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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140932/characteristics-of-treatment-experienced-hiv-infected-african-children-and-adolescents-initiating-darunavir-and-or-etravirine-based-antiretroviral-treatment
#1
Bethany Corrigan, Irene Mukui, Lloyd Mulenga, Nobuhle Mthethwa, Mosilinyane Letsie, Stephanie Bruno, Natella Rakhmanina
BACKGROUND: Data are limited on the selection and sequencing of second and third-line pediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to evaluate characteristics of African pediatric patients initiated on darunavir (DRV) and/or etravirine (ETR) through a specific drug donation program. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of baseline immunologic, virologic and demographic characteristics of children and adolescents initiating DRV- and/or ETR-based ART...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136743/-drug-resistance-mutations-and-its-associated-factors-among-579-hiv-aids-patients-experiencing-failure-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-jiangsu-province-china
#2
P P Xiao, J Lu, H Y Hu, X Q Xu, P Ding, G F Fu, X P Huan, Y Zhou, H T Yang
Objective: To understand the incidence and related factors of HIV-1 drug resistance among HIV/AIDS patients experiencing treatment failure in Jiangsu province, China. Methods: The HIV/AIDS integrated prevention and control data information management system of China were used to collect the basic data of patients, blood specimens were collected from patients who had antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure with ≥12 months and older than 18 years in 2016 in Jiangsu, excluding cases with missing information, 713 cases were enrolled in this study...
November 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136032/virological-response-and-resistance-among-hiv-infected-children-receiving-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy-without-virological-monitoring-in-uganda-and-zimbabwe-observational-analyses-within-the-randomised-arrow-trial
#3
Alexander J Szubert, Andrew J Prendergast, Moira J Spyer, Victor Musiime, Philippa Musoke, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Patricia Nahirya-Ntege, Margaret J Thomason, Emmanuel Ndashimye, Immaculate Nkanya, Oscar Senfuma, Boniface Mudenge, Nigel Klein, Diana M Gibb, A Sarah Walker
BACKGROUND: Although WHO recommends viral load (VL) monitoring for those on antiretroviral therapy (ART), availability in low-income countries remains limited. We investigated long-term VL and resistance in HIV-infected children managed without real-time VL monitoring. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the ARROW factorial trial, 1,206 children initiating ART in Uganda and Zimbabwe between 15 March 2007 and 18 November 2008, aged a median 6 years old, with median CD4% of 12%, were randomised to monitoring with or without 12-weekly CD4 counts and to receive 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (2NRTI, mainly abacavir+lamivudine) with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or 3 NRTIs as long-term ART...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128646/hiv-drug-resistance-following-a-decade-of-free-antiretroviral-therapy-program-in-india-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Santosh Karade, Devidas N Chaturbhuj, Sourav Sen, Rajneesh K Joshi, Smita S Kulkarni, Subramanian Shankar, Raman R Gangakhedkar
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to assess the burden of HIV drug resistance mutations (DRM) in Indian adults exposed to first-line ART as per national guidelines. METHODS: We performed advanced search for the published literature on HIV drug resistance in India in PubMed and Scopus. From each publication data pertaining to age, sex, CD4 count and viral load, prevalence of NRTI/NNRTI drug resistance mutations (DRM) was extracted. Year-wise Indian HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences were retrieved from Los Alamos HIV database and mutation analyses were performed...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117130/characterization-of-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-associated-mutations-in-the-rnase-h-region-of-hiv-1-subtype-c-infected-individuals
#5
Sinaye Ngcapu, Kristof Theys, Pieter Libin, Vincent C Marconi, Henry Sunpath, Thumbi Ndung'u, Michelle L Gordon
The South African national treatment programme includes nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in both first and second line highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens. Mutations in the RNase H domain have been associated with resistance to NRTIs but primarily in HIV-1 subtype B studies. Here, we investigated the prevalence and association of RNase H mutations with NRTI resistance in sequences from HIV-1 subtype C infected individuals. RNase H sequences from 112 NRTI treated but virologically failing individuals and 28 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive individuals were generated and analysed...
November 8, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108797/lopinavir-plus-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-lopinavir-plus-raltegravir-or-lopinavir-monotherapy-for-second-line-treatment-of-hiv-earnest-144-week-follow-up-results-from-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
James G Hakim, Jennifer Thompson, Cissy Kityo, Anne Hoppe, Andrew Kambugu, Joep J van Oosterhout, Abbas Lugemwa, Abraham Siika, Raymond Mwebaze, Aggrey Mweemba, George Abongomera, Margaret J Thomason, Philippa Easterbrook, Peter Mugyenyi, A Sarah Walker, Nicholas I Paton
BACKGROUND: Millions of HIV-infected people worldwide receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) in programmes using WHO-recommended standardised regimens. Recent WHO guidelines recommend a boosted protease inhibitor plus raltegravir as an alternative second-line combination. We assessed whether this treatment option offers any advantage over the standard protease inhibitor plus two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) second-line combination after 144 weeks of follow-up in typical programme settings...
November 3, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095935/beyond-the-polymerase-%C3%AE-theory-production-of-ros-as-a-mode-of-nrti-induced-mitochondrial-toxicity
#7
Reuben L Smith, Josephine M E Tan, Martijs J Jonker, Aldo Jongejan, Thomas Buissink, Steve Veldhuijzen, Antoine H C van Kampen, Stanley Brul, Hans van der Spek
Use of some HIV-1 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) is associated with severe adverse events. However, the exact mechanisms behind their toxicity has not been fully understood. Mitochondrial dysfunction after chronic exposure to specific NRTIs has predominantly been assigned to mitochondrial polymerase-γ inhibition by NRTIs. However, an increasing amount of data suggests that this is not the sole mechanism. Many NRTI induced adverse events have been linked to the incurrence of oxidative stress, although the causality of events leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and their role in toxicity is unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081666/high-rate-of-hiv-1-drug-resistance-in-treatment-failure-patients-in-taiwan-2009-2014
#8
Hung-Chin Tsai, I-Tzu Chen, Kuan-Sheng Wu, Yu-Ting Tseng, Cheng-Len Sy, Jui-Kuang Chen, Susan Shin-Jung Lee, Yao-Shen Chen
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and protease inhibitors (PIs) has been associated with loss of viral suppression measured by a rise in HIV-1 RNA levels, a decline in CD4 cell counts, persistence on a failing treatment regimen, and lack of adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to monitor the prevalence and risk factors associated with drug resistance in Taiwan after failure of first-line therapy...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077926/no-impact-of-hiv-1-protease-minority-resistant-variants-on-the-virological-response-to-a-first-line-pi-based-regimen-containing-darunavir-or-atazanavir
#9
Marine Perrier, Benoit Visseaux, Roland Landman, Véronique Joly, Eve Todesco, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Vincent Calvez, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Diane Descamps, Charlotte Charpentier
Objectives: To evaluate, in a clinical cohort of HIV-1-infected patients, the prevalence of PI minority resistant variants (MRV) at ART baseline and their impact on the virological response to a first-line PI-based regimen. Patients and methods: In an observational single-centre cohort, we assessed all ART-naive patients initiating a first-line regimen including two NRTI and one boosted PI, darunavir/ritonavir or atazanavir/ritonavir, between January 2012 and March 2015...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074854/gag-p2-nc-and-pol-genetic-diversity-polymorphism-and-drug-resistance-mutations-in-hiv-1-crf02_ag-and-non-crf02_ag-infected-patients-in-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon
#10
Georges Teto, Claude T Tagny, Dora Mbanya, Julius Y Fonsah, Joseph Fokam, Emilienne Nchindap, Léopoldine Kenmogne, Alfred K Njamnshi, Georgette D Kanmogne
In HIV-1 subtype-B, specific mutations in Gag cleavage sites (CS) are associated with treatment failure, with limited knowledge among non-B subtypes. We analyzed non-B HIV-1 gag and pol (protease/reverse-transcriptase) sequences from Cameroonians for drug resistance mutations (DRMs) in the gag P2/NC CS, and pol major DRMs. Phylogeny of the 141 sequences revealed a high genetic diversity (12 subtypes): 67.37% CRF02_AG versus 32.6% non-CRF02_AG. Overall, 7.3% transmitted and 34.3% acquired DRMs were found, including M184V, thymidine analogue mutations (T215F, D67N, K70R, K219Q), NNRTIs (L100I, Y181C, K103N, V108I, Y188L), and PIs (V82L)...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068286/dynamic-hiv-1-genetic-recombination-and-genotypic-drug-resistance-among-treatment-experienced-adults-in-northern-ghana
#11
Nicholas Israel Nii-Trebi, James Ashun Mensah Brandful, Shiro Ibe, Wataru Sugiura, Jacob Samson Barnor, Patrick Owiredu Bampoh, Shoji Yamaoka, Tetsuro Matano, Kazuhisa Yoshimura, Koichi Ishikawa, William Kwabena Ampofo
PURPOSE: There have been hardly any reports on the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug-resistance profile from northern Ghana since antiretroviral therapy (ART) was introduced over a decade ago. This study investigated prevailing HIV-1 subtypes and examined the occurrence of drug resistance in ART-experienced patients in Tamale, the capital of the Northern Region of Ghana. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was carried out on HIV-infected adult patients receiving first-line ART...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049402/upward-trends-of-acquired-drug-resistances-in-ethiopian-hiv-1c-isolates-a-decade-longitudinal-study
#12
Andargachew Mulu, Melanie Maier, Uwe Gerd Liebert
BACKGROUND: The emergence, accumulation and spread of HIV-1 drug resistance strains in Africa could compromise the effectiveness of HIV treatment programs. This study was aimed at determining the incidence of virological failure and acquired drug resistance mutations overtime and identifying the most common mutational pathways of resistance in a well characterized HIV-1C infected Ethiopian cohort. METHODS: A total of 320 patients (220 ART naïve and 100 on first lines ART) were included and followed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021409/hiv-1-viral-load-and-resistance-in-genital-secretions-in-patients-taking-protease-inhibitor-based-second-line-therapy-in-africa
#13
Anne Hoppe, Marina Giuliano, Abbas Lugemwa, Jennifer A Thompson, Marco Floridia, Ann S Walker, Ismail Senoga, Mary C Abwola, Maria F Pirillo, Cissy M Kityo, Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Nicholas I Paton
BACKGROUND: HIV is transmitted primarily through sexual intercourse, and the objective of this study was therefore to assess whether there is occult viral replication and resistance in genital secretions in patients on protease inhibitor (PI)-based second-line therapy. METHODS: HIV-infected adults taking ritonavir-boosted lopinavir with either two NRTIs, raltegravir, or as monotherapy for 96 weeks were enrolled at seven clinical sites in Uganda. Viral load (VL) was measured in cervico-vaginal secretions or semen and in a corresponding plasma sample...
October 11, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991889/trends-in-drug-resistance-prevalence-hiv-1-variants-and-clinical-status-in-hiv-1-infected-pediatric-population-in-madrid-1993-2015-analysis
#14
Patricia Rojas Sánchez, Sara Domínguez, Santiago Jiménez De Ory, Luis Prieto, Pablo Rojo, Pepa Mellado, Marisa Navarro, Rafael Delgado, José Tomas Ramos, África Holguín
BACKGROUND: The expanded use of long-term antiretroviral treatments in infected children may exacerbate the problem of drug resistance mutations (HIVDR) selection, which can compromise treatment efficiency. OBJECTIVE: We describe the temporal trends of HIVDR and the HIV-1 variants during 23 years (1993-March 2016) in the Madrid cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents. METHODS: We selected patients with at least one available HIV-1 pol sequence/genotypic resistance profile, establishing different groups according to the sampling year of first resistance data...
October 6, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991888/commonly-prescribed-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-and-incidence-of-aids-defining-neurological-conditions
#15
Ellen C Caniglia, Andrew Phillips, Kholoud Porter, Caroline A Sabin, Alan Winston, Roger Logan, John Gill, Marie-Anne Vandenhende, Diana Barger, Sara Lodi, Santiago Moreno, José Ramón Arribas, Antonio Pacheco, Sandra W Cardoso, George Chrysos, Charalabos Gogos, Sophie Abgrall, Dominique Costagliola, Laurence Meyer, Remonie Seng, Ard van Sighem, Peter Reiss, Roberto Muga, Santiago Pérez Hoyos, Dominique Braun, Christoph Hauser, Pilar Barrufet, Maria Leyes, Janet Tate, Amy Justice, Miguel A Hernán
BACKGROUND: The differential effects of commonly prescribed combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens on AIDS-defining neurological conditions (neuroAIDS) remain unknown. SETTING: Prospective cohort studies of HIV-positive individuals from Europe and the Americas included in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration. METHODS: Individuals who initiated a first-line cART regimen in 2004 or later containing a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone and either atazanavir, lopinavir, darunavir, or efavirenz were followed from cART initiation until death, lost to follow-up, pregnancy, the cohort-specific administrative end of follow-up, or the event of interest, whichever occurred earliest...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986714/comparison-of-antiretroviral-drug-resistance-among-treatment-naive-and-treated-hiv-infected-individuals-in-shiraz-iran
#16
Mohammad Ali Davarpanah, Nasrin Motazedian, Hassan Joulaei, Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi, Hossein Faramarzi, Ehsan Aghah
The use of anti-retroviral therapy has been effective in controlling the spread of HIV-1, and has prolonged life expectancy, but this success can be affected by the emergence of drug resistance. The main goal of this study was to investigate drug resistance in the reverse transcriptase (RT), and protease (PR) genes among HIV-1 infected individuals. We systematically selected 59 HIV-1 infected individuals from Shiraz Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center (29 treatment- naïve and 30 treated). In this study intravenous drug users older than 18 were included in this study...
October 6, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961680/high-prevalence-of-hiv-drug-resistance-among-newly-diagnosed-infants-aged-18-months-results-from-a-nationwide-surveillance-in-nigeria
#17
Seth Chekata Inzaule, Samuels Jay Osi, Gbenga Akinbiyi, Asadu Emeka, Hadiza Khamofu, Rex Mpazanje, Oluwafunke Ilesanmi, Nicaise Ndembi, Solomon Odafe, Kim C E Sigaloff, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Sulaimon Akanmu
BACKGROUND: The world-health organization recommends protease-inhibitor-based first-line regimen in infants due to risk of drug resistance from failed prophylaxis used in prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). However cost and logistics impede implementation in sub-Saharan Africa and >75% of children still receive non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen (NNRTI) used in PMTCT. METHODS: We assessed the national pre-treatment drug resistance prevalence of HIV-infected children <18 months in Nigeria, using the WHO recommended HIV drug resistance surveillance protocol...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953964/high-prevalence-of-hiv-1-transmitted-drug-resistance-mutations-from-proviral-dna-massively-parallel-sequencing-data-of-therapy-na%C3%A3-ve-chronically-infected-brazilian-blood-donors
#18
Rodrigo Pessôa, Sabri S Sanabani
BACKGROUND: An improved understanding of the prevalence of low-abundance transmitted drug-resistance mutations (TDRM) in therapy-naïve HIV-1-infected patients may help determine which patients are the best candidates for therapy. In this study, we aimed to obtain a comprehensive picture of the evolving HIV-1 TDRM across the massive parallel sequences (MPS) of the viral entire proviral genome in a well-characterized Brazilian blood donor naïve to antiretroviral drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MPS data from 128 samples used in the analysis were sourced from Brazilian blood donors and were previously classified by less-sensitive (LS) or "detuned" enzyme immunoassay as non-recent or longstanding HIV-1 infections...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937991/sociodemographic-correlates-of-hiv-drug-resistance-and-access-to-drug-resistance-testing-in-british-columbia-canada
#19
Genevieve Rocheleau, Conrado Franco-Villalobos, Natalia Oliveira, Zabrina L Brumme, Melanie Rusch, Jeannie Shoveller, Chanson J Brumme, P Richard Harrigan
Sociodemographic correlates of engagement in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care are well studied, however the association with accessing drug resistance testing (DRT) and the development of drug resistance have not been characterized. Between 1996-2014, 11 801 HIV patients accessing therapy in British Columbia were observed longitudinally. A subset of 9456 patients had testable viral load; of these 8398 were linked to census data. Sociodemographic (census tract-level) and clinical (individual-level) correlates of DRT were assessed using multivariable General Estimating Equation logistic regression adjusted odds ratios (aOR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870148/accumulation-of-hiv-1-drug-resistance-in-patients-on-a-standard-thymidine-analogue-based-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-after-virological-failure-implications-for-the-activity-of-next-line-regimens-from-a-longitudinal-study-in-mozambique
#20
Andrea De Luca, Zita Jorge Sidumo, Giacomo Zanelli, Noorjehan Abdul Magid, Richard Luhanga, Davide Brambilla, Giuseppe Liotta, Sandro Mancinelli, Maria Cristina Marazzi, Leonardo Palombi, Susanna Ceffa
BACKGROUND: We describe the accumulation of HIV-1 drug resistance and its effect on the activity of next-line components in patients with virological failure (HIV-1 RNA >1000 copies/mL) after 1 year (t1) of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) not switching to second-line drugs for one additional year (t2) in low-middle income countries (LMIC). METHODS AND RESULTS: We selected 48 patients from the DREAM cohort (Maputo, Mozambique); their median pre-ART CD4+ cell count was 165 cells/μl...
September 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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