Read by QxMD icon Read

pre exposure prophylaxis

Adiba Hassan, Jill S Blumenthal, Michael P Dube, Eric Ellorin, Katya Corado, David J Moore, Sheldon R Morris
OBJECTIVES: Rectal douching/enema (RD) is a common practice among men who have sex with men (MSM) in preparation for sex. RD can break down the rectal mucosal barrier and potentially affect the rectal microbiome. The objective of this study was to understand if RD is associated with acquiring rectal infections (RI) with rectal gonorrhoea (NG) and/or chlamydia (CT). METHODS: From 2013 to 2015, 395 adult HIV-uninfected MSM were enrolled in a randomised controlled study for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence with routine sexual risk survey and testing...
June 15, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Linden Lalley-Chareczko, Devon Clark, S Caitlin Conyngham, Athena Zuppa, Ganesh Moorthy, Karam Mounzer, Helen Koenig
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis(PrEP) for HIV prevention with daily TDF/FTC is effective when taken consistently. Currently, there is no objective way to monitor PrEP adherence. Urine has been shown to be highly correlated with plasma tenofovir levels, with urine tenofovir levels >1000ng/mL demonstrating recent(1-2 days) adherence to PrEP. SETTING: The present study was conducted at an urban community health center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. METHODS: PrEP was administered to 50 young men who have sex with men and transgender women of color using weekly, biweekly, and/or monthly dispensation schedules...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Robyn Eakle, Nyaradzo Mutanha, Judie Mbogua, Maria Sibanyoni, Adam Bourne, Gabriela Gomez, Francois Venter, Helen Rees
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this research was to design relevant, tailored oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and early antiretroviral (ART) interventions for female sex workers (FSWs) in South Africa. This paper examines the methods, process and outcomes of employing an inductive approach to formative research exploring intervention feasibility and acceptability. SETTING: Research was conducted in several sex work-related settings including five sites in and around clinics and stakeholder offices...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Sulav Duwal, Laura Dickinson, Saye Khoo, Max von Kleist
To achieve the 90-90-90 goals set by UNAIDS, the number of new HIV infections needs to decrease to approximately 500,000 by 2020. One of the 'five pillars' to achieve this goal is pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Truvada (emtricitabine-tenofovir) is currently the only medication approved for PrEP. Despite its advantages, Truvada is costly and requires individuals to adhere to the once-daily regimen. To improve PrEP, many next-generation regimen, including long-acting formulations, are currently investigated...
June 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Kathleen E Ryan, Anne Mak, Mark Stoove, Brian Price, Christopher K Fairley, Simon Ruth, Luxshimi Lal, Jason Asselin, Carol El-Hayek, Long Nguyen, Colin Batrouney, David Wilson, John Lockwood, Dean Murphy, Vincent J Cornelisse, Norman Roth, Jeff Willcox, Christina C Chang, Judy Armishaw, Ban K Tee, Matthew Penn, George Forgan-Smith, Christopher Williams, Jeff Montgomery, Kat Byron, Alison Coelho, Brent Allen, Jeremy Wiggins, Jenny Kelsall, Olga Vujovic, Michael West, Anna B Pierce, Daniel Gallant, Charlotte Bell, John B F de Wit, Jennifer F Hoy, Steve L Wesselingh, Robert M Grant, Edwina J Wright
Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the use of HIV anti-retroviral therapy to prevent HIV transmission in people at high risk of HIV acquisition. PrEP is highly efficacious when taken either daily, or in an on-demand schedule. In Australia co-formulated tenofovir-emtricitabine is registered for daily use for PrEP, however, this co-formulation is not listed yet on the national subsidized medicines list. We describe a study protocol that aims to demonstrate if the provision of PrEP to up to 3800 individuals at risk of HIV in Victoria, Australia reduces HIV incidence locally by 25% generally and 30% among GBM...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Maria Pyra, Peter L Anderson, Craig W Hendrix, Renee Heffron, Kenneth Mugwanya, Jessica E Haberer, Katherine K Thomas, Connie Celum, Deborah Donnell, Mark A Marzinke, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Nelly R Mugo, Stephen Asiimwe, Elly Katabira, Jared M Baeten
OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy is a time of increased HIV acquisition risk and pregnancy reduces concentrations of antiretrovirals used for treatment. We assessed whether pregnancy lowers concentrations of tenofovir (TFV) and tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) among HIV-uninfected women using oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). METHODS: We analyzed data from an open-label PrEP study, comparing concentrations of TFV in plasma and TFV-DP in dried blood spots (DBS) among 37 pregnant women and 97 non-pregnant women...
June 11, 2018: AIDS
David T Dunn, David V Glidden, Oliver T Stirrup, Sheena McCormack
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate combined with emtricitabine is a highly effective oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) agent for preventing the acquisition of HIV. This effectiveness has consequences for the design and analysis of trials assessing experimental PrEP regimens, which now generally include an active-control tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine group, rather than a placebo group, as a comparator. Herein, we describe major problems in the interpretation of the primary measure of effectiveness proposed for these trials, namely the ratio of HIV incidence in the experimental agent group to that in the active-control group...
June 2018: Lancet HIV
Jesse D Blanton, Emily Colwell, Cynthia L Walden, Lessie M Davis, Christine Hoang, Julie A Legred, Emily G Pieracci, Ryan M Wallace, Mark H Ebell, Zhen F Fu, Stephanie A Shwiff, Joel M Lee
OBJECTIVE To identify knowledge and practices related to rabies vaccination and serologic monitoring among animal care workers in the United States. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE 2,334 animal care workers (ie, veterinarians, veterinary technicians, animal control workers, and wildlife rehabilitators). PROCEDURES Participants were contacted through relevant professional organizations to participate in an anonymous web-based survey. The survey collected demographic and occupational information, animal handling and potential rabies exposure information, and individual rabies vaccination and serologic monitoring practices...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Anne Boucher, Agnes Meybeck, Kazali Alidjinou, Thomas Huleux, Nathalie Viget, Veronique Baclet, Michel Valette, Isabelle Alcaraz, Eveline Sauser, Laurence Bocket, Ajana Faiza
OBJECTIVES: Since February 2017, an increase of acute hepatitis A (AHA) cases has been notified in North of France. We aimed to report clinical and virological features of 49 cases treated in three hospitals in Lille European Metropolis (LEM). METHODS: All adult patients treated for AHA in 3 LEM hospitals between 20 February and 5 July 2017 were included. Demographic characteristics, exposure risk factors to hepatitis A virus (HAV), AHA manifestations and concomitant sexually transmitted infections (STI) were retrospectively recorded...
June 9, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Martin Holt, Toby Lea, Limin Mao, Johann Kolstee, Iryna Zablotska, Tim Duck, Brent Allan, Michael West, Evelyn Lee, Peter Hull, Andrew Grulich, John De Wit, Garrett Prestage
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been rapidly rolled out in large, publicly funded implementation projects in Victoria and New South Wales, Australia. Using behavioural surveillance of gay and bisexual men, we analysed the uptake and effect of PrEP, particularly on condom use by gay and bisexual men not using PrEP. METHODS: We collected data from the Melbourne and Sydney Gay Community Periodic Surveys (GCPS), cross-sectional surveys of adult gay and bisexual men in Melbourne, VIC, and Sydney, NSW...
June 6, 2018: Lancet HIV
Jacqui Wise
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Philip A Chan, Madeline C Montgomery, Jennifer Rose, Alec Tributino, Christina Crowley, Martha M Medina, Rupa Patel, Kenneth Mayer, Rami Kantor, Amy S Nunn
OBJECTIVES: Patterns of HIV transmission vary widely across demographic groups. Identifying and engaging these groups are necessary to prevent new infections and diagnose disease among people who are unaware of their infection. The objective of this study was to determine characteristics of newly diagnosed individuals across an entire state to determine patterns of HIV transmission. METHODS: We evaluated data on people with new HIV diagnoses in Rhode Island from 2013 through 2015...
January 1, 2018: Public Health Reports
Cristina Tintori, Giulia Iovenitti, Elisa Rita Ceresola, Roberto Ferrarese, Claudio Zamperini, Annalaura Brai, Giulio Poli, Elena Dreassi, Valeria Cagno, David Lembo, Filippo Canducci, Maurizio Botta
Although highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) remarkably increased life expectancy of HIV positive people, the rate of novel HIV-1 infections worldwide still represent a major concern. In this context, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) approaches such as vaginal microbicide gels topically releasing antiretroviral drugs, showed to have a striking impact in limiting HIV-1 spread. Nevertheless, the co-presence of other genital infections, particularly those due to HSV-1 or 2, constitute a serious drawback that strongly limits the efficacy of PrEP approaches...
2018: PloS One
Astrid M Newsum, Martijn S van Rooijen, Michelle Kroone, Sylvia M Bruisten, Amy Matser, Arjan Hogewoning, Maria Prins, Titia Heijman
BACKGROUND: In response to the increased hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence recently found among participants of the Amsterdam pre-exposure prophylaxis demonstration project, we evaluated HCV prevalence over time and the performance of the HCV-MOSAIC risk score for detection of HCV infection in HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) attending the Amsterdam STI clinic. METHODS: In October 2016, HIV-negative MSM were tested for anti-HCV and HCV RNA and completed the HCV-MOSAIC risk score...
June 4, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Asma Sohail, Sarah L McGuinness, Rachel Lightowler, Karin Leder, Bismi Jomon, Christopher A Bain, Anton Y Peleg
BACKGROUND: Bali, Indonesia presents significant infectious and non-infectious health risks for Australian travellers. Understanding this spectrum of illnesses has the potential to assist clinicians in evaluating unwell returning travellers and guide provision of pre-travel advice. AIM: To describe the spectrum of illnesses seen in returned travellers from Bali. METHODS: Using a novel text mining approach, we performed a retrospective, observational study of all adult emergency department (ED) presentations to a metropolitan health service in Melbourne, from 2011-2015...
June 5, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
D Joseph Davey, S West, V Umutoni, S Taleghani, H Klausner, E Farley, R Shah, S Madni, S Orewa, V Kottamasu, V Rice, Z Robbin, K M Wall
We conducted a systematic review of safer conception strategies (SCS) for HIV-affected couples in sub-Saharan Africa to inform evidence-based safer conception interventions. Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched fifteen electronic databases using the following inclusion criteria: SCS research in HIV-affected couples; published after 2007; in sub-Saharan Africa; primary research; peer-reviewed; and addressed a primary topic of interest (SCS availability, feasibility, and acceptability, and/or education and promotion)...
June 4, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Kai J Jonas, Natthakhet Yaemim
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in combination with emtricitabine (FTC) is a highly effective form of HIV prevention. Endeavors of health-care providers and activists in many countries over the world are directed at making access to PrEP possible, or increasing PrEP use among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). We argue while this effort is necessary, we also need to consider modes of HIV prevention after a period of PrEP use. PrEP uptake is not a one-way street, meaning that individuals may discontinue PrEP use, either voluntarily and involuntarily...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Phunlerd Piyaraj, Frits van Griensven, Timothy H Holtz, Philip A Mock, Anchalee Varangrat, Wipas Wimonsate, Warunee Thienkrua, Jaray Tongtoyai, Atitaya McNamara, Wannee Chonwattana, Kenrad E Nelson
BACKGROUND: The finding of casual sex partners on the internet and methamphetamine use have been described as risk factors for HIV infection in men who have sex with men (MSM). However, the interplay between these factors has not been studied prospectively in one design. This study aims to determine the associations between finding casual sex partners on the internet and incident methamphetamine use and HIV infection. METHODS: In this observational cohort study of Thai MSM, we recruited Bangkok residents aged 18 years or older with a history of penetrative male-to-male sex in the past 6 months...
May 31, 2018: Lancet HIV
Jordan M Sang, Derrick D Matthews, Steven P Meanley, Lisa A Eaton, Ron D Stall
The deleterious effects of HIV stigma on HIV+ Black MSM care continuum outcomes have been well-documented. How HIV stigma shapes HIV prevention for HIV- persons in this community is poorly understood. We sought to test the relationship of HIV stigma with HIV- Black MSM on HIV testing, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness, and PrEP use. We recruited 772 participants at Black Pride events across five US cities in 2016. Multivariable logistic regression models assessed the association of external HIV stigma on prevention outcomes adjusting for sociodemographic variables...
June 2, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Norma C Ware, Emily E Pisarski, Edith Nakku-Joloba, Monique A Wyatt, Timothy R Muwonge, Bosco Turyameeba, Stephen B Asiimwe, Renee A Heffron, Jared M Baeten, Connie L Celum, Elly T Katabira
INTRODUCTION: Serodiscordant couples are a priority population for delivery of new HIV prevention interventions in Africa. An integrated strategy of delivering time-limited, oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to uninfected partners in serodiscordant couples as a bridge to long-term antiretroviral treatment (ART) for infected partners has been implemented in East Africa, nearly eliminating new infections. We conducted a qualitative evaluation of the integrated strategy in Uganda, to better understand its success...
May 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"