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Thahira Jamal Mohamed, Sirinya Teeraananchai, Stephen J Kerr, Wanatpreeya Phongsamart, Nik Khairulddin Nik Yusoff, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Penh Sun Ly, Lam Van Nguyen, Tavitiya Sudjaritruk, Pagakrong Lumbiganon, Viet Chau Do, Nia Kurniati, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Dewi Kumara Wati, Moy Siew Fong, Revathy Nallusamy, Azar Kariminia, Annette Sohn
<b>Background.</b> We sought to assess the impact of routine HIV viral load (VL) monitoring on the incidence of switching from a first- to a second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen, and to describe factors associated with switch. <b>Methods.</b> Data from a regional cohort of 16 clinical programs in 6 Asian countries were analyzed. Second-line switch was defined as a change from a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) to a protease inhibitor (PI) or vice versa, and >1 of the following: 1) reported treatment failure by local criteria, 2) switch of >1 additional drug, or 3) a preceding HIV viral load (VL) ≥1,000 copies/mL...
October 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Michael Clayton May, Paul Nielsen Andrews, Shadi Daher, Uday Nitin Reebye
BACKGROUND: Oral health care of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a growing area of concern, taking into consideration the increased life expectancy of patients resulting from antiretroviral therapy. There is insufficient literature regarding the impact of dental implants in AIDS patients. This study investigated the long-term clinical outcome of implant placement in patients diagnosed with AIDS. METHODS: This monocentric study included AIDS patients with CD4 <200 cells/μL, age 18 years or older, and a minimum of one edentulous space requiring implant...
December 2016: Int J Implant Dent
Isabelle Poizot-Martin, Clotilde Allavena, Cyrille Delpierre, Claudine Duvivier, Véronique Obry-Roguet, Carla E Cano, Francine Guillouet de Salvador, David Rey, Pierre Dellamonica, Antoine Cheret, Lise Cuzin, Christine Katlama, André Cabié, Bruno Hoen
The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of first-line combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimen on the course of CD8 T-cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.A retrospective observational study conducted on the French DAT'AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected patients.We selected 605 patients initiating a first-line cART between 2002 and 2009, and which achieved a sustained undetectable HIV plasma viral load (pVL) for at least 12 months without cART modification. The evolution of CD8 T-cell counts according to cART regimen was assessed...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Santiago Avila-Ríos, Claudia García-Morales, Margarita Matías-Florentino, Daniela Tapia-Trejo, Bismarck F Hernández-Álvarez, Sumaya E Moreira-López, Carlos J Quant-Durán, Guillermo Porras-Cortés, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
BACKGROUND: Increasing HIV pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) levels have been observed in regions with increasing antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage. However, data is lacking for several low/middle-income countries. We present the first PDR survey in Nicaragua since ART introduction in the country in 2003. METHODS: HIV-infected, ART-naïve Nicaraguan individuals were enrolled at Roberto Calderón Hospital, the largest national HIV referral center, from 2011 to 2015...
2016: PloS One
Soumya K, Rangaswamy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Bilal Nizami, Dominique Sydow, Gerhard Wolber, Bahareh Honarparvar
Regardless of advances in anti-HIV therapy, HIV infection remains an immense challenge due to the rapid onset of mutation instigating drug resistance. Rilpivirine is a second generation di-aryl pyrimidine (DAPY) derivative, known to effectively inhibit wild-type (WT) as well as various mutant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). In this study, a cumulative 240 ns of molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of WT HIV-1 RT and its corresponding K103N mutated form, complexed with rilpivirine, were performed in solution...
September 9, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
F Raffi, S Esser, G Nunnari, I Pérez-Valero, L Waters
In an era when most individuals with treated HIV infection can expect to live into old age, clinicians should proactively review their patients' current and future treatment needs and challenges. Clinical guidelines acknowledge that, in the setting of virological suppression, treatment switch may yield benefits in terms of tolerability, regimen simplification, adherence, convenience and long-term health considerations, particularly in the context of ageing. In this paper, we review evidence from six key clinical studies on switching virologically suppressed patients to regimens based on integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), the antiretroviral class increasingly preferred as initial therapy in clinical guidelines...
October 2016: HIV Medicine
Huan Yan, Ming-Yu Ba, Xu-Hong Li, Jia-Mei Guo, Xu-Jie Qin, Li He, Zhong-Quan Zhang, Ying Guo, Hai-Yang Liu
Phytochemical investigation on the whole plant of Chloranthus japonicus (Chloranthaceae) led to the isolation and identification of three new lindenane-type sesquiterpenoid dimers, chlorajaponilides F-H (1-3), along with seven known ones (4-10). Their chemical structures were established by extensive spectral evidence. Compounds 1 and 2 are both dimeric sesquiterpenoids featuring a rare hydroperoxy group at C-5. All compounds were tested for their activities on wild type HIV-1 replication and compounds 1, 2, 5, and 9 were effective with EC50 values from 3...
October 2, 2016: Fitoterapia
Jun Yong Choi, Somnuek Sungkanuparph, Thanomsak Anekthananon, Paul Sax, Edwin DeJesus, Howard Edelstein, Mark Nelson, Jennifer DeMorin, Hui C Liu, Raji Swamy, Joonwoo Bahn, Sunjin Hwang, Sang Youn Yang, Christopher Ng, David Piontkowsky
The efficacy and safety of a single tablet regimen (STR) of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF) were analyzed in Phase 3 clinical trials in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve and ART-experienced Asian subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1. Studies GS-US-236-102 and GS-US-236-103 were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 144-week studies conducted in ART-naïve subjects, comparing E/C/F/TDF versus efavirenz (EFV)/F/TDF or ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV+RTV) plus emtricitabine/tenofovir DF (F/TDF), respectively...
September 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
Ming-Tain Lai, Vandna Munshi, Meiqing Lu, MeiZhen Feng, Renee Hrin-Solt, Philip M McKenna, Daria J Hazuda, Michael D Miller
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are a mainstay of therapy for human immunodeficiency type 1 virus (HIV-1) infections. However, their effectiveness can be hampered by the emergence of resistant mutations. To aid in designing effective NNRTIs against the resistant mutants, it is important to understand the resistance mechanism of the mutations. Here, we investigate the mechanism of the two most prevalent NNRTI-associated mutations with K103N or Y181C substitution. Virus and reverse transcriptase (RT) with K103N/Y188F, K103A, or K103E substitutions and with Y181F, Y188F, or Y181F/Y188F substitutions were employed to study the resistance mechanism of the K103N and Y181C mutants, respectively...
2016: Viruses
K Steegen, M Bronze, M A Papathanasopoulos, G van Zyl, D Goedhals, E Variava, W MacLeod, I Sanne, W S Stevens, S Carmona
BACKGROUND: Routine HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance testing for patients failing NNRTI-based regimens is not recommended in resource-limited settings. Therefore, surveys are required to monitor resistance profiles in patients failing ART. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst patients failing NNRTI-based regimens in the public sector throughout South Africa. Virological failure was defined as two consecutive HIV-1 viral load results >1000 RNA copies/mL...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Santiago Ávila-Ríos, Claudia García-Morales, Margarita Matías-Florentino, Karla A Romero-Mora, Daniela Tapia-Trejo, Verónica S Quiroz-Morales, Helena Reyes-Gopar, Hezhao Ji, Paul Sandstrom, Jesús Casillas-Rodríguez, Juan Sierra-Madero, Eddie A León-Juárez, Marisol Valenzuela-Lara, Carlos Magis-Rodríguez, Patricia Uribe-Zuñiga, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
BACKGROUND: WHO has developed a global HIV-drug resistance surveillance strategy, including assessment of pretreatment HIV-drug resistance. We aimed to do a nationally representative survey of pretreatment HIV-drug resistance in Mexico using WHO-recommended methods. METHODS: Among 161 Ministry of Health antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics in Mexico, the largest, including 90% of ART initiators within the Ministry of Health (66 in total), were eligible for the survey...
September 14, 2016: Lancet HIV
Emiko Urano, Kosuke Miyauchi, Yoko Kojima, Makiko Hamatake, Sherimay D Ablan, Satoshi Fudo, Eric O Freed, Tyuji Hoshino, Jun Komano
A novel HIV-1 inhibitor, 6-(tert-butyl)-4-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H,3H-1,3,5-triazin-2-one (compound 1), was identified from a compound library screened for the ability to inhibit HIV-1 replication. EC50 values of compound 1 were found to range from 107.9 to 145.4 nm against primary HIV-1 clinical isolates. In in vitro assays, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) activity was inhibited by compound 1 with an EC50 of 4.3 μm. An assay for resistance to compound 1 selected a variant of HIV-1 with a RT mutation (RT(L100I) ); this frequently identified mutation confers mild resistance to non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs)...
September 16, 2016: ChemMedChem
Santosh K Karade, Manisha V Ghate, Devidas N Chaturbhuj, Dileep B Kadam, Subramanian Shankar, Nitin Gaikwad, Shraddha Gurav, Rajneesh Joshi, Suvarna S Sane, Smita S Kulkarni, Swarali N Kurle, Ramesh S Paranjape, Bharat B Rewari, Raman R Gangakhedkar
The free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in India has scaled up to register second largest number of people living with HIV/AIDS across the globe. To assess the effectiveness of current first-line regimen we estimated virological suppression on completion of 1 year of ART. The study describes the correlates of virological failure (VF) and multinucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drug resistance mutations (DRMs).In this cross-sectional study conducted between June and August 2014, consecutive adults from 4 State sponsored ART clinics of western India were recruited for plasma viral load screening at 12 ± 2 months of ART initiation...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
A Judd, R Lodwick, A Noguera-Julian, D M Gibb, K Butler, D Costagliola, C Sabin, A van Sighem, B Ledergerber, C Torti, A Mocroft, D Podzamczer, M Dorrucci, S De Wit, N Obel, F Dabis, A Cozzi-Lepri, F García, N H Brockmeyer, J Warszawski, M I Gonzalez-Tome, C Mussini, G Touloumi, R Zangerle, J Ghosn, A Castagna, G Fätkenheuer, C Stephan, L Meyer, M A Campbell, G Chene, A Phillips
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the time to, and risk factors for, triple-class virological failure (TCVF) across age groups for children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection and older adolescents and adults with heterosexually acquired HIV infection. METHODS: We analysed individual patient data from cohorts in the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE). A total of 5972 participants starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 1998, aged < 20 years at the start of ART for those with perinatal infection and 15-29 years for those with heterosexual infection, with ART containing at least two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or a boosted protease inhibitor (bPI), were followed from ART initiation until the most recent viral load (VL) measurement...
September 14, 2016: HIV Medicine
Laura Comi, Franco Maggiolo
INTRODUCTION: Since the last revision of both European and American guidelines (EACS and DHHS), new data from clinical trials and cohort studies, as well as experience in clinical practice, have prompted significant changes to the list of recommended/preferred options for the treatment of HIV infected patients, highlighted the role of INSTI-based regimens. Dolutegravir (DTG) in combination with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) is one of these preferred regimens in multiple clinical scenarios, including treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients...
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Katia Falasca, Marcella Reale, Claudio Ucciferri, Marta Di Nicola, Giuseppe Di Martino, Chiara D'Angelo, Simona Coladonato, Jacopo Vecchiet
The HIV may trigger a process of neuronal loss and axonal degeneration throughout the brain, which is carried on by the immune system releasing of proinflammatory cytokines, so that chronic inflammation associated with dysregulated innate immune response, glial cell dysfunction, and adverse antiretroviral therapy (ART) effect play an important role causing milder HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders or asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment. All patients have been tested for neurocognitive functioning through a comprehensive, five-domain neuropsychological battery performed in the study...
October 12, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Celia Oldenbuettel, Eva Wolf, Ayla Ritter, Sebastian Noe, Silke Heldwein, Rita Pascucci, Carmen Wiese, Ariane Von Krosigk, Eva Jaegel-Guedes, Hans Jaeger, Annamaria Balogh, Christine Koegl, Christoph D Spinner
BACKGROUND: The potential toxicity of long-term antiretroviral treatment (ART) requires ongoing investigation of novel strategies for treatment of HIV-infected patients. Monotherapy with the integrase inhibitor (INSTI) dolutegravir (DTG) may offer a favorable safety profile. Additionally, DTG has a high barrier of resistance, crucial for successful maintenance of virologic control. However, published data is sparse. METHODS: Retrospective, single-center cohort study...
September 2, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Jane Achan, Abel Kakuru, Gloria Ikilezi, Florence Mwangwa, Albert Plenty, Edwin Charlebois, Sera Young, Diane Havlir, Moses Kamya, Theodore Ruel
BACKGROUND: Diminished growth is highly prevalent among HIV-infected children and might be improved by antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined growth recovery in a rural Ugandan cohort of HIV-infected children randomized to lopinavir/ritonavir or non-nucleoside-reverse-transcription-inhibitor-based ART. METHODS: HIV-infected children 2 months to 6 years of age were randomized to Lopinavir/ritonavir- or non-nucleoside-reverse-transcription-inhibitor-based ART. Changes in weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ), and weight-for-height (WHZ) Z-scores for 24 months were evaluated using generalized linear repeated-measures models...
August 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Michael S Saag, Andrew O Westfall, Stephen R Cole, W Christopher Mathews, Daniel R Drozd, Kenneth H Mayer, Greer A Burkholder, Mari Kitahata, Eric M Maiese
We examined factors associated with selection of initial antiretroviral regimen in the CNICS cohort. Patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) between July 2009 and Dec 2012 were classified as receiving an NNRTI, boosted-PI, or raltegravir-based regimen. Among 873 patients initiating ART, 488 regimens contained an NNRTI, 319 a boosted-PI, and 66 raltegravir. Patients with depression and women were less likely to receive an NNRTI, while those with underlying cardiovascular disease, liver disease, and those co-infected with hepatitis C were more likely to receive raltegravir...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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