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NRTI HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788156/systemic-inflammation-markers-after-simplification-to-atazanavir-ritonavir-plus-lamivudine-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infected-patients-atlas-m-substudy
#1
Simone Belmonti, Francesca Lombardi, Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Alessandra Latini, Antonella Castagna, Alberto Borghetti, Gianmaria Baldin, Arturo Ciccullo, Roberto Cauda, Andrea De Luca, Simona Di Giambenedetto
Background: Biomarkers of systemic inflammation predict non-AIDS events and overall mortality in virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients. Objectives: To determine whether switching to a dual antiretroviral maintenance therapy was associated with modification of biomarkers of systemic inflammation as compared with continuation of successful standard triple therapy. Methods: In this substudy of the randomized ATLAS-M trial, we compared in virologically suppressed patients the impact at 1 year of simplification to a dual therapy with atazanavir/ritonavir plus lamivudine versus maintaining atazanavir/ritonavir plus two NRTI triple therapy on markers of systemic inflammation...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746295/the-transition-to-dolutegravir-and-other-new-antiretrovirals-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-what-are-the-issues
#2
Marco Vitoria, Andrew Hill, Nathan Ford, Meg Doherty, Polly Clayden, Francois Venter, David Ripin, Charles Flexner, Paul Domanico
: There are currently approximately 16 million people taking NNRTI-based first-line treatment in low- and middle-income countries. Most of these patients are using the combination of tenofovir (TDF), lamivudine (3TC) and efavirenz (EFV). The integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) has shown an improved safety profile compared to EFV in randomised studies. DTG also has a high barrier to development of drug resistance. New co-formulated tablets with TDF/3TC/DTG are being introduced into LMICs, for a median price of $75 per person-year...
May 9, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739342/high-prevalence-of-hiv-1-transmitted-drug-resistance-among-therapy-na%C3%A3-ve-burmese-entering-travelers-at-dehong-ports-in-yunnan-china
#3
Qicai Xuan, Shuwen Liang, Weihong Qin, Shuting Yang, A-Mei Zhang, Ting Zhao, Hui Su, Zhiqing Xia, Binghui Wang, Xueshan Xia
BACKGROUND: The overall success of Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antiretroviral therapy (ART) was heavily challenged upon the occurrence of drug resistance. Dehong Prefecture witnessed not only the first report of HIV-1 infection but also the experimental adoption of antiviral treatment in China. The transmission and epidemic of HIV-1 in Dehong is impacted by cross-border activities. The characteristics of HIV-1 drug resistance among therapy-naïve Burmese entering travelers in Yunnan and their speculated origin are still not clarified...
May 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737220/emerging-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-for-hiv-1-infection
#4
Mohammad A Rai, Sam Pannek, Carl J Fichtenbaum
There are 36.7 million people living with HIV with 20.9 million having access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) remain the 'backbone' of ART. However, the currently available nine NRTIs and five non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) have significant side effects and resistance profiles. Areas covered: We summarize the mechanisms of resistance and other limitations of the existing NRTIs/NNRTIs. GS-9131, MK-8591, Elsulfavirine and Doravirine are four new agents that are furthest along in development...
May 8, 2018: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732898/changes-from-2000-to-2009-in-the-prevalence-of-hiv-1-containing-drug-resistance-associated-mutations-from-antiretroviral-therapy-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-1-infected-patients-in-the-united-states
#5
Lisa L Ross, Denise Shortino, Mark S Shaefer
<b>Background:</b> Pre-existing HIV drug resistance can jeopardize first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) success. Changes in the prevalence of drug-resistance-associated mutations (DRMs) were analyzed from HIV-infected, ART-naïve, United States (USA) individuals seeking ART treatment from 2000-2009. <b>Methods: </b> HIV DRM data from 3,829 ART-naïve subjects were analyzed by year of sample collection using International Antiviral Society (IAS-USA) and World Health Organization (WHO) "surveillance" DRM definitions; minor IAS-USA-defined DRMs were excluded...
May 5, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697468/4-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2-deoxyadenosine-mk-8591-a-novel-hiv-1-reverse-transcriptase-translocation-inhibitor
#6
Martin Markowitz, Stefan G Sarafianos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: 4'-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) with a novel mechanism of action, unique structure, and amongst NRTIs, unparalleled anti-HIV-1 activity. We will summarize its structure and function, antiviral activity, resistance profile, and potential as an antiretroviral for use in the treatment and preexposure prophylaxis of HIV-1 infection. RECENT FINDINGS: EFdA is active against wild-type (EC50 as low as 50 pmol/l) and most highly NRTI-resistant viruses...
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689540/investigational-antiretroviral-drugs-what-is-coming-down-the-pipeline
#7
Roy M Gulick
Over the past 30 years, antiretroviral drug regimens for treating HIV infection have become more effective, safer, and more convenient. Despite 31 currently approved drugs, the pipeline of investigational HIV drugs remains full. Investigational antiretroviral drugs include the nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase translocation inhibitor (NRTTI) MK-8591, a long-acting compound that could be dosed once weekly. Investigational nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) include doravirine, which is active in vitro against NNRTI-resistant HIV and was potent and well-tolerated when used in combination with a dual-nucleoside analogue RTI (nRTI) backbone in treatment-naive individuals...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670213/quercetin-attenuates-azt-induced-neuroinflammation-in-the-cns
#8
Yi Yang, Xiaokang Liu, Ting Wu, Wenping Zhang, Jianhong Shu, Yulong He, Shao-Jun Tang
Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is very effective in suppressing HIV-1 replication in patients. However, continuous HAART is required to prevent viral rebound, which may have detrimental effects in various tissues, including persistent neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we show that quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxy flavones), a natural antioxidant used in Chinese traditional medicines, suppresses the neuroinflammation that is induced by chronic exposure to Zidovudine (azidothymidine, AZT), a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) that is commonly part of HAART regimens...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663899/hiv-1-drug-resistance-profiles-for-the-hiv-protease-and-reverse-transcriptase-gene-in-patients-receiving-combination-therapy-in-tehran-iran
#9
Leila Sadeghi, Mahin Lolaie, Reza Adl Tabatabai, Saeed Bayanolhagh, Leila Taj, Niloofar Eghbal Ahmadi, Negin Abedinzadeh, Farzaneh Vakili, Ghazaleh Ahmadi, Minoo Mohraz
BACKGROUND: Determination of drug resistant mutations has a crucial role in the management of HIV-1 infected patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to evaluate drug resistance profile of RT and PR gene, and find the correlation between drug resistance mutation and ART regimen to intensify physicians ' options for the most effective therapy and help to establish health related policies at the national level in Iran. METHOD: HIV-1 RNA of 34 samples was extracted from plasma and RT Nested- PCR was performed and the final products were sequenced...
April 15, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658302/molecular-epidemiology-of-hiv-1-virus-in-puerto-rico-novel-cases-of-hiv-1-subtype-c-d-and-crf-24bg
#10
Pablo Lopez, Omayra De Jesus, Yasuhiro Yamamura, Nayra Rodriguez, Andrea Arias, Raphael Sanchez, Yadira Rodriguez, Vivian Tamayo-Agrait, Wilfredo Cuevas, Vanessa Rivera-Amill
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) subtype B virus is the most prevalent subtype in Puerto Rico (PR), accounting for about 90% of infection in the island. Recently, other subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF) including F (12_BF), A (01_BF), and CRF-39 BF-like have been identified. The purpose of this study is to assess the distribution of drug resistance mutations and subtypes in PR. A total of 846 nucleotide sequences from the period comprising 2013 through 2017 were obtained from our "HIV Genotyping" test file...
April 15, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630136/body-fat-changes-in-hiv-patients-on-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-haart-a-longitudinal-dexa-study
#11
S Nuvoli, G Caruana, S Babudieri, P Solinas, G Pellicanò, B Piras, V Fiore, P Bagella, G M Calia, M Yue, A Spanu, G Madeddu
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantitatively evaluate body fat composition in a group of HIV patients treated with Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy (HAART) to ascertain both fat loss and fat distribution changes and to identify possible therapeutic and host related associated risk factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 180 patients with available total body DEXA scan were assigned to a) Group 1, with clinically evident body fat changes, (BFC) and b) Group 2, without BFC...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627709/rare-emergence-of-drug-resistance-in-hiv-1-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-receiving-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir-alafenamide-for-144-weeks
#12
Nicolas Margot, Stephanie Cox, Moupali Das, Scott McCallister, Michael D Miller, Christian Callebaut
BACKGROUND: The single tablet regimen (STR) composed of elvitegravir (E), cobicistat (C), emtricitabine (F), and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) (E/C/F/TAF) was compared to the STR composed of E, C, F, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) (E/C/F/TDF) in 2 phase 3 studies in 1733 HIV-1 infected treatment-naïve adults. Superior efficacy of E/C/F/TAF compared to E/C/F/TDF was demonstrated at Week 144 with 84% treatment success compared to 80%, respectively, along with significantly better outcomes of bone and renal safety...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617912/impact-of-antiretroviral-regimens-on-csf-viral-escape-in-a-prospective-multicohort-study-of-art-experienced-hiv-1-infected-adults-in-the-united-states
#13
Shibani S Mukerji, Vikas Misra, David R Lorenz, Hajime Uno, Susan Morgello, Donald Franklin, Ronald J Ellis, Scott Letendre, Dana Gabuzda
Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral escape occurs in 4-20% of HIV-infected adults, yet the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on CSF escape is unclear. Methods: Prospective study of 1063 participants with baseline plasma viral load (VL) ≤400 copies/ml between 2005-2016. Odds ratio for ART regimens (PI with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [PI+NRTI] versus other ART) and CSF escape was estimated using mixed-effects models. Drug resistance mutation frequencies were calculated...
April 3, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595649/next-generation-sequencing-provides-an-added-value-in-determining-drug-resistance-and-viral-tropism-in-cameroonian-hiv-1-vertically-infected-children
#14
Joseph Fokam, Maria C Bellocchi, Daniele Armenia, Aubin J Nanfack, Luca Carioti, Fabio Continenza, Desire Takou, Edith S Temgoua, Charlotte Tangimpundu, Judith N Torimiro, Paul N Koki, Charles N Fokunang, Giulia Cappelli, Alexis Ndjolo, Vittorio Colizzi, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Carlo-Federico Perno, Maria M Santoro
With limited and low-genetic barrier drugs used for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, vertically transmitted HIV-1 drug-resistance (HIVDR) is concerning and might prompt optimal pediatric strategies.The aim of this study was to ascertain HIVDR and viral-tropism in majority and minority populations among Cameroonian vertically infected children.A comparative analysis among 18 HIV-infected children (7 from PMTCT-exposed mothers and 11 from mothers without PMTCT-exposure) was performed...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592840/doravirine-versus-ritonavir-boosted-darunavir-in-antiretroviral-naive-adults-with-hiv-1-drive-forward-48-week-results-of-a-randomised-double-blind-phase-3-non-inferiority-trial
#15
Jean-Michel Molina, Kathleen Squires, Paul E Sax, Pedro Cahn, Johan Lombaard, Edwin DeJesus, Ming-Tain Lai, Xia Xu, Anthony Rodgers, Lisa Lupinacci, Sushma Kumar, Peter Sklar, Bach-Yen Nguyen, George J Hanna, Carey Hwang
BACKGROUND: Doravirine is a novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) with a pharmacokinetic profile supporting once-daily dosing, and potent in-vitro activity against the most common NNRTI-resistant HIV-1 variants. We compared doravirine with ritonavir-boosted darunavir, when both were given with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), in adults with previously untreated HIV-1 infection. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, double-blind, multicentre, non-inferiority trial, adults with HIV-1 infection were screened and enrolled at 125 clinical centres in 15 countries...
March 23, 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584910/week-96-efficacy-of-lopinavir-ritonavir-monotherapy-in-virologically-suppressed-patients-with-hiv-a-randomized-non-inferiority-trial-anrs-140-dream
#16
Jean-Luc Meynard, Laetitia Moinot, Roland Landman, Laurence Morand-Joubert, Amel Besseghir, Sami Kolta, Bruno Spire, Eve Todesco, Olivier Bouchaud, Catherine Fagard, Geneviève Chene, Pierre-Marie Girard
Background: Sparing of antiretroviral drug classes could reduce the toxicity and cost of maintenance treatment for HIV infection. Objectives: To evaluate the non-inferiority of efficacy and the safety of lopinavir/ritonavir (r) monotherapy versus a single-tablet regimen of efavirenz, emtricitabine and tenofovir (EFV/FTC/TDF) over 2 years. Methods: Adults on stable ART with plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load <50 copies/mL for the past 12 months and no documented treatment failure were randomized to receive either lopinavir/r or EFV/FTC/TDF for 2 years...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575909/nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-with-reduced-predicted-activity-does-not-impair-second-line-therapy-with-lopinavir-ritonavir-or-darunavir-ritonavir
#17
Christian-Julian Villabona-Arenas, Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay, Avelin Fobang Aghokeng, Emilande Guichet, Coumba Toure-Kane, Guillaume Bado, Sinata Koulla-Shiro, Eric Delaporte, Laura Ciaffi, Martine Peeters
Second-line therapy randomized trials with Lopinavir/Ritonavir question the value of resistance testing to guide Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors selection. Here, we investigated the association between baseline drug resistance and treatment outcome after 104 weeks of second-line therapy with NRTIs and either Darunavir/Ritonavir or Lopinavir/Ritonavir in West-central Africa. We did an observational analysis of data from 387 individuals in the randomized, open-label 2LADY trial in Burkina Faso, Cameroon and Senegal...
March 25, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568194/analytical-method-development-and-validation-for-the-simultaneous-estimation-of-abacavir-and-lamivudine-by-reversed-phase-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-in-bulk-and-tablet-dosage-forms
#18
Sufiyan Ahmad Raees Ahmad, Lalit Patil, Mohammed Rageeb Mohammed Usman, Mohammad Imran, Rashid Akhtar
Objective: A simple rapid, accurate, precise, and reproducible validated reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of Abacavir (ABAC) and Lamivudine (LAMI) in bulk and tablet dosage forms. Methods: The quantification was carried out using Symmetry Premsil C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column run in isocratic way using mobile phase comprising methanol: water (0.05% orthophosphoric acid with pH 3) 83:17 v/v and a detection wavelength of 245 nm and injection volume of 20 μl, with a flow rate of 1 ml/min...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509590/time-to-first-line-art-failure-and-time-to-second-line-art-switch-in-the-iedea-pediatric-cohort
#19
Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Irene Marete, Samuel Ayaya, Annette H Sohn, Lam Van Nguyen, Shanshan Li, Valériane Leroy, Beverly S Musick, Jamie E Newman, Andrew Edmonds, Mary-Ann Davies, François T Eboua, Marie-Thérèse Obama, Marcel Yotebieng, Shobna Sawry, Lynne M Mofenson, Constantin T Yiannoutsos
BACKGROUND: Globally, 49% of the estimated 1.8 million children living with HIV are accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART). There are limited data concerning long-term durability of first-line ART regimens and time to transition to second-line. METHODS: Children initiating their first ART regimen between 2 and 14 years of age and enrolled in one of 208 sites in 30 Asia-Pacific and African countries participating in the Pediatric International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS consortium were included in this analysis...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462208/quantifying-the-fitness-cost-of-hiv-1-drug-resistance-mutations-through-phylodynamics
#20
Denise Kühnert, Roger Kouyos, George Shirreff, Jūlija Pečerska, Alexandra U Scherrer, Jürg Böni, Sabine Yerly, Thomas Klimkait, Vincent Aubert, Huldrych F Günthard, Tanja Stadler, Sebastian Bonhoeffer
Drug resistant HIV is a major threat to the long-term efficacy of antiretroviral treatment. Around 10% of ART-naïve patients in Europe are infected with drug-resistant HIV type 1. Hence it is important to understand the dynamics of transmitted drug resistance evolution. Thanks to routinely performed drug resistance tests, HIV sequence data is increasingly available and can be used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship among viral lineages. In this study we employ a phylodynamic approach to quantify the fitness costs of major resistance mutations in the Swiss HIV cohort...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
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