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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102529/recovery-from-chemotherapy-induced-white-matter-changes-in-young-breast-cancer-survivors
#1
Thibo Billiet, Louise Emsell, Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Ronald Peeters, Daan Christiaens, Alexander Leemans, Wim Van Hecke, Ann Smeets, Frederic Amant, Stefan Sunaert, Sabine Deprez
In a previous longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study, we observed cerebral white matter (WM) alterations (reduced fractional anisotropy (FA)) related to decreased cognitive performance 3-5 months after chemotherapy-treatment (t2) when compared to baseline (t1) (Deprez et al. in Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 30(3), 274-281. doi:10.1200/JCO.2011.36.8571, 2012). The current study investigates the evolution and the nature of these previously observed microstructural changes...
January 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102508/simvastatin-promotes-hematoma-absorption-and-reduces-hydrocephalus-following-intraventricular-hemorrhage-in-part-by-upregulating-cd36
#2
Qianwei Chen, Xia Shi, Qiang Tan, Zhou Feng, Yuelong Wang, Qiaoying Yuan, Yihao Tao, Jianbo Zhang, Liang Tan, Gang Zhu, Hua Feng, Zhi Chen
We previously found that hematoma worsens hydrocephalus after intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) via increasing iron deposition and aggravating ependymal cilia injury; therefore, promoting hematoma absorption may be a promising strategy for IVH. Recently, some investigations imply that simvastatin has the ability of accelerating hematoma absorption. Thus, this study was designed to examine the efficacy of simvastatin for IVH in rats. Intracerebral hemorrhage with ventricular extension was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after autologous blood injection...
January 19, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100752/differential-vulnerability-of-ca1-versus-ca3-pyramidal-neurons-after-ischemia-possible-relationship-to-sources-of-zn2-accumulation-and-its-entry-into-and-prolonged-effects-on-mitochondria
#3
Yuliya V Medvedeva, Sung G Ji, Hong Z Yin, John H Weiss
: Excitotoxic mechanisms contribute to the degeneration of hippocampal pyramidal neurons after recurrent seizures and brain ischemia. However, susceptibility differs, with CA1 neurons degenerating preferentially after global ischemia and CA3 neurons after limbic seizures. Whereas most studies address contributions of excitotoxic Ca(2+) entry, it is apparent that Zn(2+) also contributes, reflecting accumulation in neurons either after synaptic release and entry through postsynaptic channels or upon mobilization from intracellular Zn(2+)-binding proteins such as metallothionein-III (MT-III)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095639/early-involvement-of-lysosome-dysfunction-in-the-degeneration-of-cerebral-cortical-neurons-caused-by-the-lipid-peroxidation-product-4-hydroxynonenal
#4
Shi Zhang, Erez Eitan, Mark P Mattson
Free radical-mediated oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA occurs in neurons during acute brain injuries and in neurodegenerative disorders. Membrane lipid peroxidation contributes to neuronal dysfunction and death, in part by disrupting neuronal ion homeostasis and cellular bioenergetics. Emerging findings suggest that 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), an aldehyde produced during lipid peroxidation, impairs the function of various proteins involved in neuronal homeostasis. Here we tested the hypothesis that HNE impairs the cellular system that removes damaged proteins and organelles, the autophagy - lysosome pathway in rat primary cortical neurons...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088900/synaptic-plasticity-dementia-and-alzheimer-disease
#5
Pietro Giusti, Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso
Neuroplasticity is not only shaped by learning and memory but is also a mediator of responses to neuron attrition and injury (compensatory plasticity). As an ongoing process it reacts to neuronal cell activity and injury, death, and genesis, which encompasses the modulation of structural and functional processes of axons, dendrites, and synapses. The range of structural elements that comprise plasticity includes long-term potentiation (a cellular correlate of learning and memory), synaptic efficacy and remodelling, synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendritic remodelling, and neurogenesis and recruitment...
January 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088875/goldstein-et-al-s-secondary-analysis-of-progesterone-clinical-trial-for-tbi-can-only-reflect-the-same-trial-design-flaws-a-response-to-very-early-administration-of-progesterone-does-not-improve-neuropsychological-outcomes-in-subjects-with-moderate-to-severe
#6
Donald Stein, Iqbal Sayeed, Claudia Espinosa-Garcia, Fahim Atif, Elena G Sergeeva
In contrast to the conclusions of Goldstein et al., we argue that the failure of the Phase III trials for progesterone in TBI were due to a 6-fold overdosing with the test drug along with too short a course of treatment. These can and should be considered serious flaws in the design of the trials.
January 15, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088349/stroke-biomarkers-in-clinical-practice-a-critical-appraisal
#7
REVIEW
Geelyn J L Ng, Amy M L Quek, Christine Cheung, Thiruma V Arumugam, Raymond C S Seet
Biomarkers provide critical mechanistic insights to key biologic processes that occur during cerebral ischemia which, when carefully applied, can improve clinical decision-making in acute stroke management. The translation of a blood-based biomarker in ischemic stroke to clinical practice is challenging, in part, due to the complexity of ischemic stroke pathogenesis and the presence of a blood-brain barrier that restricts the release of brain-specific markers into the circulation. The pathologic and clinical aspects of ischemic stroke are described in this review, where a non-exhaustive list of biomarkers that interrogate different aspects of ischemic stroke such as oxidative damage, inflammation, thrombus formation, cardiac function and brain injury are described...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079313/postischemic-inflammation-in-acute-stroke
#8
REVIEW
Simone Vidale, Arturo Consoli, Marco Arnaboldi, Domenico Consoli
Cerebral ischemia is caused by arterial occlusion due to a thrombus or an embolus. Such occlusion induces multiple and concomitant pathophysiological processes that involve bioenergetic failure, acidosis, loss of cell homeostasis, excitotoxicity, and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. All of these mechanisms contribute to neuronal death, mainly via apoptosis or necrosis. The immune system is involved in this process in the early phases after brain injury, which contributes to potential enlargement of the infarct size and involves the penumbra area...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077398/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-is-associated-with-reduced-cortical-thickness-in-those-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Jasmeet P Hayes, Mark W Logue, Naomi Sadeh, Jeffrey M Spielberg, Mieke Verfaellie, Scott M Hayes, Andrew Reagan, David H Salat, Erika J Wolf, Regina E McGlinchey, William P Milberg, Annjanette Stone, Steven A Schichman, Mark W Miller
Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury is one of the strongest environmental risk factors for the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as late-onset Alzheimer's disease, although it is unclear whether mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, also confers risk. This study examined mild traumatic brain injury and genetic risk as predictors of reduced cortical thickness in brain regions previously associated with early Alzheimer's disease, and their relationship with episodic memory. Participants were 160 Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans between the ages of 19 and 58, many of whom carried mild traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder diagnoses...
January 11, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074401/adipsic-diabetes-insipidus-in-adult-patients
#10
REVIEW
Martín Cuesta, Mark J Hannon, Christopher J Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Adipsic diabetes insipidus (ADI) is a very rare disorder, characterized by hypotonic polyuria due to arginine vasopressin (AVP) deficiency and failure to generate the sensation of thirst in response to hypernatraemia. As the sensation of thirst is the key homeostatic mechanism that prevents hypernatraemic dehydration in patients with untreated diabetes insipidus (DI), adipsia leads to failure to respond to aquaresis with appropriate fluid intake. This predisposes to the development of significant hypernatraemia, which is the typical biochemical manifestation of adipsic DI...
January 10, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069028/robot-aided-developmental-assessment-of-wrist-proprioception-in-children
#11
Francesca Marini, Valentina Squeri, Pietro Morasso, Claudio Campus, Jürgen Konczak, Lorenzo Masia
BACKGROUND: Several neurodevelopmental disorders and brain injuries in children have been associated with proprioceptive dysfunction that will negatively affect their movement. Unfortunately, there is lack of reliable and objective clinical examination protocols and our current knowledge of how proprioception evolves in typically developing children is still sparse. METHODS: Using a robotic exoskeleton, we investigated proprioceptive acuity of the wrist in a group of 49 typically developing healthy children (8-15 years), and a group of 40 young adults...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068964/management-of-screwdriver-induced-penetrating-brain-injury-a-case-report
#12
Jia Shi, Yumin Mao, Jiachao Cao, Bo Dong
BACKGROUND: Penetrating brain injury (PBI) can be caused by several objects ranging from knives to chopsticks. However, an assault with long and electric screwdriver is a peculiar accident and is relatively rare. Because of its rarity, the treatments of such injury are complex and nonstandardized. CASE PRESENTATION: We presented a case of a 54-year-old female who was stabbed with a screwdriver in her head and accompanied by loss of consciousness for 1 h. Computer tomography (CT) demonstrated that the screwdriver passed through the right zygomatic bone to posterior cranial fossa...
January 10, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065873/hyperbaric-oxygen-effects-on-depression-like-behavior-and-neuroinflammation-in-traumatic-brain-injury-rats
#13
Sher-Wei Lim, Kuan-Chin Sung, Yow-Ling Shiue, Che-Chuan Wang, Chung-Ching Chio, Jinn-Rung Kuo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy causes attenuation of traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced depression-like behavior and its associated anti-neuroinflammatory effects after fluid percussion injury. METHODS: Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham operation + NBA (normobaric air: 21% O2 at 1 absolute atmosphere [ATA]), TBI + NBA, and TBI + HBO (100% O2 at 2.0 ATA). HBO was applied immediately for 60 min/day after TBI for 3 days...
January 5, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065636/neuroprotection-and-neurotoxicity-in-the-developing-brain-an-update-on-the-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-and-xenon
#14
Azeem Alam, Ka Chun Suen, Zac Hana, Robert D Sanders, Mervyn Maze, Daqing Ma
Growing and consistent preclinical evidence, combined with early clinical epidemiological observations, suggest potentially neurotoxic effects of commonly used anesthetic agents in the developing brain. This has prompted the FDA to issue a safety warning for all sedatives and anesthetics approved for use in children under three years of age. Recent studies have identified dexmedetomidine, the potent α2-adrenoceptor agonist, and xenon, the noble gas, as effective anesthetic adjuvants that are both less neurotoxic to the developing brain, and also possess neuroprotective properties in neonatal and other settings of acute ongoing neurologic injury...
January 5, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065217/early-enteral-combined-with-parenteral-nutrition-treatment-for-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-effects-on-immune-function-nutritional-status-and-outcomes-%C3%A2
#15
Fan Ming-Chao, Wang Qiao-Ling, Fang Wei, Jiang Yun-Xia, Li Lian-di, Sun Peng, Wang Zhi-Hong
Objective To compare the conjoint effect of enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (PN) with single EN or PN on immune function, nutritional status, complications and clinical outcomes of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (STBI). Methods A prospective randomized control trial was carried out from January 2009 to May 2012 in Neurological Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Patients of STBI who met the enrolment criteria (Glasgow Coma Scale score 6~8; Nutritional Risk Screening ≥3) were randomly divided into 3 groups and were admi- nistrated EN, PN or EN+PN treatments respectively...
November 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063881/early-stage-alterations-of-catecholamine-and-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-levels-in-posttraumatic-acute-diffuse-brain-swelling
#16
Weiqiang Chen, Jiangtao Sheng, Guoyi Peng, Jinhua Yang, Shousen Wang, Kangsheng Li
Posttraumatic acute diffuse brain swelling (PADBS) is characterized by serious brain bulk enlargement rapidly following trauma and is a major cause of elevated intracranial pressure and thus mortality. The pathogenesis of PADBS is not clearly understood, and the early stage alterations of catecholamine (CA) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels in PADBS also remain largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate CA and ACTH levels in the patients with PADBS in the early stage and discuss the possible roles CA and ACTH in the pathogenesis of PADBS...
January 4, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060209/catechol-o-methyltransferase-genotypes-and-parenting-influence-on-long-term-executive-functioning-after-moderate-to-severe-early-childhood-traumatic-brain-injury-an-exploratory-study
#17
Brad G Kurowski, Amery Treble-Barna, Huaiyu Zang, Nanhua Zhang, Lisa J Martin, Keith Owen Yeates, H Gerry Taylor, Shari L Wade
OBJECTIVES: To examine catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) rs4680 genotypes as moderators of the effects of parenting style on postinjury changes in parent behavior ratings of executive dysfunction following moderate to severe early childhood traumatic brain injury. SETTING: Research was conducted in an outpatient setting. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included children admitted to hospital with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (n = 55) or orthopedic injuries (n = 70) between ages 3 and 7 years...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060200/early-fever-as-a-predictor-of-paroxysmal-sympathetic-hyperactivity-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Holly E Hinson, Martin A Schreiber, Amber L Laurie, Ian J Baguley, Dennis Bourdette, Geoffrey S F Ling
OBJECTIVE: Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is characterized by episodic, hyperadrenergic alterations in vital signs after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We sought to apply an objective scale to the vital sign alterations of PSH in order to determine whether 1 element might be predictive of developing PSH. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/DESIGN: We conducted an observational study of consecutive TBI patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤12) and monitored the cohort for clinical evidence of PSH...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059709/microstructure-of-the-default-mode-network-in-preterm-infants
#19
J Cui, O Tymofiyeva, R Desikan, T Flynn, H Kim, D Gano, C P Hess, D M Ferriero, A J Barkovich, D Xu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diffusion and fMRI has been providing insights to brain development in addition to anatomic imaging. This study aimed to evaluate the microstructure of white matter tracts underlying the default mode network in premature infants by using resting-state functional MR imaging in conjunction with diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 44 preterm infants underwent structural T1-weighted imaging, resting-state fMRI, and DTI at 3T, including 21 infants with brain injuries and 23 infants with normal-appearing structural imaging as controls...
November 10, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059678/letter-to-the-editor-early-seizure-prophylaxis-in-pediatric-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-still-a-long-way-to-go
#20
Eduardo Mekitarian Filho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
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