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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455572/safer-conception-among-hiv-1-serodiscordant-couples-in-east-africa-understanding-knowledge-attitudes-and-experiences
#1
Kerry Hancuch, Jared Baeten, Kenneth Ngure, Connie Celum, Nelly Mugo, Edna Tindimwebwa, Renee Heffron
For HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, HIV-1 exposure and risk of transmission is heightened during pregnancy attempts, but safer conception strategies can reduce risk. As safer conception programs are scaled up, understanding couples' preferences and experiences can be useful for programmatic recommendations. We followed 1013 high-risk, heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples from Kenya and Uganda for two years in an open-label delivery study of integrated pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART), the Partners Demonstration Project...
February 17, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455571/genetic-variation-of-the-kinases-that-phosphorylate-tenofovir-and-emtricitabine-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#2
Dominique Figueroa, Erin Madeen, Joseph Tillotson, Paul Richardson, Leslie Cottle, Marybeth McCauley, Raphael Landovitz, Adriana Andrade, Craig W Hendrix, Kenneth H Mayer, T J Wilkin, Roy Gulick, Namandjé N Bumpus
Tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (FTC) are used in combination for HIV treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is a prodrug that undergoes diester hydrolysis to TFV. FTC and TFV are nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors that upon phosphorylation to nucleotide triphosphate analogs competitively inhibit HIV reverse transcriptase. We previously demonstrated that adenylate kinase 2, pyruvate kinase, muscle and pyruvate kinase, liver and red blood cell phosphorylate TFV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
February 17, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454927/syndemics-among-individuals-enrolled-in-the-prep-brasil-study
#3
Raquel B De Boni, Iona K Machado, Mauricio T L De Vasconcellos, Brenda Hoagland, Esper G Kallas, José Valdez Madruga, Nilo M Fernandes, Natalia B Cerqueira, Ronaldo I Moreira, Silvia P Goulart, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Paula M Luz
BACKGROUND: Concurrent psychosocial problems may synergistically increase the risk of HIV infection (syndemics), representing a challenge for prevention. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of syndemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) enrolled in the Brazilian pre-exposure prophylaxis demonstration study (PrEP Brasil Study). METHODS: Secondary cross-sectional analysis of the PrEP Brasil Study was performed...
February 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445061/the-prophylactic-effect-of-anti-influenza-agents-for-an-influenza-outbreak-in-a-university-hospital
#4
Mao Hagihara, Yukiko Kato, Ai Kurumiya, Tomoko Takahashi, Miki Sakata, Hideo Kato, Daisuke Sakanashi, Atsuko Yamada, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Jun Hirai, Naoya Nishiyama, Yusuke Koizumi, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
Objective From November 24 to December 9, 2013, an outbreak of the influenza (flu) A (H3) virus occurred in a tertiary-care university hospital (1,014 beds). We herein report the prophylactic effect of anti-flu agents for controlling the flu outbreak. Methods We administered pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis with anti-flu agents in flu outbreak. To test the effectiveness of prophylaxis in a flu outbreak, we used the posterior mean of the reproductive value during the pre- and post-intervention period. We also simulated the probability distribution of new flu cases...
2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440761/intimate-partner-violence-correlates-with-a-higher-hiv-incidence-among-msm-a-12-month-prospective-cohort-study-in-shenyang-china
#5
Hong-Yi Wang, Ning Wang, Zhen-Xing Chu, Jing Zhang, Xiang Mao, Wen-Qing Geng, Yong-Jun Jiang, Hong Shang, Jun-Jie Xu
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are highly prevalent worldwide among MSM. However, the association between IPV and HIV seroconversion is virtually unknown. This 12-month prospective cohort study was conducted among MSM in Shenyang, China to explore the causality between IPV and the incidence of HIV. Adjusted Hazard Ratios (aHRs) of HIV acquisition were derived from a multivariate time-dependent Cox model and applied to calculate population attributable fractions (PAFs). Among 476 HIV-negative MSM subjects, 89(18...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433956/hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-program-implementation-using-intervention-mapping
#6
Charlene A Flash, Elizabeth L T Frost, Thomas P Giordano, K Rivet Amico, Jeffrey A Cully, Christine M Markham
INTRODUCTION: HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis has been proven to be an effective tool in HIV prevention. However, numerous barriers still exist in pre-exposure prophylaxis implementation. METHODS: The framework of Intervention Mapping was used from August 2016 to October 2017 to describe the process of adoption, implementation, and maintenance of an HIV prevention program from 2012 through 2017 in Houston, Texas, that is nested within a county health system HIV clinic...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432470/prevalence-of-actual-uptake-and-willingness-to-use-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-to-prevent-hiv-acquisition-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-hong-kong-china
#7
Zixin Wang, Joseph T F Lau, Yuan Fang, Mary Ip, Danielle L Gross
OBJECTIVES: This study was to investigate the prevalence of actual uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), willingness to use daily oral PrEP under two cost scenarios, and potential issues related to PrEP use among men who have sex with men (MSM) with HIV negative/unknown sero-status in Hong Kong, China. Factors associated with the two measures of willingness were also investigated. METHODS: 403 eligible MSM completed the anonymous venue-based face-to-face interview/telephone interview...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432229/reaching-key-adolescent-populations
#8
Morna Cornell, Kathryn Dovel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adolescents and young people who fit within key populations face some of the greatest barriers to HIV care, but are frequently overlooked. We review the recent literature on these young, vulnerable populations including HIV risk factors, barriers to care, and strategies for engagement. RECENT FINDINGS: Common risk factors include age, risky sexual practices, poor education, and high levels of alcohol and drug abuse. Barriers to care include limited data, criminalization, and high levels of stigma...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429434/truvada-emtricitabine-tenofovir-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-roll-out-among-south-african-university-students-lots-of-positives-but-let-us-keep-an-eye-on-possible-surprises
#9
K Montjane, S Dlamini, C Dandara
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has fundamentally altered the natural history of HIV/AIDS, sharply reducing HIV-related morbidity and prolonging longevity. However, there seems to be a resurgence in HIV infection rates in some parts of the world that has prompted consideration of pre-exposure prophylaxis (pre-EP) and vaccination. Despite their good viral suppression profiles, most drugs used as part of ART also have unwanted adverse drug reactions/effects (ADRs). In this article we acknowledge the utility of pre-EP in combating HIV transmission, but we also highlight the need to prepare for management of other unexpected outcomes such as ADRs and viral resistance, to ensure the success of the programme...
February 1, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422452/population-size-estimation-of-gay-and-bisexual-men-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-using-social-media-based-platforms
#10
Stefan Baral, Rachael M Turner, Carrie E Lyons, Sean Howell, Brian Honermann, Alex Garner, Robert Hess, Daouda Diouf, George Ayala, Patrick S Sullivan, Greg Millett
BACKGROUND: Gay, bisexual, and other cisgender men who have sex with men (GBMSM) are disproportionately affected by the HIV pandemic. Traditionally, GBMSM have been deemed less relevant in HIV epidemics in low- and middle-income settings where HIV epidemics are more generalized. This is due (in part) to how important population size estimates regarding the number of individuals who identify as GBMSM are to informing the development and monitoring of HIV prevention, treatment, and care programs and coverage...
February 8, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420549/contexts-of-vulnerability-and-the-acceptability-of-new-biomedical-hiv-prevention-technologies-among-key-populations-in-south-africa-a-qualitative-study
#11
Millicent Atujuna, Peter A Newman, Melissa Wallace, Megan Eluhu, Clara Rubincam, Ben Brown, Linda-Gail Bekker
BACKGROUND: New biomedical prevention technologies (NPTs) may contribute to substantially reducing incident HIV infections globally. We explored acceptability and preferences for NPTs among key and other vulnerable populations in two South African townships. METHODS: We conducted six focus groups and 12 in-depth interviews with adolescents, and adult heterosexual men, women, and men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 48), and eight in-depth interviews with key informant healthcare workers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415175/metabolic-effects-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-with-co-formulated-tenofovir-disoproxal-fumarate-and-emtricitabine
#12
David V Glidden, Kathleen Mulligan, Vanessa McMahan, Peter L Anderson, Juan Guanira, Suwat Chariyalertsak, Susan P Buchbinder, Linda-Gail Bekker, Mauro Schechter, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Robert M Grant
Background: Antiretroviral drugs have been associated with changes in fat metabolism including lipids, fat mass and fat distribution. In HIV treatment, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been shown to have a more favorable metabolic profile than other drugs in its class. However, the metabolic effects of TDF used as PrEP have not been reported. Methods: We evaluated the effects of TDF/FTC on lipids and body composition in participants in a blinded placebo controlled PrEP trial...
February 3, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410019/novel-secondary-mutations-c56s-and-g149a-confer-resistance-to-hiv-1-integrase-strand-transfer-inhibitors
#13
Tomokazu Yoshinaga, Takahiro Seki, Shigeru Miki, Tadashi Miyamoto, Akemi Suyama-Kagitani, Shinobu Kawauchi-Miki, Masanori Kobayashi, Akihiko Sato, Eugene Stewart, Mark Underwood, Tamio Fujiwara
Cabotegravir (CAB, S/GSK1265744) is an investigational second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) with a chemical structure similar to dolutegravir. CAB is under development as a long-acting injectable formulation for treatment of HIV-1 infection and for pre-exposure prophylaxis. We conducted an in vitro passage study of raltegravir- or elvitegravir-resistant signature mutants in the presence of CAB to characterize the resistance profile of this drug. During passage with Q148H virus, G140S arose by day 14, followed by G149A and C56S...
January 30, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408341/composite-films-for-vaginal-delivery-of-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-and-emtricitabine
#14
Mafalda Pereira Cautela, Hen Moshe, Alejandro Sosnik, Bruno Sarmento, José das Neves
Prevention of male-to-female HIV transmission remains a huge challenge and topical pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using microbicides may help overcoming the problem. In this work, different types of films containing the antiretroviral drugs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) were developed. Formulations based in poly(vinyl alcohol) and pectin were produced as single- or double-layered films. Films containing TDF/FTC or TDF/FTC-loaded Eudragit® L 100 nanoparticles (NPs) obtained by nano spray-drying were tested for physicochemical, technological and biological properties relevant to microbicide development...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404756/why-i-quit-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-a-mixed-method-study-exploring-reasons-for-prep-discontinuation-and-potential-re-initiation-among-gay-and-bisexual-men
#15
Thomas H F Whitfield, Steven A John, H Jonathon Rendina, Christian Grov, Jeffrey T Parsons
Literature concerning pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among gay and bisexual identifying men (GBM) has explored facilitators and barriers to uptake and adherence. Far less reported are the reasons why GBM discontinue PrEP use. A national sample of 1071 GBM completed surveys about PrEP use and discontinuation. Participants who were still taking PrEP the 24-month follow up were compared to those that had stopped. Eighteen percent (n = 31) of GBM who reported ever using PrEP discontinued use. Younger (AOR = 0...
February 5, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401308/anti-human-immunodeficiency-virus-antibodies-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-evidence-of-early-treatment-impact-on-central-nervous-system-reservoir
#16
Peter D Burbelo, Richard W Price, Lars Hagberg, Hiroyu Hatano, Serena Spudich, Steven G Deeks, Magnus Gisslén
Background: Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) likely persists in the central nervous system (CNS) in treated individuals. We examined anti-HIV antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood as markers of persistence. Methods: Human immunodeficiency virus antibodies were measured in paired CSF and serum before and after long-term treatment of chronic (n = 10) and early infection (n = 12), along with untreated early infection (n = 10)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394918/expanded-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-implementation-in-communities-in-new-south-wales-australia-epic-nsw-design-of-an-open-label-single-arm-implementation-trial
#17
Iryna B Zablotska, Christine Selvey, Rebecca Guy, Karen Price, Jo Holden, Heather-Marie Schmidt, Anna McNulty, David Smith, Fengyi Jin, Janaki Amin, David A Cooper, Andrew E Grulich
BACKGROUND: The New South Wales (NSW) HIV Strategy 2016-2020 aims for the virtual elimination of HIV transmission in NSW, Australia, by 2020. Despite high and increasing levels of HIV testing and treatment since 2012, the annual number of HIV diagnoses in NSW has remained generally unchanged. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective in preventing HIV infection among gay and bisexual men (GBM) when taken appropriately. However, there have been no population-level studies that evaluate the impact of rapid PrEP scale-up in high-risk GBM...
February 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391334/invasive-fungal-infections-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-emergence-of-resistant-pathogens-and-new-antifungal-therapies
#18
Maria N Gamaletsou, Thomas J Walsh, Nikolaos V Sipsas
Invasive fungal infections caused by drug-resistant organisms, are an emerging threat to heavily immunosuppressed patients with haematological malignancies. Modern early antifungal treatment strategies, such as prophylaxis, empirical and pre-emptive therapy result in long term exposure to antifungal agents, which is a major driving force for the development of resistance. The extended use of central venous catheters, the non-linear pharmacokinetics of certain antifungal agents, neutropenia, other forms of intense immunosuppression, and drug toxicities are other contributing factors...
February 2, 2018: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386001/evaluating-the-impact-of-dreams-on-hiv-incidence-among-young-women-who-sell-sex-protocol-for-a-non-randomised-study-in-zimbabwe
#19
Bernadette Hensen, James R Hargreaves, Tarisai Chiyaka, Sungai Chabata, Phillis Mushati, Sian Floyd, Isolde Birdthistle, Joanna Busza, Frances Cowan
BACKGROUND: "Determined, Resilient, AIDS-free, Mentored and Safe" (DREAMS) is a package of biomedical, social and economic interventions offered to adolescent girls and young women aged 10-24 years with the aim of reducing HIV incidence. In four of the six DREAMS districts in Zimbabwe, DREAMS includes an offer of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (DREAMS+PrEP), alongside interventions to support demand and adherence, to women aged 18-24 who are at highest risk of HIV infection, including young women who sell sex (YWSS)...
January 31, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380227/adherence-measurements-in-hiv-new-advancements-in-pharmacologic-methods-and-real-time-monitoring
#20
REVIEW
Jose R Castillo-Mancilla, Jessica E Haberer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we present new developments in antiretroviral adherence, focusing on pharmacological measures and real-time adherence monitoring. In addition, new strategies on how to incorporate these new measures into research and clinical care are proposed. RECENT FINDINGS: Antiretroviral drug concentrations in hair and dried blood spots are two novel pharmacological measures of cumulative drug adherence and exposure that have been recently evaluated in HIV treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis...
January 29, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
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