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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922719/markov-mixed-effects-modeling-using-electronic-adherence-monitoring-records-identifies-influential-covariates-to-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis
#1
Kumpal Madrasi, Ayyappa Chaturvedula, Jessica E Haberer, Mark Sale, Michael J Fossler, David Bangsberg, Jared M Baeten, Connie Celum, Craig W Hendrix
Adherence is a major factor in the effectiveness of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. Modeling patterns of adherence helps to identify influential covariates of different types of adherence as well as to enable clinical trial simulation so that appropriate interventions can be developed. We developed a Markov mixed-effects model to understand the covariates influencing adherence patterns to daily oral PrEP. Electronic adherence records (date and time of medication bottle cap opening) from the Partners PrEP ancillary adherence study with a total of 1147 subjects were used...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919092/correction-tenofovir-and-emtricitabine-tenofovir-preexposure-prophylaxis-for-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918570/hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-is-it-just-about-pills
#3
Jose V Fernandez-Montero
The increasing use of antiretrovirals for averting HIV infection before potential exposure is under debate. Whereas there is no doubt about the benefit of using Truvada® (tenofovir plus emtricitabine) to reduce HIV acquisition in uninfected persons who have sex with HIV-infected stable partners, concerns are rising about the increasing rate of sexually transmitted infections in subjects engaged in sex with multiple partners, due to misinterpreted self-security.
October 2016: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914856/occult-hiv-1-drug-resistance-to-thymidine-analogues-following-failure-of-first-line-tenofovir-combined-with-a-cytosine-analogue-and-nevirapine-or-efavirenz-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-retrospective-multi-centre-cohort-study
#4
John Gregson, Pontiano Kaleebu, Vincent C Marconi, Cloete van Vuuren, Nicaise Ndembi, Raph L Hamers, Phyllis Kanki, Christopher J Hoffmann, Shahin Lockman, Deenan Pillay, Tulio de Oliveira, Nathan Clumeck, Gillian Hunt, Bernhard Kerschberger, Robert W Shafer, Chunfu Yang, Elliot Raizes, Rami Kantor, Ravindra K Gupta
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 drug resistance to older thymidine analogue nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drugs has been identified in sub-Saharan Africa in patients with virological failure of first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing the modern nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of thymidine analogue mutations (TAM) in patients with virological failure of first-line tenofovir-containing ART...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907972/-tenofovir-alafenamide-fumarate-a-new-generation-of-tenofovir
#5
Svatava Snopková, Kateřina Havlíčková, Petr Husa
Antiretroviral therapy as a life-long treatment has to meet the criteria of maximum efficiency while maintaining the highest possible level of safety and tolerance. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is an antiretroviral drug with an excellent effect of virological suppression. However, some patients can over time develop clinically significant nephrotoxicity or bone loss. Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) is a novel prodrug of tenofovir (TFV) that is more stable in human plasma and more efficiently penetrates into target cells than TFV...
September 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905999/factors-associated-with-hiv-viral-load-blips-and-the-relationship-between-self-reported-adherence-and-efavirenz-blood-levels-on-blip-occurrence-a-case-control-study
#6
Aaron Farmer, Xun Wang, Anuradha Ganesan, Robert G Deiss, Brian K Agan, Thomas A O'Bryan, Kevin Akers, Jason F Okulicz
BACKGROUND: The uncertain etiology of HIV viral load (VL) blips may lead to increased use of clinical resources. We evaluated the association of self-reported adherence (SRA) and antiretroviral (ART) drug levels on blip occurrence in US Military HIV Natural History Study (NHS) participants who initiated the single-tablet regimen efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EFV/FTC/TDF). METHODS: ART-naïve NHS participants started on EFV/FTC/TDF between 2006 and 2013 who achieved VL suppression (<50 copies/mL) within 12 months and had available SRA and stored plasma samples were included...
March 22, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904105/evaluation-of-the-lipid-concentrations-after-switching-from-antiretroviral-drug-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-to-abacavir-sulfate-lamivudine-in-virologically-suppressed-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients
#7
Hirotaka Arae, Masao Tateyama, Hideta Nakamura, Daisuke Tasato, Kaoru Kami, Kyoko Miyagi, Saori Maeda, Hitoshi Uehara, Makiko Moromi, Katsunori Nakamura, Jiro Fujita
Objective Recently, tenofovir disoproxil fumatate (TDF)-related side effects, such as renal nephrotoxicity and reduction of bone mineral density, have been reported. Consequently, increased switching from fixed-dose tablet TDF and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) to abacavir and lamivudine (ABC/3TC) has occurred. Interestingly, while TDF has a lipid-lowering property, one of the ABC-related side effects is hyperlipidemia. Therefore, such switching could cause lipid elevation. To evaluate the change in lipid levels associated with switching from TDF/FTC to ABC/3TC in virologically-suppressed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903949/possible-drug-herb-interaction-between-herbal-supplement-containing-horsetail-equisetum-arvense-and-antiretroviral-drugs-report-of-2-cases
#8
Ezequiel Cordova, Laura Morganti, Claudia Rodriguez
The use of alternative medicines, including herbs, is common among HIV-positive patients, even in those on antiretroviral treatment. Equisetum arvense, known as "horsetail," is mainly used for its diuretic properties. There are limited data about the pharmacological properties of this compound and the potential drug-herb interactions. The authors report 2 cases in which a possible drug-herb interaction may have led to virological breakthrough in patients who were maintained on the same regimen for many years, including lamivudine (3TC)/zidovudine (ZDV)/efavirenz (EFV) and emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir (TDF)/EFV, respectively...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894270/evaluation-of-tolerability-with-the-co-formulation-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-for-post-hiv-exposure-prophylaxis
#9
Nadia Valin, Laurent Fonquernie, Anne Daguenel, Pauline Campa, Theresita Anthony, Marguerite Guiguet, Pierre Marie Girard, Marie Caroline Meyohas
BACKGROUND: The preferred regimen for HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is based mainly on safety and tolerability because it is given to immunocompetent people without HIV infection for a limited time (28 days). The frequency of adverse events (AEs) may be > 60%. Although AEs are generally not severe, they can lead to lack of adherence and failure to complete the regimen. We evaluated the co-formulation elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Stribild(®)) prescribed as one pill taken once daily for HIV PEP in terms of tolerability and adherence...
November 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890952/a-study-of-antiretroviral-resistance-patterns-in-treatment-experienced-and-naive-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients
#10
Raj Harjani, Ram Malkani
BACKGROUND: About 10% of the patients had surveillance drug-related mutations for nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs) in an Indian study. It was also reported that resistance was maximum for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and minimum for PIs. METHODS: The present study was a cross-sectional assessment of 21 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals attending a HIV care center in a tertiary care center in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870645/where-next-with-preexposure-prophylaxis
#11
Diarmuid Nugent, Richard Gilson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Controlling the HIV epidemic remains a major public health challenge, and there is an urgent need for novel prevention strategies. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) refers to the use of antiretrovirals in HIV-negative people at high risk to prevent infection and has the potential to be an important component in the global effort to end the HIV epidemic by 2030. We review the current evidence for the safety and efficacy of PrEP in its different forms and address emergent issues and concerns regarding its implementation...
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861265/drug-updates-and-approvals-2016-in-review
#12
Lindsy Meadowcraft, Geoffrey Mospan, Taylor Morrisette, Katie Smart, Melissa Janis
In 2016, the FDA approved several new drugs for use in primary care. These drugs include amphetamine extended-release orally disintegrating tablets (Adzenys XR-ODT), elbasvir and grazoprevir (Zepatier), emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide (Descovy), glycopyrrolate and formoterol (Bevespi Aerosphere), insulin degludec injection (Tresiba), and ixekizumab (Taltz).
December 16, 2016: Nurse Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846073/brief-report-preventing-hiv-1-infection-in-women-using-oral-preexposure-prophylaxis-a-meta-analysis-of-current-evidence
#13
Brett Hanscom, Holly E Janes, Peter D Guarino, Ying Huang, Elizabeth R Brown, Ying Qing Chen, Scott M Hammer, Peter B Gilbert, Deborah J Donnell
The World Health Organization has issued an early release revision to its antiretroviral guidelines in which PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis in the form of daily oral, fixed dose combination tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine) is recommended as a prevention option to all people at substantial risk of acquiring HIV. However, lack of effectiveness in 2 major women-only PrEP trials, VOICE and FEM-PrEP, continues to be a cause for concern about achieving effectiveness for women in Southern Africa. We conducted a series of meta-analyses of oral effectiveness of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine in women including all 5 randomized placebo-controlled trials that included women...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835613/efficacy-and-safety-of-tenofovir-containing-antiretroviral-therapy-in-women-who-acquired-hiv-while-enrolled-in-tenofovir-gel-prophylaxis-trials
#14
Nivashnee Naicker, Anushka Naidoo, Lise Werner, Nigel Garrett, Nelisile Majola, Villeshni Asari, Cheryl Baxter, Anneke Grobler, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim S Abdool Karim
BACKGROUND: We assessed whether women who acquired HIV during tenofovir gel prophylaxis trials can be safely and effectively treated with tenofovir-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Between May 2011 and October 2014, HIV seroconvertors from two tenofovir gel trials were recruited when eligible for ART (CD4 count <350 cells/μl, pregnancy or AIDS-defining illness). Women were randomised to tenofovir-containing (tenofovir + lamivudine/emtricitabine + efavirenz) or tenofovir-sparing (zidovudine + lamivudine/emtricitabine + efavirenz) antiretroviral treatment regimens...
November 4, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832147/model-linking-plasma-and-intracellular-tenofovir-emtricitabine-with-deoxynucleoside-triphosphates
#15
Xinhui Chen, Sharon M Seifert, Jose R Castillo-Mancilla, Lane R Bushman, Jia-Hua Zheng, Jennifer J Kiser, Samantha MaWhinney, Peter L Anderson
The coformulation of the nucleos(t)ide analogs (NA) tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) is approved for HIV-infection treatment and prevention. Plasma TFV and FTC undergo complicated hybrid processes to form, accumulate, and retain as their active intracellular anabolites: TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) and FTC-triphosphate (FTC-TP). Such complexities manifest in nonlinear intracellular pharmacokinetics (PK). In target cells, TFV-DP/FTC-TP compete with endogenous deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTP) at the active site of HIV reverse transcriptase, underscoring the importance of analog:dNTP ratios for antiviral efficacy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821449/an-enhanced-emtricitabine-loaded-long-acting-nano-formulation-for-prevention-or-treatment-of-hiv-infection
#16
Subhra Mandal, Michael Belshan, Ashley Holec, You Zhou, Christopher J Destache
Among various FDA approved combination antiretroviral drugs (cARVs), emtricitabine (FTC) has been a very effective nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Thus far FTC is the only deoxycytidine nucleoside analog. However, a major drawback of FTC is its large volume distribution (averaging 1.4 L/kg) and short plasma half-life (8-10 h), necessitating a high daily dosage. Thus, we propose an innovative fabrication method of loading FTC in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymeric nanoparticles (FTC-NPs), potentially overcoming these drawbacks...
November 7, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815068/body-composition-and-metabolic-outcomes-after-96-weeks-of-treatment-with-ritonavir-boosted-lopinavir-plus-either-nucleoside-or-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-or-raltegravir-in-patients-with-hiv-with-virological-failure-of-a-standard-first-line
#17
Mark A Boyd, Janaki Amin, Patrick W G Mallon, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Johan Lombaard, Robin Wood, Ploenchan Chetchotisakd, Praphan Phanuphak, Lerato Mohapi, Iskandar Azwa, Waldo H Belloso, Jean-Michel Molina, Jennifer Hoy, Cecilia L Moore, Sean Emery, David A Cooper
BACKGROUND: Lipoatrophy is one of the most feared complications associated with the use of nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N[t]RTIs). We aimed to assess soft-tissue changes in participants with HIV who had virological failure of a first-line antiretroviral (ART) regimen containing a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor plus two N(t)RTIs and were randomly assigned to receive a second-line regimen containing a boosted protease inhibitor given with either N(t)RTIs or raltegravir...
November 1, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812717/bone-mineral-density-and-vitamin-d-levels-in-hiv-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-african-american-individuals-randomized-to-receive-hiv-drug-regimens
#18
Paul P Cook, Alexandra Te Stang, Lia R Walker, Shaw M Akula, Fiona J Cook
OBJECTIVES: Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is associated with a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD). Treatment with efavirenz is associated with vitamin D deficiency. We compared the effects of efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EFV/FTC/TDF) with the effects of raltegravir, darunavir, and ritonavir (RAL/DRV/r) on BMD and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment-naïve African American subjects...
November 2016: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811319/phase-2-study-of-the-safety-and-tolerability-of-maraviroc-containing-regimens-to-prevent-hiv-infection-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm-hptn-069-actg-a5305
#19
Roy M Gulick, Timothy J Wilkin, Ying Q Chen, Raphael J Landovitz, K Rivet Amico, Alicia M Young, Paul Richardson, Mark A Marzinke, Craig W Hendrix, Susan H Eshleman, Ian McGowan, Leslie M Cottle, Adriana Andrade, Cheryl Marcus, Karin L Klingman, Wairimu Chege, Alex R Rinehart, James F Rooney, Philip Andrew, Robert A Salata, Manya Magnus, Jason E Farley, Albert Liu, Ian Frank, Ken Ho, Jorge Santana, Joanne D Stekler, Marybeth McCauley, Kenneth H Mayer
BACKGROUND:  Maraviroc (MVC) is a candidate for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). METHODS:  Phase 2 48-week safety/tolerability study of four regimens: MVC alone, MVC+emtricitabine (FTC), MVC+tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and TDF+FTC. Eligible participants were HIV-uninfected men and transgender women reporting condomless anal intercourse with >1 HIV-infected or unknown-serostatus man within 90 days. At each visit, assessments, laboratory testing, and counseling were done...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809711/systematic-review-of-renal-and-bone-safety-of-the-antiretroviral-regimen-efavirenz-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-in-patients-with-hiv-infection
#20
Roger Bedimo, Lisa Rosenblatt, Joel Myers
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a component of many combinations of antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens. Although potent and generally well tolerated, TDF may cause renal and bone toxicity. The magnitude of off-target side effects is proposed to be related to tenofovir plasma concentrations, which are affected by food and drug-drug interactions with concomitant antiretrovirals. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic literature review and qualitatively report on renal and bone safety outcomes associated with efavirenz (EFV), emtricitabine (FTC), and TDF (EFV+FTC+TDF) ART...
November 2016: HIV Clinical Trials
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