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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688862/the-cost-effectiveness-of-oral-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-and-early-antiretroviral-therapy-in-the-presence-of-drug-resistance-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-san-francisco
#1
Mingwang Shen, Yanni Xiao, Libin Rong, Lauren Ancel Meyers, Steven E Bellan
BACKGROUND: Poor adherence to either antiretroviral treatment (ART) or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can promote drug resistance, though this risk is thought to be considerably higher for ART. In the population of men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco, PrEP coverage reached 9.6% in 2014 and has continued to rise. Given the risk of drug resistance and high cost of second-line drugs, the costs and benefits of initiating ART earlier while expanding PrEP coverage remain unclear...
April 24, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688800/missed-opportunities-to-prescribe-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-by-primary-care-providers-in-saint-louis-missouri
#2
Rupa R Patel, Philip A Chan, Laura C Harrison, Kenneth H Mayer, Amy Nunn, Leandro A Mena, William G Powderly
PURPOSE: Optimal HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) scale-up in the United States requires prescribing by primary care providers (PCPs). We assessed barriers to patients obtaining PrEP from their PCPs. METHODS: Patients seeking PrEP at an Infectious Diseases (ID) Clinic in St. Louis, Missouri from 2014 to 2016 were asked about demographics, sexual behaviors, whether PrEP was initially sought from their PCP, and barriers to obtaining PrEP from their PCP. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify predictors for having asked a PCP for PrEP...
April 24, 2018: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687590/a-systematic-review-of-risk-of-hiv-transmission-through-biting-or-spitting-implications-for-policy
#3
F V Cresswell, J Ellis, J Hartley, C A Sabin, C Orkin, D R Churchill
OBJECTIVES: The perceived threat of HIV transmission through spitting and biting is evidenced by the increasing use of "spit hoods" by Police Forces in the UK. In addition, a draft parliamentary bill has called for increased penalties for assaults on emergency workers, citing the risk of communicable disease transmission as one justification. We aimed to review literature relating to the risk of HIV transmission through biting or spitting. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using Medline, Embase and Northern Lights databases and conference websites using search terms relating to HIV, AIDS, bite, spit and saliva...
April 23, 2018: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684534/towards-a-maraviroc-long-acting-injectable-nanoformulation
#4
Lee M Tatham, Alison C Savage, Andrew Dwyer, Marco Siccardi, Trevor Scott, Manoli Vourvahis, Andrew Clark, Steven P Rannard, Andrew Owen
Suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) therapy can lead to insufficient drug exposure leading to viral rebound and increased likelihood of resistance. This has driven the development of long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations which may mitigate some of these problems. Maraviroc (MVC) is an orally dosed CCR5 antagonist approved for use in patients infected with CCR5-trophic HIV-1. MVC prevents viral entry into host cells, is readily distributed to biologically relevant tissues and has an alternative resistance profile compared to more commonly used therapies...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684327/do-health-promotion-messages-integrate-unintended-pregnancy-and-sti-prevention-a-content-analysis-of-online-information-for-adolescents-and-young-adults
#5
Riley J Steiner, Catherine N Rasberry, Jessica M Sales, Laura M Gaydos, Karen Pazol, Michael Kramer, Andrea Swartzendruber
OBJECTIVE: Recently there have been calls to strengthen integration of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention messages, spurred by increasing use of long-acting reversible contraception. To assess the extent to which public health/clinical messages about unintended pregnancy prevention also address STI prevention, we conducted a content analysis of web-based health promotion information for young people. STUDY DESIGN: Websites identified through a systematic Google search were eligible for inclusion if they were operated by a United States-based organization with a mission related to public health/clinical services and the URL included: 1) original content; 2) about sexual and reproductive health; 3) explicitly for adolescents and/or young adults...
April 20, 2018: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683856/seroconversion-on-prep-a-case-report-with-segmental-hair-analysis-for-timed-adherence-determination
#6
Joshua T Thaden, Monica Gandhi, Hideaki Okochi, Christopher B Hurt, Mehri S McKellar
OBJECTIVE: We describe the third case report of seroconversion with multidrug resistant (MDR)-HIV despite pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil (TDF). DESIGN: Case report. METHODS: PrEP adherence was assessed via self-report, pharmacy records, and measuring TFV/FTC levels with liquid-chromatography/tandem-mass-spectrometry in plasma and hair. Segmental hair analysis was performed to assess PrEP adherence over prior months...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683840/enhancing-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-practices-via-an-educational-intervention
#7
Rebecca Newman, Tasleem Katchi, Michael Karass, Melissa Gennarelli, Jason Goutis, Alina Kifayat, Shantanu Solanki, Srikanth Yandrapalli, Leanne Forman, Christopher Nabors
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV involves using antiretroviral drugs to prevent individuals at high risk from acquiring HIV infection. Most practicing primary care providers believe PrEP to be safe and effective, but less than half have prescribed or referred for PrEP. Attitudes and prescribing patterns among house officers have not been well described previously. STUDY QUESTION: Can an educational intervention enhance HIV PrEP practices among internal medicine house officers? STUDY DESIGN: This study relied on a pretest/posttest design...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682309/australasian-society-for-hiv-viral-hepatitis-and-sexual-health-medicine-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-clinical-guidelines-update-april-2018
#8
EDITORIAL
Edwina Wright, Andrew Grulich, Katy Roy, Mark Boyd, Vincent Cornelisse, Darren Russell, Darryl O'Donnell, Bill Whittaker, Levinia Crooks, Iryna Zablotska
Daily use of coformulated tenofovir and emtricitabine for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by populations at high risk of HIV infection is now recommended in guidelines from the United States, Europe and Australia and globally through the 2015 WHO guidelines. These 2017 Australasian Society for HIV, Viral Hepatitis and Sexual Health Medicine's (ASHM) PrEP Guidelines are an updated adaptation of the 2014 US Centers for Disease Control's PrEP guidelines and are designed to: •Support the prescription of PrEP using forms of coformulated tenofovir and emtricitabine that have been registered in Australia by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and other bioequivalent generic drugs that are available in Australia through self-importation, private prescription or Australian PrEP clinical trials•Assist clinicians in the evaluation of patients who are seeking PrEP•Assist clinicians in commencing and monitoring patients on PrEP including PrEP dosing schedules, management of side-effects and toxicity, use of PrEP in pregnancy and in chronic hepatitis B infection and how to cease PrEP Daily PrEP with co-formulated tenofovir and emtricitabine, used continuously or for shorter periods of time, is recommended in these guidelines as a key HIV-prevention option for men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender men and women, heterosexual men and women, and people who inject drugs (PWID) at substantial risk of HIV acquisition...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666937/biomedical-approaches-to-hiv-prevention-in-women
#9
REVIEW
Christine L Heumann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Effective HIV prevention techniques for women are of critical importance, as nearly half of all HIV infections globally are in women. This article reviews the recent literature on biomedical approaches to HIV prevention in women. RECENT FINDINGS: In trials in which women were adherent to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), PrEP was equally efficacious in men and women. However, in studies of oral PrEP exclusively in women, adherence was low, and it was not efficacious...
April 17, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661872/treating-anthrax-induced-meningitis-in-rabbits
#10
Amir Ben-Shmuel, Itai Glinert, Assa Sittner, Elad Bar-David, Josef Schlomovitz, Tal Brosh, David Kobiler, Shay Weiss, Haim Levy
Treatment of Anthrax is challenging, especially during the advanced stages of the disease. Recently the CDC updated its recommendations for post-exposure prophylaxis and treatment of exposed populations (pre and post symptoms onset). These recommendations distinguished, for the first time, between the systemic disease with and without meningitis, a common and serious complication of anthrax. The CDC considers all systemic patients as meningeal unless positively proven otherwise. The treatment of patients suffering from systemic Anthrax with suspected or confirmed meningitis includes the combination of three antibiotics -- a fluoroquinolone (Levofloxacin or Ciprofloxacin), a β-lactam (Meropenem or Imipenem) and a protein-synthesis inhibitor (Linezolid or Clindamycin)...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655384/hiv-prevention-strategies-and-risk-of-infection-a-model-based-analysis
#11
A Hahn, R Hinz, T Meyer, U Loderstädt, O Herchenröder, C G Meyer, N G Schwarz, H Frickmann
Risk populations for HIV infections tend to neglect condom use, making alternative preventive approaches necessary. Accordingly, we modelled the risk of sexual HIV transmission for condom use vs. use of rapid diagnostic test (RDT) systems with subsequent exclusion of potential sexual partners with a correctly or falsely positive test from unprotected sex with and without the use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in a bio-statistical approach. We combined a previously described model of transmission risk for HIV-exposed individuals with a newly suggested model of risk of HIV exposure for sexually active HIV-negative individuals...
April 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651646/an-examination-of-gay-couples-motivations-to-use-or-forego-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-expressed-during-couples-hiv-testing-and-counseling-chtc-sessions
#12
Tyrel J Starks, Kendell M Doyle, Ore Shalhav, Steven A John, Jeffrey T Parsons
While many gay couples perceive themselves to have little risk for HIV transmission, research estimates that 35-68% of new HIV infections are transmitted within main partnerships. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended for those partnered gay and bisexual men (GBM) who engage in sex outside their primary relationship or who have an HIV-positive partner. There is reason to believe that couples' sero-status and sexual agreement will shape perceptions of PrEP's personal relevance among gay couples. The current study examined motivations for and ambivalence towards PrEP uptake reported in a sample of 67 gay couples during completion of a brief CDC-recommended prevention intervention: Couples HIV Testing and Counseling...
April 12, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628512/hot-news-sexually-transmitted-infections-on-the-rise-in-prep-users
#13
Pablo Barreiro
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with oral Truvada (tenofovir plus emtricitabine) is effective at preventing HIV infection in high-risk homosexual men. In the United States, PrEP was approved in 2012 and is reimbursed by Medicaid and the majority of private insurers. The situation is diverse and not uniform in the European Union, being PrEP more widely used in France than in the rest of countries. Concerns have been raised that PrEP use may be accompanied by the phenomena of risk compensation or behavioral disinhibition, whereby PrEP users' perception of decreased risk of HIV acquisition may lead them to engage in overall riskier sexual practices and increase their chances of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Blumenthal, et al...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625953/predictors-of-facebook-user-engagement-with-health-related-content-for-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-content-analysis
#14
Kiffer George Card, Nathan Lachowsky, Blake W Hawkins, Jody Jollimore, Fahmy Baharuddin, Robert S Hogg
BACKGROUND: Social media is used by community-based organizations (CBOs) to promote the well-being of gay and bisexual men (GBM). However, few studies have quantified which factors facilitate the diffusion of health content tailored for sexual minorities. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify post characteristics that can be leveraged to optimize the health promotion efforts of CBOs on Facebook. METHODS: The Facebook application programming interface was used to collect 5 years' of posts shared across 10 Facebook pages administered by Vancouver-based CBOs promoting GBM health...
April 6, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623814/expanding-opportunities-to-educate-and-deliver-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-training-for-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#15
Alex Langrish, Erica Pool, Daniel Richardson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622045/a-couple-based-hiv-prevention-intervention-for-latino-men-who-have-sex-with-men-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Omar Martinez, M Isabel Fernandez, Elwin Wu, Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Guillermo Prado, Adam Davey, Ethan Levine, Brian Mattera, Nikki Lopez, Omar Valentin, Ashley Murray, Madeline Sutton
BACKGROUND: Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) experienced a 13% increase in HIV diagnoses from 2010 to 2014, more than any other racial/ethnic subgroup of MSM in the United States. If current HIV diagnoses rates persist, about one in four Latino MSM in the United States will be diagnosed with HIV during their lifetime. Although some efficacious HIV prevention interventions for Latino MSM exist, none have focused on couples. This paper describes the protocol of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the preliminary efficacy of a couple-based HIV prevention intervention that is culturally tailored for Latino men and their same-sex partners...
April 5, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619252/lepvax-a-defined-subunit-vaccine-that-provides-effective-pre-exposure-and-post-exposure-prophylaxis-of-m-leprae-infection
#17
Malcolm S Duthie, Maria T Pena, Gigi J Ebenezer, Thomas P Gillis, Rahul Sharma, Kelly Cunningham, Michael Polydefkis, Yumi Maeda, Masahiko Makino, Richard W Truman, Steven G Reed
Sustained elimination of leprosy as a global health concern likely requires a vaccine. The current standard, BCG, confers only partial protection and precipitates paucibacillary (PB) disease in some instances. When injected into mice with the T helper 1 (Th1)-biasing adjuvant formulation Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant in stable emulsion (GLA-SE), a cocktail of three prioritized antigens (ML2055, ML2380 and ML2028) reduced M. leprae infection levels. Recognition and protective efficacy of a single chimeric fusion protein incorporating these antigens, LEP-F1, was confirmed in similar experiments...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609619/pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-in-an-era-of-stalled-hiv-prevention-can-it-change-the-game
#18
REVIEW
Robyn Eakle, Francois Venter, Helen Rees
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention has evolved significantly over the years where clinical trials have now demonstrated the efficacy of oral PrEP, and the field is scaling-up implementation. The WHO and UNAIDS have made PrEP implementation a priority for populations at highest risk, and several countries have developed guidelines and national plans accordingly, largely based on evidence generated by demonstration projects. PrEP presents the opportunity to change the face of HIV prevention by offering a new option for protection against HIV and disrupting current HIV prevention systems...
April 2, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603900/men-who-have-sex-with-men-more-often-chose-daily-than-event-driven-use-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-baseline-analysis-of-a-demonstration-study-in-amsterdam
#19
Elske Hoornenborg, Roel Ca Achterbergh, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Udi Davidovich, Jannie J van der Helm, Arjan Hogewoning, Yvonne Thp van Duijnhoven, Gerard Jb Sonder, Henry Jc de Vries, Maria Prins
INTRODUCTION: The Amsterdam PrEP project is a prospective, open-label demonstration study at a large sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. We examined the uptake of PrEP; the baseline characteristics of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender persons initiating PrEP; their choices of daily versus event-driven PrEP and the determinants of these choices. METHODS: From August 2015 through May 2016, enrolment took place at the STI clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603888/the-cost-effectiveness-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women-at-high-risk-of-hiv-infection-in-brazil
#20
Paula M Luz, Benjamin Osher, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Rachel L Maclean, Elena Losina, Madeline E Stern, Claudio J Struchiner, Robert A Parker, Kenneth A Freedberg, Fabio Mesquita, Rochelle P Walensky, Valdilea G Veloso, A David Paltiel
INTRODUCTION: Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) in Brazil experience high rates of HIV infection. We examined the clinical and economic outcomes of implementing a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) programme in these populations. METHODS: We used the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC)-International model of HIV prevention and treatment to evaluate two strategies: the current standard of care (SOC) in Brazil, including universal ART access (No PrEP strategy); and the current SOC plus daily tenofovir/emtracitabine PrEP (PrEP strategy) until age 50...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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