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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822954/the-variability-of-hepatitis-b-envelope-is-associated-with-hbs-antigen-persistence-in-either-chronic-or-acute-hbv-genotype-a-infection
#1
Marine Eschlimann, Brice Malvé, Aurélie Velay, Honorine Fenaux, Sibel Berger, Jean-Pol Frippiat, Fabien Zoulim, Mouni Bensenane, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki, François Goehringer, Thierry May, Hélène Jeulin, Evelyne Schvoerer
BACKGROUND: More than 240 million people are chronically infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV) worldwide. Envelope proteins play a crucial role in viral cellular entry and immune recognition. The loss of HBs antigen (HBsAg) correlated with a good clinical prognosis is rarely achieved with or without treatment (3-16%). OBJECTIVES: HBV envelope variability was investigated according to HBsAg persistence. STUDY DESIGN: The cohort consisted of 15 HBV genotype A-infected patients divided into "resolvers", with HBsAg clearance, and "non-resolvers", with HBsAg persistence and in subgroups: acute (n=5, AHBV) or chronic infection (n=4, CHBV) and HBV/HIV coinfection (n=6, CHBV/HIV)...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822827/host-genes-regulate-transcription-of-sperm-introduced-hepatitis-b-virus-genes-in-embryo
#2
Ying Zhong, Dong-Ling Liu, Mohamed Morsi M Ahmed, Peng-Hao Li, Xiao-Ling Zhou, Qing-Dong Xie, Xiao-Qing Xu, Ting-Ting Han, Zhi-Wei Hou, Chen-Yao Zhong, Ji-Hua Huang, Fei Zeng, Tian-Hua Huang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can invade the male germline, and sperm-introduced HBV genes could be transcribed in embryo. This study was to explore whether viral gene transcription is regulated by host genes. Embryos were produced by in vitro fertilization of hamster oocytes with human sperm containing the HBV genome. Total RNA extracted from test and control embryos were subjected to SMART-PCR, SSH, microarray hybridization, sequencing and BLAST analysis. Twenty-nine sequences showing significant identity to five human gene families were identified, with CSH2, EIF4G2, PCBD2, PSG4 and TTN selected to represent target genes...
August 16, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822700/full-length-genome-of-a-novel-genotype-3-hepatitis-e-virus-strain-obtained-from-domestic-pigs-in-japan
#3
Putu Prathiwi Primadharsini, Masao Miyake, Satoshi Kunita, Tsutomu Nishizawa, Masaharu Takahashi, Shigeo Nagashima, Tanggis, Hiroshi Ohnishi, Tominari Kobayashi, Takashi Nishiyama, Suljid Jirintai, Hiroaki Okamoto
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute or chronic hepatitis in humans and can be transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Pigs are one of the main reservoirs for this infection. Sixty pigs, 4-5 months of age, on a swine herd in Japan had detectable anti-HEV IgG antibodies, and five (8.3%) of them had ongoing infection of genotype 3 HEV. Five HEV strains obtained from the viremic pigs shared 98.8-100% nucleotide identity, and one representative strain (swHE1606845), whose entire genomic sequence was determined in this study, differed by 14...
August 16, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822454/-effects-of-up-regulation-of-cathepsin-s-by-hbx-gene-on-hepg2-cell
#4
Z Zhang, P Guo, X Sun, Y Xiao, J Xu, Z S Fang, S Y Wu, H Huang
Objective: To explore the expression of cathepsin S (Cat S) and Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in HBeAg(-) and HBeAg(+ ) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and discuss the effects of Cat S and HBx interaction on HepG2 cell. Methods: Seventy HCC tissue specimens were collected from the surgical resection which were confirmed by pathology in the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University. The tissue samples were separated into two groups: HBeAg(-) group and HBeAg(+ ) group according to the serology of HBeAg...
August 8, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822268/neural-precursor-cells-derived-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-exhibit-reduced-susceptibility-to-infection-with-a-neurotropic-coronavirus
#5
Vrushali Mangale, Brett S Marro, Warren C Plaisted, Craig M Walsh, Thomas E Lane
The present study examines the susceptibility of mouse induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural precursor cells (iPSC-NPCs) to infection with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV). Similar to NPCs derived from striatum of day 1 postnatal GFP-transgenic mice (GFP-NPCs), iPSC-derived NPCs (iPSC-NPCs) are able to differentiate into terminal neural cell types and express MHC class I and II in response to IFN-γ treatment. However, in contrast to postnatally-derived NPCs, iPSC-NPCs express low levels of carcinoembryonic antigen-cell adhesion molecule 1a (CEACAM1a), the surface receptor for JHMV, and are less susceptible to infection and virus-induced cytopathic effects...
August 16, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820758/lack-of-association-between-interleukin-28b-polymorphism-and-vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-c
#6
Afrodite Psaros Einberg, Ann-Sofi Duberg, Olga Filipovich, Jessica Nyström, Anton Zhirkov, Erwin Daniel Brenndörfer, Lars Frelin, Elena Rukoiatkina, Yuriy Lobzin, Matti Sällberg, Björn Fischler, Anton Lutckii
OBJECTIVES: Single genetic nucleotide polymorphism (rs12979860) near the gene for Interleukin 28B (IL28B), is known to be of importance for frequency of spontaneous clearance and treatment outcome in interferon based therapies in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate if IL28B polymorphism in children and/or their mothers plays a role in vertical transmission of HCV (HCV-VT). METHODS: Plasma samples from 59 infected women, 76 uninfected children born to infected mothers, and 47 children with known vertically transmitted HCV infection, were analysed for IL28B polymorphism and classified by the IL28B genotype (C/C, C/T and T/T) as well as by viral genotype...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820730/knowledge-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-its-control-practices-among-dental-students-in-an-indian-city
#7
Vishal Khandelwal, Sushma Khandelwal, Neetu Gupta, Ullal Anand Nayak, Namrata Kulshreshtha, Sudhindra Baliga
Background Hepatitis B virus infection is a general cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepato-cellular carcinoma worldwide. It is highly contagious. It is an important reason for morbidity and mortality in the Indian population. Oral health professionals are at the highest risk. Vaccination for hepatitis B can prevent this deadly disease. Methods The present study was designed to evaluate the degree of awareness, knowledge of hepatitis B infection and status of hepatitis B vaccination among dental students...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820726/barriers-to-treatment-access-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-case-series
#8
Alexander J Millman, Boatemaa Ntiri-Reid, Risha Irvin, Maggie H Kaufmann, Andrew Aronsohn, Jeffrey S Duchin, John D Scott, Claudia Vellozzi
Restrictive policies on access to new, curative hepatitis C treatments represent a substantial barrier to treating patients infected with hepatitis C. This case series demonstrates challenges experienced by patients and practitioners in accessing these treatments and highlights several strategies for navigating the treatment preauthorization process.
July 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820725/understanding-hepatitis-c-virus-drug-resistance-clinical-implications-for-current-and-future-regimens
#9
David L Wyles, Anne F Luetkemeyer
Viral resistance to direct-acting antiviral drugs may impact their effectiveness during treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Most data on HCV drug resistance concern genotypes 1 and 3. The clinical impact of resistance to HCV nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitors and a practical approach to indications and methods for resistance testing are discussed.
July 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820721/risk-factors-associated-with-blood-exposure-for-sporadic-hepatitis-e-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#10
Hossain M S Sazzad, Stephen P Luby, Alain B Labrique, Saleem Kamili, Tonya M Hayden, Nourine A Kamili, Chong-Gee Teo, Emily S Gurley
Fecal contamination of drinking water is associated with large hepatitis E virus (HEV) outbreaks of genotypes 1 and 2 in endemic areas. Sporadic transmission of HEV genotypes 3 and 4 in high-income countries has been associated with exposure to blood and animal contact. The objective of the study was to identify the risk factors for hepatitis E and the genotype(s) causing sporadic hepatitis E in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We selected, from a diagnostic center in Dhaka between November 2008 and November 2009, cases presenting with jaundice and anti-HEV IgM antibodies and age-matched controls were defined as those with no history of jaundice and normal blood test results...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820612/the-potential-of-signal-peptide-peptidase-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-hepatitis-c
#11
Kohji Moriishi
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes liver steatosis, cirrhosis, metabolic syndrome with inflammation, and eventually leads to hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV core protein is a well-known capsid protein and pathogenic factor related to lipid accumulation, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and carcinogenesis. Cleavage of the C-terminal transmembrane region by signal peptide peptidase (SPP) is required for maturation of the core protein. Areas covered: Herein, this review details the general aspects of the structure, lifecycle, pathogenesis, and maturation of the HCV core protein, the function of SPP, and clinically available direct-acting antivirals (DAAs)...
August 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820498/interference-of-apoptosis-by-hepatitis-b-virus
#12
REVIEW
Shaoli Lin, Yan-Jin Zhang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes liver diseases that have been a consistent problem for human health, leading to more than one million deaths every year worldwide. A large proportion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases across the world are closely associated with chronic HBV infection. Apoptosis is a programmed cell death and is frequently altered in cancer development. HBV infection interferes with the apoptosis signaling to promote HCC progression and viral proliferation. The HBV-mediated alteration of apoptosis is achieved via interference with cellular signaling pathways and regulation of epigenetics...
August 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820468/resveratrol-in-hepatitis-c-patients-treated-with-pegylated-interferon-%C3%AE-2b-and-ribavirin-reduces-sleep-disturbance
#13
Manuela Pennisi, Gaetano Bertino, Caterina Gagliano, Michele Malaguarnera, Rita Bella, Antonio Maria Borzì, Roberto Madeddu, Filippo Drago, Giulia Malaguarnera
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus infection and interferon treatment have shown to be risk factors for sleep disorder health-related quality of life. AIM: To determine whether the effects of resveratrol on sleep disorders were associated with different tests in subjects with chronic hepatitis C treated with Peg-IFN-α and RBV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial, 30 subjects (Group A) with chronic hepatitis received Pegylated-Interferon-α2b (1...
August 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820374/use-of-blood-donor-screening-to-monitor-prevalence-of-hiv-and-hepatitis-b-and-c-viruses-south-africa
#14
Marion Vermeulen, Ronel Swanevelder, Dhuly Chowdhury, Charlotte Ingram, Ravi Reddy, Evan M Bloch, Brian S Custer, Edward L Murphy
Among 397,640 first-time blood donors screened in South Africa during 2012-2015, HIV prevalence was 1.13%, hepatitis B virus prevalence 0.66%, and hepatitis C virus prevalence 0.03%. Findings of note were a high HIV prevalence in Mpumalanga Province and the near absence of hepatitis C virus nationwide.
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820346/attitudes-and-potential-barriers-towards-hepatitis-c-treatment-in-patients-with-and-without-hiv-coinfection
#15
P R Allyn, S M O'Malley, J Ferguson, C H Tseng, K W Chew, D Bhattacharya
This study aimed to assess attitudes and potential barriers towards treatment in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, comparing those with and without HIV coinfection. A cross-sectional survey of 82 HCV-infected adults with and without HIV was conducted in greater Los Angeles between November 2013 and July 2015. Overall, there were 53 (64.6%) with HIV coinfection, 20 (25.0%) with self-reported cirrhosis, and 22 (26.8%) with a history of prior HCV treatment. Of all, 93.2% wanted HCV treatment, but 45...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820137/estimated-annual-numbers-of-foodborne-pathogen-associated-illnesses-hospitalizations-and-deaths-france-2008-2013
#16
Dieter Van Cauteren, Yann Le Strat, Cécile Sommen, Mathias Bruyand, Mathieu Tourdjman, Nathalie Jourdan Da Silva, Elisabeth Couturier, Nelly Fournet, Henriette de Valk, Jean-Claude Desenclos
Estimates of the annual numbers of foodborne illnesses and associated hospitalizations and deaths are needed to set priorities for surveillance, prevention, and control strategies. The objective of this study was to determine such estimates for 2008-2013 in France. We considered 15 major foodborne pathogens (10 bacteria, 3 viruses, and 2 parasites) and estimated that each year, the pathogens accounted for 1.28-2.23 million illnesses, 16,500-20,800 hospitalizations, and 250 deaths. Campylobacter spp., nontyphoidal Salmonella spp...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819777/qingkailing-injection-for-treatment-of-children-pneumonia-induced-by-respiratory-syncytial-virus-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
Shuai He, Wen-Shi Li, Ya-Jun Luo, Chen-Li Ye, Zhong-Yi Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Qingkailing Injection (, QKL) for treatment of children pneumonia caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). METHODS: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing QKL with ribavirin injection in the treatment of children pneumonia induced by RSV were searched in PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Chinese VIP database, CNKI and Wanfang databases from their inception to March 2014. Meta-analyses were performed using RevMan 5...
August 17, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818677/low-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-c-virus-serum-markers-in-a-cohort-of-pregnant-women-from-southern-italy
#18
Tindaro Lembo, Francesca Saffioti, Benito Chiofalo, Roberta Granese, Roberto Filomia, Roberta Grasso, Onofrio Triolo, Giovanni Raimondo
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission is still considered a major factor in the spread of hepatitis viruses. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in reproductive-age women are limited even in areas like the South of Italy where both viruses had been widespread. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HBV and HCV serum markers in a large cohort of pregnant women from Southern Italy. METHODS: Data concerning 7558 pregnant women consecutively admitted to an Obstetric Division of a Sicilian University Hospital over a six-year period (January 2010-December 2015) were retrospectively collected from clinical notes...
August 1, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818572/ribavirin-inhibits-zika-virus-zikv-replication-in-vitro-and-suppresses-viremia-in-zikv-infected-stat1-deficient-mice
#19
Naganori Kamiyama, Ryusuke Soma, Shinya Hidano, Kei Watanabe, Hiroshi Umekita, Chiaki Fukuda, Kaori Noguchi, Yoshiko Gendo, Takashi Ozaki, Akira Sonoda, Nozomi Sachi, Lucky Ronald Runtuwene, Yumako Miura, Etsuro Matsubara, Shigeru Tajima, Tomohiko Takasaki, Yuki Eshita, Takashi Kobayashi
Zika fever, a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), is an epidemic disease for which no effective therapy has been established. The recent outbreaks of ZIKV in Brazil and French Polynesia have been linked to a considerable increase in the incidence of fetal microcephaly and other diseases such as Guillain-Barre syndrome. Because there is currently no specific therapy or vaccine, the early exploitation of a method to prevent expansion of ZIKV is a high priority. To validate commonly used antiviral drugs, we evaluated the effect of ribavirin, a drug used to treat hepatitis C with interferon-β (IFN-β), on ZIKV replication...
August 14, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818546/glecaprevir-plus-pibrentasvir-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-2-4-5-or-6-infection-in-adults-with-compensated-cirrhosis-expedition-1-a-single-arm-open-label-multicentre-phase-3-trial
#20
Xavier Forns, Samuel S Lee, Joaquin Valdes, Sabela Lens, Reem Ghalib, Humberto Aguilar, Franco Felizarta, Tarek Hassanein, Holger Hinrichsen, Diego Rincon, Rosa Morillas, Stefan Zeuzem, Yves Horsmans, David R Nelson, Yao Yu, Preethi Krishnan, Chih-Wei Lin, Jens J Kort, Federico J Mensa
BACKGROUND: The once-daily, ribavirin-free, pangenotypic, direct-acting antiviral regimen, glecaprevir coformulated with pibrentasvir, has shown high rates of sustained virological response in phase 2 and 3 studies. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of 12 weeks of coformulated glecaprevir and pibrentasvir in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and compensated cirrhosis. METHODS: We did this single-arm, open-label, multicentre phase 3 study at 40 sites in Belgium, Canada, Germany, South Africa, Spain, and the USA...
August 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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