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NNRTI HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922055/limited-hiv-1-reactivation-in-resting-cd4-t-cells-from-aviremic-patients-under-protease-inhibitors
#1
Amit Kumar, Wasim Abbas, Sophie Bouchat, Jean-Stéphane Gatot, Sébastien Pasquereau, Kabamba Kabeya, Nathan Clumeck, Stéphane De Wit, Carine Van Lint, Georges Herbein
A latent viral reservoir that resides in resting CD4(+) T cells represents a major barrier for eradication of HIV infection. We test here the impact of HIV protease inhibitor (PI) based combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) over nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based cART on HIV-1 reactivation and integration in resting CD4(+) T cells. This is a prospective cohort study of patients with chronic HIV-1 infection treated with conventional cART with an undetectable viremia. We performed a seven-year study of 47 patients with chronic HIV-infection treated with cART regimens and with undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA levels for at least 1 year...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914856/occult-hiv-1-drug-resistance-to-thymidine-analogues-following-failure-of-first-line-tenofovir-combined-with-a-cytosine-analogue-and-nevirapine-or-efavirenz-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-retrospective-multi-centre-cohort-study
#2
John Gregson, Pontiano Kaleebu, Vincent C Marconi, Cloete van Vuuren, Nicaise Ndembi, Raph L Hamers, Phyllis Kanki, Christopher J Hoffmann, Shahin Lockman, Deenan Pillay, Tulio de Oliveira, Nathan Clumeck, Gillian Hunt, Bernhard Kerschberger, Robert W Shafer, Chunfu Yang, Elliot Raizes, Rami Kantor, Ravindra K Gupta
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 drug resistance to older thymidine analogue nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drugs has been identified in sub-Saharan Africa in patients with virological failure of first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing the modern nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of thymidine analogue mutations (TAM) in patients with virological failure of first-line tenofovir-containing ART...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907009/moderate-levels-of-pre-treatment-hiv-1-antiretroviral-drug-resistance-detected-in-the-first-south-african-national-survey
#3
Kim Steegen, Sergio Carmona, Michelle Bronze, Maria A Papathanasopoulos, Gert van Zyl, Dominique Goedhals, William MacLeod, Ian Sanne, Wendy S Stevens
BACKGROUND: In order to assess the level of transmitted and/or pre-treatment antiretroviral drug resistance to HIV-1, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that regular surveys are conducted. This study's objective was to assess the frequency of HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance in patients initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the public sector throughout South Africa. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted using probability proportional to size sampling...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906006/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-tuberculosis
#4
REVIEW
Weerawat Manosuthi, Surasak Wiboonchutikul, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Tuberculosis (TB) has been the most common opportunistic infection and cause of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Clinical manifestations of TB vary and depend on the degree of immunodeficiency. Sputum microscopy and culture with drug-susceptibility testing are recommended as a standard method for diagnosing active TB. TB-related mortality in HIV-infected patients is high especially during the first few months of treatment. Integrated therapy of both HIV and TB is feasible and efficient to control the diseases and yield better survival...
May 12, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905987/factors-associated-with-the-first-antiretroviral-therapy-modification-in-older-hiv-1-positive-patients
#5
Justyna D Kowalska, Joanna Kubicka, Ewa Siwak, Piotr Pulik, Ewa Firląg-Burkacka, Andrzej Horban
BACKGROUND: Rates of first antiretroviral therapy (cART) modifications are high in most observational studies. The age-related differences in treatment duration and characteristics of first cART modifications remain underinvestigated. With increasing proportion of older patients in HIV population it is important to better understand age-related treatment effects. METHODS: Patients were included into this analysis, if being cART naïve at the first visit at the clinic...
January 7, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901200/retrospective-analysis-of-the-clinical-behavior-of-oral-hairy-leukoplakia-in-215-hiv-seropositive-patients
#6
Daniela Assis do Vale, Fabiana Martins E Martins, Paulo Henrique Braz da Silva, Karem López Ortega
Oral manifestations are common findings in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients and frequently influence the overall health. Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is strongly associated with HIV infection demonstrating its relationship with the individual's immune status and progression of immunosuppression. This study aims to retrospectively evaluate OHL in HIV patients, analyzing its incidence, demographic aspects and possible changes in clinical and epidemiological profile of the disease over 17 years...
November 28, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895013/frequent-cross-resistance-to-dapivirine-in-hiv-1-subtype-c-infected-individuals-on-failing-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-south-africa
#7
Kerri J Penrose, Carole L Wallis, Chanson J Brumme, Kristen A Hamanishi, Kelley C Gordon, Raquel V Viana, P Richard Harrigan, John W Mellors, Urvi M Parikh
BACKGROUND: A vaginal ring containing dapivirine (DPV) has shown moderate protective efficacy against HIV-1 acquisition, but the activity of DPV against efavirenz (EFV)- and nevirapine (NVP)-resistant viruses that could be transmitted is not well-defined. We investigated DPV cross-resistance of subtype C HIV-1 from individuals on failing NVP- or EFV-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa (SA). METHODS: Plasma samples were obtained from individuals with >10,000 copies/mL HIV RNA and with HIV-1 containing at least one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NNRTI) mutation...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878300/induction-of-dna-damage-and-apoptosis-in-human-leukemia-cells-by-efavirenz
#8
Ansgar Brüning, Julia Jückstock, Bernd Kost, Panagiotis Tsikouras, Tobias Weissenbacher, Sven Mahner, Ioannis Mylonas
As part of the efforts to drug repurposing, some HIV drugs have recently been identified to exert anticancer effects. Selected nucleoside analogues of nucleosidic reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) have been shown to interfere with RNA transcription of HI viruses as well as with the replication of DNA in cancer cells. Non-nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are believed to have less effects on human DNA replication and, thus, on cancer cell proliferation. Assessment of the effect of the NNRTI efavirenz in human cancer cells, however, revealed a high sensitivity of leukemia cells to this agent at pharmacologically relevant concentrations of less than 10 µg/ml...
November 15, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875973/structural-modifications-of-diarylpyrimidine-quinolone-hybrids-as-potent-hiv-1-nnrtis-with-an-improved-drug-resistance-profile
#9
Tian-Qi Mao, Qiu-Qin He, Wen-Xue Chen, Gang-Feng Tang, Fen-Er Chen, Erik De Clercq, Dirk Daelemans, Christophe Pannecouque
Earlier we reported the identification of diarylpyrimidine-quinolone hybrids as a new class of HIV-1 NNRTIs. A few of these hybrids displayed moderate inhibitory activity against wt HIV-1 replication at submicromolar level, however, all of them lacked inhibitory activity against the double mutant virus (K103N/Y181C), which is the most prevalent NNRTI resistant-associated double mutant observed in the clinic. In the present study, we designed and synthesized a new series of diarylpyrimidine-quinolone hybrids featuring a halogen group at C-6' position of quinolone ring...
November 22, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872069/an-evaluation-of-doravirine-pharmacokinetics-when-switching-from-efavirenz-to-doravirine-in-healthy-subjects
#10
Ka Lai Yee, Rosa I Sanchez, Patrice Auger, Rachael Liu, Li Fan, Ilias Triantafyllou, Ming-Tain Lai, Mike Di Spirito, Marian Iwamoto, Sauzanne G Khalilieh
Doravirine is a novel, potent, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) demonstrating a high genetic barrier to resistance and is well tolerated in studies to date. Doravirine is a candidate for patients switching from less-tolerated NNRTIs, such as efavirenz. While doravirine is a CYP3A4 substrate, efavirenz induces CYP3A4; therefore, the pharmacokinetics of both drugs following switching from efavirenz to doravirine were assessed.This was a 3-period, fixed-sequence, open-label study...
November 21, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869478/etravirine-and-rilpivirine-drug-resistance-among-hiv-1-subtype-c-infected-children-failing-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-based-regimens-in-south-india
#11
Shanmugam Saravanan, Bagavathi Kausalya, Selvamurthi Gomathi, Sathasivam Sivamalar, Balakrishnan Pachamuthu, Selvamuthu Poongulali, Ambrose Pradeep, Solomon S Sunil, Sarvode N Mothi, Davey M Smith, Rami Kantor
We have analyzed reverse transcriptase (RT) region of HIV-1 pol gene from 97 HIV-infected children who were identified as failing first-line therapy that included a first generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (Nevirapine and Efavirenz) for at least 6 months. We found that 54% and 65% of the children had genotypically predicted resistance to second generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors drugs Etravirine and Rilpivirine, respectively. These cross-resistance mutations may compromise future NNRTI based regimens, especially in resource-limited settings...
November 21, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836020/high-levels-of-pre-treatment-hiv-drug-resistance-and-treatment-failure-in-nigerian-children
#12
Ragna S Boerma, T Sonia Boender, Kim C E Sigaloff, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Nicaise Ndembi, Titilope Adeyemo, Edamisan O Temiye, Akin Osibogun, Pascale Ondoa, Job C Calis, Alani Sulaimon Akanmu
INTRODUCTION: Pre-treatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) is an increasing problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Children are an especially vulnerable population to develop PDR given that paediatric second-line treatment options are limited. Although monitoring of PDR is important, data on the paediatric prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa and its consequences for treatment outcomes are scarce. We designed a prospective paediatric cohort study to document the prevalence of PDR and its effect on subsequent treatment failure in Nigeria, the country with the second highest number of HIV-infected children in the world...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828875/antiretroviral-drug-use-in-a-cross-sectional-population-survey-in-africa-nimh-project-accept-hptn-043
#13
Jessica M Fogel, William Clarke, Michal Kulich, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Autumn Breaud, Matthew T Olson, Mark A Marzinke, Oliver Laeyendecker, Agnès Fiamma, Deborah Donnell, Jessie K K Mbwambo, Linda Richter, Glenda Gray, Michael Sweat, Thomas J Coates, Susan H Eshleman
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral (ARV) drug treatment benefits the treated individual and can prevent HIV transmission. We assessed ARV drug use in a community-randomized trial that evaluated the impact of behavioral interventions on HIV incidence. METHODS: Samples were collected in a cross-sectional survey after a 3-year intervention period. ARV drug testing was performed using samples from HIV-infected adults at four study sites (Zimbabwe; Tanzania; KwaZulu-Natal and Soweto, South Africa; survey period 2009-2011), using an assay that detects 20 ARV drugs (6 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NRTIs]; 3 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NNRTIs]; 9 protease inhibitors; maraviroc; raltegravir)...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798676/hiv-1-variants-and-drug-resistance-in-pregnant-women-from-bata-equatorial-guinea-2012-2013
#14
Patricia Alvarez, Carolina Fernández McPhee, Luis Prieto, Leticia Martín, Jacinta Obiang, Pedro Avedillo, Antonio Vargas, Pablo Rojo, Agustín Benito, José Tomás Ramos, África Holguín
OBJECTIVES: This is the first study describing drug resistance mutations (DRM) and HIV-1 variants among infected pregnant women in Equatorial Guinea (GQ), a country with high (6.2%) and increasing HIV prevalence. METHODS: Dried blood spots (DBS) were collected from November 2012 to December 2013 from 69 HIV-1 infected women participating in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission program in the Hospital Regional of Bata and Primary Health Care Centre María Rafols, Bata, GQ...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789684/pretreatment-hiv-1-drug-resistance-in-argentina-results-from-a-surveillance-study-performed-according-to-who-proposed-new-methodology-in-2014-15
#15
E Bissio, M G Barbás, M B Bouzas, A Cudolá, H Salomón, L Espínola, S Fernández Giuliano, S Kademián, L Mammana, M L Suárez Ornani, G Ravasi, M Vila, I Zapiola, C Falistocco
BACKGROUND: In Argentina, current national guidelines recommend starting with NNRTI-based regimens. Recently, there have been some local reports regarding concerning levels of NNRTI-transmitted resistance, but surveillance has never been carried out at a national level. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of HIV drug resistance in people starting ART in Argentina using a WHO-proposed methodology. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, nationally representative study...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758114/impact-of-viral-load-use-on-treatment-switch-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children-in-asia
#16
Thahira Jamal Mohamed, Sirinya Teeraananchai, Stephen J Kerr, Wanatpreeya Phongsamart, Nik Khairulddin Nik Yusoff, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Penh Sun Ly, Lam Van Nguyen, Tavitiya Sudjaritruk, Pagakrong Lumbiganon, Viet Chau Do, Nia Kurniati, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Dewi Kumara Wati, Moy Siew Fong, Revathy Nallusamy, Azar Kariminia, Annette Sohn
<b>Background.</b> We sought to assess the impact of routine HIV viral load (VL) monitoring on the incidence of switching from a first- to a second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen, and to describe factors associated with switch. <b>Methods.</b> Data from a regional cohort of 16 clinical programs in 6 Asian countries were analyzed. Second-line switch was defined as a change from a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) to a protease inhibitor (PI) or vice versa, and >1 of the following: 1) reported treatment failure by local criteria, 2) switch of >1 additional drug, or 3) a preceding HIV viral load (VL) ≥1,000 copies/mL...
October 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747712/prospective-cohort-study-of-dental-implant-success-rate-in-patients-with-aids
#17
Michael Clayton May, Paul Nielsen Andrews, Shadi Daher, Uday Nitin Reebye
BACKGROUND: Oral health care of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a growing area of concern, taking into consideration the increased life expectancy of patients resulting from antiretroviral therapy. There is insufficient literature regarding the impact of dental implants in AIDS patients. This study investigated the long-term clinical outcome of implant placement in patients diagnosed with AIDS. METHODS: This monocentric study included AIDS patients with CD4 <200 cells/μL, age 18 years or older, and a minimum of one edentulous space requiring implant...
December 2016: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741125/first-line-cart-regimen-impacts-the-course-of-cd8-t-cell-counts-in-hiv-infected-patients-that-achieve-sustained-undetectable-viral-load
#18
Isabelle Poizot-Martin, Clotilde Allavena, Cyrille Delpierre, Claudine Duvivier, Véronique Obry-Roguet, Carla E Cano, Francine Guillouet de Salvador, David Rey, Pierre Dellamonica, Antoine Cheret, Lise Cuzin, Christine Katlama, André Cabié, Bruno Hoen
The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of first-line combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimen on the course of CD8 T-cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.A retrospective observational study conducted on the French DAT'AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected patients.We selected 605 patients initiating a first-line cART between 2002 and 2009, and which achieved a sustained undetectable HIV plasma viral load (pVL) for at least 12 months without cART modification. The evolution of CD8 T-cell counts according to cART regimen was assessed...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736898/hiv-drug-resistance-in-antiretroviral-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals-in-the-largest-public-hospital-in-nicaragua-2011-2015
#19
Santiago Avila-Ríos, Claudia García-Morales, Margarita Matías-Florentino, Daniela Tapia-Trejo, Bismarck F Hernández-Álvarez, Sumaya E Moreira-López, Carlos J Quant-Durán, Guillermo Porras-Cortés, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
BACKGROUND: Increasing HIV pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) levels have been observed in regions with increasing antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage. However, data is lacking for several low/middle-income countries. We present the first PDR survey in Nicaragua since ART introduction in the country in 2003. METHODS: HIV-infected, ART-naïve Nicaraguan individuals were enrolled at Roberto Calderón Hospital, the largest national HIV referral center, from 2011 to 2015...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727770/hdl-cholesterol-as-a-predictor-of-cd4-count-in-hiv-infected-patients-taking-nnrti-based-haart-regimen-at-tertiary-care-art-centre-in-mysore
#20
Soumya K, Rangaswamy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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