injury and to define factors that increase PCS risk. METHODS: This retrospective study, covering the period between January 2008 and July 2015, compared PCS in postcranioplasty patients. Postcranioplasty seizures risk factors included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, time between DC and cranioplasty, duraplasty material, cranioplasty contusion location, electrocautery method, PCS type, and infection...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794417/inhibition-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-preserves-the-integrity-of-blood-spinal-cord-barrier-in-diabetic-rats-subjected-to-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Zili He, Shuang Zou, Jiayu Yin, Zhengzheng Gao, Yanlong Liu, Yanqing Wu, Huacheng He, Yulong Zhou, Qingqing Wang, Jiawei Li, Fenzan Wu, Hua-Zi Xu, Xiaofeng Jia, Jian Xiao
The blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) plays significance roles in recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI), and diabetes mellitus (DM) impairs endothelial cell function and integrity of BSCS. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs in the early stages of SCI and affects prognosis and cell survival. However, the relationship between ER stress and the integrity of BSCB in diabetic rats after SCI remains unclear. Here we observed that diabetic rats showed increased extravasation of Evans Blue (EB) dye, and loss of endothelial cells and pericytes 1 day after SCI compared to non-diabetic rats...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793807/-stuck-in-a-loop-of-fear-a-phenomenological-exploration-of-carers-experiences-supporting-a-spouse-with-acquired-brain-injury
#18
Benjamin J Lond, Iain R Williamson
PURPOSE: Family caregivers are important to facilitating the rehabilitation of individuals with brain injury. However, research shows spousal carers often reporting poorer health and well-being with psychosocial challenges including increased marital dissatisfaction. This study explores the accounts of participants caring for a spouse with brain injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study used semi-structured interviewing and interpretative phenomenological analysis...
August 9, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790967/rethinking-neuroprotection-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-toward-bedside-neuroprotection
#19
REVIEW
Tommaso Zoerle, Marco Carbonara, Elisa R Zanier, Fabrizio Ortolano, Giulio Bertani, Sandra Magnoni, Nino Stocchetti
Neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important goal pursued strenuously in the last 30 years. The acute cerebral injury triggers a cascade of biochemical events that may worsen the integrity, function, and connectivity of the brain cells and decrease the chance of functional recovery. A number of molecules acting against this deleterious cascade have been tested in the experimental setting, often with preliminary encouraging results. Unfortunately, clinical trials using those candidate neuroprotectants molecules have consistently produced disappointing results, highlighting the necessity of improving the research standards...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790012/mdivi-1-ameliorates-early-brain-injury-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-via-the-suppression-of-inflammation-related-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-based-apoptosis
#20
Lin-Feng Fan, Ping-You He, Yu-Cong Peng, Qing-Hua Du, Yi-Jun Ma, Jian-Xiang Jin, Hang-Zhe Xu, Jian-Ru Li, Zhi-Jiang Wang, Sheng-Long Cao, Tao Li, Feng Yan, Chi Gu, Lin Wang, Gao Chen
Aberrant modulation of mitochondrial dynamic network, which shifts the balance of fusion and fission towards fission, is involved in brain damage of various neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease. A recent research has shown that the inhibition of mitochondrial fission alleviates early brain injury after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained to be elucidated. This study was undertaken to characterize the effects of the inhibition of dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1, a dominator of mitochondrial fission) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and neuronal apoptosis following SAH and the potential mechanisms...
August 5, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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