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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615975/pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-in-women-current-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
Charlene A Flash, Sannisha K Dale, Douglas S Krakower
There are ~900,000 new HIV infections among women every year, representing nearly half of all new HIV infections globally. In the US, nearly one-fifth of all new HIV infections occur among women, and women from racial and ethnic minority communities experience disproportionately high rates of new HIV infections. Thus, there is a need to develop and implement effective HIV prevention strategies for women in the US and internationally, with a specific need to advance strategies in minority communities. Previous studies have demonstrated that oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), the use of antiretroviral medications by HIV-uninfected persons to prevent HIV acquisition, can reduce HIV incidence among women who are adherent to PrEP...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612340/long-acting-systemic-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-an-examination-of-the-field
#2
REVIEW
William R Lykins, Ellen Luecke, Daniel Johengen, Ariane van der Straten, Tejal A Desai
Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission (HIV PrEP) has been widely successful as demonstrated by a number of clinical trials. However, studies have also demonstrated the need for patients to tightly adhere to oral dosing regimens in order to maintain protective plasma and tissue concentrations. This is especially true for women, who experience less forgiveness from dose skipping than men in clinical trials of HIV PrEP. There is increasing interest in long-acting (LA), user-independent forms of HIV PrEP that could overcome this adherence challenge...
June 13, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577243/review-on-the-biological-mechanisms-associated-with-depo-provera-and-hiv-1-risk-acquisition-in-women
#3
REVIEW
Funanani Takalani, Ndumiso N Mhlongo, Suri Moonsamy, Mahmoud E S Soliman
Women constitute more than 50% out of millions of individuals infected with HIV-1, the major causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. About 40% of HIV-1 infections have been reported to initiate in the female reproductive tract. However, the mechanisms through which these infections are spread are poorly understood; hence, there is now a major concern in women who use long acting injectable hormonal contraceptives, particularly Depo-Provera and an increase of HIV-1 risk acquisition. Based on literature, Depo-Provera has an affinity for both the glucocorticoid receptor and the progesterone receptor in the female reproductive tract...
June 3, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549121/long-acting-injectable-anti-retroviral-therapy-an-opportunity-to-improve-hiv-treatment-and-reduce-hiv-transmission-among-persons-being-released-from-prison-facilities
#4
Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, David L Rosen, Paul Christopher, Lauri Bazerman, Curt G Beckwith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546090/safety-and-tolerability-of-long-acting-cabotegravir-injections-in-hiv-uninfected-men-eclair-a-multicentre-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-phase-2a-trial
#5
Martin Markowitz, Ian Frank, Robert M Grant, Kenneth H Mayer, Richard Elion, Deborah Goldstein, Chester Fisher, Magdalena E Sobieszczyk, Joel E Gallant, Hong Van Tieu, Winkler Weinberg, David A Margolis, Krischan J Hudson, Britt S Stancil, Susan L Ford, Parul Patel, Elizabeth Gould, Alex R Rinehart, Kimberly Y Smith, William R Spreen
BACKGROUND: Cabotegravir (GSK1265744) is an HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor with potent antiviral activity and a long half-life when administered by injection that prevented simian-HIV infection upon repeat intrarectal challenge in male macaques. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of long-acting cabotegravir injections in healthy men not at high risk of HIV-1 infection. METHODS: We did this multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2a trial at ten sites in the USA...
May 22, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527854/barriers-to-initiation-of-extended-release-naltrexone-among-hiv-infected-adults-with-alcohol-use-disorders
#6
Hélène Chokron Garneau, Alexandra Venegas, Richard Rawson, Lara A Ray, Suzette Glasner
Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for the acquisition of HIV/AIDS and is associated with greater disease burden and mortality among those who become HIV-infected. Of the extant pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorders, naltrexone is recognized as one of the most efficacious, producing robust reductions in alcohol craving and use. Given that treatment with oral naltrexone has been limited by problems with adherence, which are particularly prevalent among individuals with multiple chronic, co-occurring conditions, long-acting formulations may be a promising approach for HIV-infected substance users...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498144/the-impact-of-preexposure-prophylaxis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-an-individual-based-model
#7
Parastu Kasaie, Jeff Pennington, Maunank S Shah, Stephen A Berry, Danielle German, Colin P Flynn, Chris Beyrer, David W Dowdy
OBJECTIVES: Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended for preventing HIV infection among individuals at high risk, including men who have sex with men (MSM). Although its individual-level efficacy is proven, questions remain regarding population-level impact of PrEP implementation. DESIGN: We developed an agent-based simulation of HIV transmission among MSM, accounting for demographics, sexual contact network, HIV disease stage, and use of antiretroviral therapy...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368868/universal-antiretroviral-regimens-thinking-beyond-one-pill-once-a-day
#8
Jeffrey M Jacobson, Charles W Flexner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Poor adherence to oral antiretroviral treatment in a subpopulation of persons with HIV-1 infection interferes with the potential success of the drug regimens in treating the infection. Here, we review long-acting antiretroviral strategies currently in clinical development that could prove useful for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in individuals not succeeding with short-acting oral regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: Pharmaceutical nanotechnology has succeeded in creating two novel long-acting injectable antiretroviral compounds, carbotegravir and rilpivirine, which have completed early clinical trials demonstrating the safety, tolerability and prolonged antiretroviral activity...
July 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356041/recent-advances-in-antiretroviral-agents-potent-integrase-inhibitors
#9
Mina Psichogiou, Garyphalia Poulakou, Dimitrios Basoulis, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Antonios Markogiannakis, George L Daikos
Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) belong to a novel class of antiretroviral agents that have emerged as the new first-line treatments. Three such compounds are currently available, raltegravir, elvitegravir, dolutegravir and two more under development, bictegravir and cabotegravir. These compounds share the same mode of action but exhibit different pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic properties, and drug-drug interactions. A series of studies in the past decade have established their efficacy compared to previous regimens, both in treatment-naïve and experienced patients...
March 29, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291047/the-impact-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-an-individual-based-model
#10
Parastu Kasaie, Jeff Pennington, Maunank S Shah, Stephen A Berry, Danielle German, Colin P Flynn, Chris Beyrer, David W Dowdy
OBJECTIVES: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended for preventing HIV infection among individuals at high risk, including men who have sex with men (MSM). Although its individual-level efficacy is proven, questions remain regarding population-level impact of PrEP implementation. DESIGN: We developed an agent-based simulation of HIV transmission among MSM, accounting for demographics, sexual contact network, HIV disease stage and use of antiretroviral therapy...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285153/contraceptive-method-and-self-reported-hiv-status-among-women-in-malawi
#11
Jamie E Luster, Abigail Norris Turner, Duna Alkhalaileh, Maria F Gallo
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe contraceptive methods used by women in Malawi and determine whether contraceptive use differed by self-reported HIV status. Effective contraception is a primary method of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. STUDY DESIGN: Analysis is based on 12,658 nonpregnant, sexually debuted women ages 15-49 years in the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey. Analysis was restricted to respondents with contraceptive need (i.e., fecund and did not want a child in the next 12 months) who reported their last HIV test result...
June 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121666/tenofovir-alafenamide-and-elvitegravir-loaded-nanoparticles-for-long-acting-prevention-of-hiv-1-vaginal-transmission
#12
Subhra Mandal, Pavan K Prathipati, Guobin Kang, You Zhou, Zhe Yuan, Wenjin Fan, Qingsheng Li, Christopher J Destache
OBJECTIVE: This report presents tenofovir (TFV) alafenamide (TAF) and elvitegravir (EVG) fabricated into nanoparticles for subcutaneous delivery as prevention strategy. DESIGN: Prospective prevention study in humanized bone marrow-liver-thymus (hu-BLT) mice. METHODS: Using an oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation technique, TAF + EVG drugs were entrapped together into nanoparticles containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid). In-vitro prophylaxis studies (90% inhibition concentration) compared nanoparticles with drugs in solution...
February 20, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011389/extended-release-naltrexone-for-pre-release-prisoners-a-randomized-trial-of-medical-mobile-treatment
#13
Michael S Gordon, Frank J Vocci, Terrence T Fitzgerald, Kevin E O'Grady, Charles P O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), is an effective treatment for opioid use disorder but is rarely initiated in US prisons or with criminal justice populations. Mobile treatment for chronic diseases has been implemented in a variety of settings. Mobile treatment may provide an opportunity to expand outreach to parolees to surmount barriers to traditional clinic treatment. METHODS: Male and female prisoners (240) with pre-incarceration histories of opioid use disorder who are within one month of release from prison will be enrolled in this randomized clinical trial...
February 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799824/profile-of-cabotegravir-and-its-potential-in-the-treatment-and-prevention-of-hiv-1-infection-evidence-to-date
#14
REVIEW
Thomas Whitfield, Adele Torkington, Clare van Halsema
Modern antiretroviral therapy has demonstrated effectiveness in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment of HIV infection. There is a demand for prevention and treatment regimens that could overcome challenges of improving adherence, toxicity, and dosing convenience. Cabotegravir is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor and an analog of dolutegravir. Unlike dolutegravir, cabotegravir has a long half-life and can be formulated into a long-acting nanosuspension for parenteral administration. Initial pharmokinetic studies in humans have demonstrated adequate drug levels with intramuscular (IM) administration at 4 weekly and 8 weekly intervals, with few interactions with commonly used concomitant medications...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771050/progress-in-formulation-based-approaches-for-antiretrovirals
#15
Ameya R Kirtane, Robert Langer, Giovanni Traverso
The human immunodeficiency virus has infected millions of people and the epidemic continues to grow rapidly in some parts of the world. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has provided improved treatment and prolonged the life expectancy of patients. Moreover, there is growing interest in using ARVs to protect against new infections. Hence, ARVs have emerged as our primary strategy in combating the virus. Unfortunately, several challenges limit the optimal performance of these drugs. First, ARVs often require life-long use and complex dosing regimens...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770215/preferences-for-long-acting-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-daily-oral-prep-or-condoms-for-hiv-prevention-among-u-s-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#16
George J Greene, Greg Swann, Angela J Fought, Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Thomas J Hope, Patrick F Kiser, Brian Mustanski, Richard T D'Aquila
HIV prevention method preferences were evaluated among 512 U.S. men who have sex with men (MSM; median age: 22 years). Approximately 90 % consistently preferred one option across pairwise comparisons of condoms, daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and long-acting PrEP delivered via either an injectable or one of two types of PrEP implants differing in visibility. Condoms were most frequently preferred (33.8 %), followed by non-visible implants (21.5 %), and oral PrEP (17.0 %); HIV risk was reported by more choosing implants...
May 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703992/deciphering-the-effects-of-injectable-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-combination-human-immunodeficiency-virus-prevention
#17
Robert L Glaubius, Urvi M Parikh, Greg Hood, Kerri J Penrose, Eran Bendavid, John W Mellors, Ume L Abbas
Background.  A long-acting injectable formulation of rilpivirine (RPV), under investigation as antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), may facilitate PrEP adherence. In contrast, cross-resistance between RPV and nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors comprising first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) could promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance and reduce PrEP's effectiveness. Methods.  We use novel mathematical modeling of different RPV PrEP scale-up strategies in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to investigate their effects on HIV prevention and drug resistance, compared with a reference scenario without PrEP...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658864/long-acting-rilpivirine-as-potential-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-1-prevention-the-mwri-01-study-an-open-label-phase-1-compartmental-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-assessment
#18
Ian McGowan, Charlene S Dezzutti, Aaron Siegel, Jarret Engstrom, Alexiy Nikiforov, Kathryn Duffill, Cory Shetler, Nicola Richardson-Harman, Kaleab Abebe, David Back, Laura Else, Deidre Egan, Saye Khoo, James E Egan, Ronald Stall, Peter E Williams, Khaleel K Rehman, Amy Adler, Rhonda M Brand, Beatrice Chen, Sharon Achilles, Ross D Cranston
BACKGROUND: Long-acting injectable antiretroviral agents are being developed for HIV-1 prevention. The MWRI-01 study was done to characterise the safety, acceptability, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of long-acting rilpivirine. METHODS: We did a phase 1 open-label study at the University of Pittsburgh. We enrolled healthy individuals (aged 18-45 years) who were seronegative for HIV-1. Participants were assigned alternately one intramuscular dose of either 1200 mg or 600 mg long-acting rilpivirine, beginning with the 1200 mg dose...
December 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444753/antiretroviral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-preferences-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-vietnam-results-from-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-survey
#19
Catherine E Oldenburg, Bao Le, Hoang Thi Huyen, Dinh Duc Thien, Nguyen Hoang Quan, Katie B Biello, Amy Nunn, Philip A Chan, Kenneth H Mayer, Matthew J Mimiaga, Donn Colby
Background: The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Vietnam is concentrated in subgroups of the population, including men who have sex with men (MSM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a viable strategy for HIV prevention, but knowledge about and preferences for PrEP delivery among Vietnamese MSM are not well understood. Methods: In 2015, an online survey was conducted with recruitment via social networking websites for MSM and peer recruitment. A description of daily oral, long-acting injectable, and rectal microbicide formulations of PrEP was provided to participants...
July 22, 2016: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398863/croi-2016-advances-in-antiretroviral-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Barbara S Taylor, Susan A Olender, Hong-Van Tieu, Timothy J Wilkin
The 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections highlighted exciting advances in antiretroviral therapy, including important data on investigational antiretroviral drugs and clinical trials. Clinical trials demonstrated benefits from a long-acting injectable coformulation given as maintenance therapy, examined intravenous and subcutaneous administration of a monoclonal antibody directed at the CD4 binding site of HIV-1, and provided novel data on tenofovir alafenamide. Several studies focused on the role of HIV drug resistance, including the significance of minority variants, transmitted drug resistance, use of resistance testing, and drug class-related resistance...
May 2016: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
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