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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324991/features-of-cerebral-oxygenation-detects-brain-injury-in-premature-infants
#1
John M O'Toole, Mmoloki Kenosi, Daragh Finn, Geraldine B Boylan, Eugene M Dempsey
Babies born prematurely can develop brain injury within days after birth. Early identification of high-risk infants enables appropriate clinical care to mitigate potential lifelong disabilities. Near infra-red spectroscopy is an established technology that can provide continuous measurements of cerebral oxygen saturation (rcSO2) over this critical period. We develop a feature set of the rcSO2 signal for the purpose of detecting brain injury. Our feature set contains amplitude, spectral, and fractal dimension features within 5 frequency bands...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323555/influence-of-dopamine-related-genes-on-neurobehavioral-recovery-after-traumatic-brain-injury-during-early-childhood
#2
Amery Treble-Barna, Shari L Wade, Lisa J Martin, Valentina Pilipenko, Keith Owen Yeates, H Gerry Taylor, Brad G Kurowski
The present study examined the association of dopamine-related genes with short- and long-term neurobehavioral recovery, as well as neurobehavioral recovery trajectories over time, in children who had sustained early childhood traumatic brain injuries (TBI) relative to children who had sustained orthopedic injuries (OI). Participants were recruited from a prospective, longitudinal study evaluating outcomes of children who sustained a TBI (n = 68) or OI (n = 72) between the ages of 3 and 7 years. Parents completed ratings of child executive function and behavior at the immediate post-acute period (0-3 months after injury); 6, 12, and 18 months after injury; and an average of 3...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319872/intrathecal-baclofen-bolus-reduces-exaggerated-extensor-coactivation-during-pre-swing-and-early-swing-of-gait-after-acquired-brain-injury
#3
John W Chow, Stuart A Yablon, Dobrivoje S Stokic
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the concurrent activation of rectus femoris (RF) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles (extensor coactivation) during gait in subjects with pronounced resting hypertonia after acquired brain injury (ABI) and examine changes after intrathecal baclofen (ITB) bolus injection. METHODS: Magnitude and duration of extensor coactivation during different phases of gait were assessed by recording gait kinematics and activity in bilateral RF and MG muscles in 18 controls and 18 ABI subjects before and at 2, 4, and 6h after a 50-μg ITB injection...
March 2, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317272/roles-of-ng2-glia-in-ischemic-stroke
#4
REVIEW
Fei-Er Song, Jia-Lv Huang, Si-Han Lin, Shuo Wang, Guo-Fen Ma, Xiao-Ping Tong
Recent studies have shown that a widely distributed class of glial cells, termed NG2-glia, engages in rapid signaling with surrounding neurons through direct synaptic contacts in the developing and mature central nervous system (CNS). This unique glial cell group has a typical function of proliferating and differentiating into oligodendrocytes during early development of the brain, which is crucial to axon myelin formation. Therefore, NG2-glia are also called oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). In vitro and in vivo studies reveal that NG2-glia expressing receptors and ion channels demonstrate functional significance for rapid signaling with neuronal synapses and modulation of neuronal activities in both physiological and pathological conditions...
March 19, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316166/-analgesic-effect-and-related-mechanism-of-peripheral-acupoints-electroacupuncture-on-superficial-partial-thickness-burn-rats
#5
X Sun, Z R Wei, Z Xiao
Objective: To observe the analgesic effect and related mechanism of peripheral acupoints electroacupuncture on superficial partial-thickness burn rats. Methods: Eighty SD rats were divided into sham injury group (SI), pure burn group (PB), electroacupuncture group (E), and sham electroacupuncture group (SE) according to the random number table, with 20 rats in each group. Right posterior leg of rats in group SI were sham injured, while superficial partial-thickness scald (hereinafter referred to as burn) model was reproduced on the right posterior leg of rats in the latter three groups...
March 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315940/a-multi-faceted-strategy-to-reduce-ventilation-associated-mortality-in-brain-injured-patients-the-bi-vili-project-a-nationwide-quality-improvement-project
#6
Karim Asehnoune, Ségolène Mrozek, Pierre François Perrigault, Philippe Seguin, Claire Dahyot-Fizelier, Sigismond Lasocki, Anne Pujol, Mathieu Martin, Russel Chabanne, Laurent Muller, Jean Luc Hanouz, Emmanuelle Hammad, Bertrand Rozec, Thomas Kerforne, Carole Ichai, Raphael Cinotti, Thomas Geeraerts, Djillali Elaroussi, Paolo Pelosi, Samir Jaber, Marie Dalichampt, Fanny Feuillet, Véronique Sebille, Antoine Roquilly
PURPOSE: We assessed outcomes in brain-injured patients after implementation of a multi-faceted approach to reduce respiratory complications in intensive care units. METHODS: Prospective nationwide before-after trial. Consecutive adults with acute brain injury requiring mechanical ventilation for ≥24 h in 20 French intensive care units (ICUs) were included. The management of invasive ventilation in brain-injured patients admitted between 1 July 2013 and 31 October 2013 (4 months) was monitored and analysed...
March 18, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315865/proteomic-analysis-of-mouse-cortex-postsynaptic-density-following-neonatal-brain-hypoxia-ischemia
#7
Guo Shao, Yongqiang Wang, Shenheng Guan, Alma L Burlingame, Fuxin Lu, Renatta Knox, Donna M Ferriero, Xiangning Jiang
Proteomics of the synapses and postsynaptic densities (PSDs) have provided a deep understanding of protein composition and signal networks in the adult brain, which underlie neuronal plasticity and neurodegenerative or psychiatric disorders. However, there is a paucity of knowledge about the architecture and organization of PSDs in the immature brain, and how it is modified by brain injury in an early developing stage. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis was performed on PSDs prepared from cortices of postnatal day 9 naïve mice or pups which had suffered hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury...
March 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315455/7-8-dihydroxyflavone-facilitates-the-action-exercise-to-restore-plasticity-and-functionality-implications-for-early-brain-trauma-recovery
#8
Gokul Krishna, Rahul Agrawal, Yumei Zhuang, Zhe Ying, Afshin Paydar, Neil G Harris, Luiz Fernando F Royes, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla
Metabolic dysfunction accompanying traumatic brain injury (TBI) severely impairs the ability of injured neurons to comply with functional demands. This limits the success of rehabilitative strategies by compromising brain plasticity and function, and highlights the need for early interventions to promote energy homeostasis. We sought to examine whether the TrkB agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) normalizes brain energy deficits and restablishes more normal patterns of functional connectivity, while enhancing the effects of exercise during post-TBI period...
March 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314984/substance-use-criminal-behaviour-and-psychiatric-symptoms-following-childhood-traumatic-brain-injury-findings-from-the-alspac-cohort
#9
Eleanor Kennedy, Jon Heron, Marcus Munafò
Recent research suggests a link between traumatic brain injury (TBI) in youth and later risk behaviour. We explored the association between mild TBI and psychiatric symptoms, substance use and criminal behaviour using data from a longitudinal birth cohort. Participants with mild TBI (n = 800), orthopaedic injuries (n = 2305) and no injuries (n = 8307) were identified from self and parent reports up to age 16 years. Self-report measures of substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) and criminal behaviours, and parent-reported psychiatric symptoms were collected at age 17 years...
March 17, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302372/experiences-during-newborn-screening-for-glutaric-aciduria-type-1-diagnosis-treatment-genotype-phenotype-and-outcomes
#10
Fang-Chih Tsai, Han-Jui Lee, An-Guor Wang, Shu-Chen Hsieh, Yung-Hsiu Lu, Ming-Che Lee, Ju-Shan Pai, Tzu-Hung Chu, Chia-Feng Yang, Ting-Rong Hsu, Chih-Jou Lai, Ming-Tzu Tsai, Ping-Hsun Ho, Min-Chieh Lin, Ling-Yee Cheng, Ya-Chin Chuang, Dau-Ming Niu
BACKGROUND: Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA-1) is an organic acidemia with potentially severe neurological sequelae. In Taiwan, newborn screening (NBS) for GA-1 began in 2001, but large-scale reporting is lacking. This study describes Taiwan's largest newborn screening population to date. METHODS: Between 2001 and 2015, 1,490,636 newborns were screened for GA-1. Confirmatory examinations included the carnitine loading test. Confirmed patients were treated with a low lysine diet, carnitine, and high-energy intake during illness...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302352/neuroinflammation-responses-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Vera Zhiyuan Zheng, George Kwok Chu Wong
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an important cause of stroke mortality and morbidity, especially in the young stroke population. Recent evidences indicate that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in both early brain injury and the delayed brain deterioration after SAH, including cellular and molecular components. Cerebral vasospasm (CV) can lead to death after SAH and independently correlated with poor outcome. Neuroinflammation is evidenced to contribute to the etiology of vasospasm. Besides, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) commonly occurs in the SAH patients, with the presence of non-infectious fever and systematic complications...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301956/the-effect-of-tracheostomy-performed-within-72%C3%A2-h-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Keita Shibahashi, Kazuhiro Sugiyama, Hidenori Houda, Yuichi Takasu, Yuichi Hamabe, Akio Morita
The optimal timing of tracheostomy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of tracheostomy performed within 72 h after admission. In this retrospective cohort study, the authors reviewed the data for a series of 120 consecutive patients who underwent tracheostomy after suffering TBI with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of ≥4. The exclusion criteria were as follows: age <18 years, severe chest injury with an AIS score of ≥4, and a requirement for intubation because of upper airway obstruction...
March 16, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299642/cerebromicrovascular-dysfunction-predicts-cognitive-decline-and-gait-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-whole-brain-irradiation-induced-accelerated-brain-senescence
#13
Zoltan Ungvari, Stefano Tarantini, Peter Hertelendy, M Noa Valcarcel-Ares, Gabor A Fülöp, Sreemathi Logan, Tamas Kiss, Eszter Farkas, Anna Csiszar, Andriy Yabluchanskiy
Whole brain irradiation (WBI) is a mainstream therapy for patients with both identifiable brain metastases and prophylaxis for microscopic malignancies. However, it also promotes accelerated senescence in healthy tissues and leads to progressive cognitive dysfunction in up to 50% of tumor patients surviving long term after treatment, due to γ-irradiation-induced cerebromicrovascular injury. Moment-to-moment adjustment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) via neuronal activity-dependent cerebromicrovascular dilation (functional hyperemia) has a critical role in maintenance of healthy cognitive function...
February 2017: Geroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299208/sensorimotor-cortical-neuroplasticity-in-the-early-stage-of-bell-s-palsy
#14
Wenwen Song, Minhui Dai, Lihua Xuan, Zhijian Cao, Sisi Zhou, Courtney Lang, Kun Lv, Maosheng Xu, Jian Kong
Neuroplasticity is a common phenomenon in the human brain following nerve injury. It is defined as the brain's ability to reorganize by creating new neural pathways in order to adapt to change. Here, we use task-related and resting-state fMRI to investigate neuroplasticity in the primary sensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) in patients with acute Bell's palsy (BP). We found that the period directly following the onset of BP (less than 14 days) is associated with significant decreases in regional homogeneity (ReHo), fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF), and intrinsic connectivity contrast (ICC) values in the contralateral S1/M1 and in ReHo and ICC values in the ipsilateral S1/M1, compared to healthy controls...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298379/forensic-investigation-into-a-death-post-traumatic-amnesia-in-a-worker-with-a-work-related-head-injury-sustained-in-a-coal-fired-thermal-power-plant-in-india
#15
Venkiteswaran Muralidhar
This is the first reported case of a work-related head injury in a coal-fired thermal power plant in India. This case highlights the trend of not reporting work injuries due to fears of reprisal from the management team that may include the termination of employment. Post-traumatic amnesia in a worker presenting with head trauma must be recognised by coworkers, so the cause of injury can be elicited early and the victim gets timely medical help. There are few published studies on work-related traumatic brain injury, and they provide no information on either anatomical localisation or signs and symptoms...
March 15, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298024/reduction-of-inflammation-after-administration-of-interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-following-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-results-of-the-subcutaneous-interleukin-1ra-in-sah-scil-sah-study
#16
James Galea, Kayode Ogungbenro, Sharon Hulme, Hiren Patel, Sylvia Scarth, Margaret Hoadley, Karen Illingworth, Catherine J McMahon, Nikolaos Tzerakis, Andrew T King, Andy Vail, Stephen J Hopkins, Nancy Rothwell, Pippa Tyrrell
OBJECTIVE Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating cerebrovascular event with long-term morbidity and mortality. Patients who survive the initial bleeding are likely to suffer further early brain injury arising from a plethora of pathological processes. These may result in a worsening of outcome or death in approximately 25% of patients and may contribute to longer-term cognitive dysfunction in survivors. Inflammation, mediated by the cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1), is an important contributor to cerebral ischemia after diverse forms of brain injury, including aSAH...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296528/the-impact-of-early-hyperglycaemia-on-children-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Yue-Qiang Fu, Shu-Ling Chong, Jan Hau Lee, Cheng-Jun Liu, Sheng Fu, Tsee Foong Loh, Kee Chong Ng, Feng Xu
OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycaemia is common amongst children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We aim to investigate the association between early hyperglycaemia and poor clinical outcomes in children with moderate to severe TBI. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in a tertiary paediatric hospital between May 2012 and October 2014 of all patients with TBI who were aged <16 years with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of ≤13. The primary outcome was death. Secondary outcomes were 14 ventilation-free, 14 paediatric intensive care unit (PICU)-free and 28 hospital-free days...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296029/cd38-promotes-angiotensin-ii-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy
#18
Xiao-Hui Guan, Xuan Hong, Ning Zhao, Xiao-Hong Liu, Yun-Fei Xiao, Ting-Tao Chen, Li-Bin Deng, Xiao-Lei Wang, Jian-Bin Wang, Guang-Ju Ji, Mingui Fu, Ke-Yu Deng, Hong-Bo Xin
Cardiac hypertrophy is an early hallmark during the clinical course of heart failure and regulated by various signalling pathways. Recently, we observed that mouse embryonic fibroblasts from CD38 knockout mice were significantly resistant to oxidative stress such as H2 O2 -induced injury and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury. In addition, we also found that CD38 knockout mice protected heart from ischaemia reperfusion injury through activating SIRT1/FOXOs-mediated antioxidative stress pathway. However, the role of CD38 in cardiac hypertrophy is not explored...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294336/adenosine-production-by-brain-cells
#19
Edwin K Jackson, Shawn E Kotermanski, Elizabeth V Menshikova, Raghvendra K Dubey, Travis C Jackson, Patrick M Kochanek
The early release of adenosine following traumatic brain injury (TBI) suppresses seizures and brain inflammation; thus, it is important to elucidate the cellular sources of adenosine following injurious stimuli triggered by TBI so that therapeutics for enhancing the early adenosine-release response can be optimized. Using mass spectrometry with (13) C-labelled standards, we investigated in cultured rat neurons, astrocytes, and microglia the effects of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD; models energy failure), H2 O2 (produces oxidative stress), and glutamate (induces excitotoxicity) on intracellular and extracellular levels of 5'-AMP (adenosine precursor), adenosine, and inosine and hypoxanthine (adenosine metabolites)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292310/microglial-derived-microparticles-mediate-neuroinflammation-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Alok Kumar, Bogdan A Stoica, David J Loane, Ming Yang, Gelareh Abulwerdi, Niaz Khan, Asit Kumar, Stephen R Thom, Alan I Faden
BACKGROUND: Local and systemic inflammatory responses are initiated early after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and may play a key role in the secondary injury processes resulting in neuronal loss and neurological deficits. However, the mechanisms responsible for the rapid expansion of neuroinflammation and its long-term progression have yet to be elucidated. Here, we investigate the role of microparticles (MP), a member of the extracellular vesicle family, in the exchange of pro-inflammatory molecules between brain immune cells, as well as their transfer to the systemic circulation, as key pathways of inflammation propagation following brain trauma...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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