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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230617/acute-kidney-injury-following-efavirenz-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-atripla%C3%A2-overdose
#1
Thomas Havenith, David Burger, Maarten Visschers, Jolanda Schippers, Astrid Oude Lashof
We describe a patient with acute renal failure and irreversible kidney damage after an overdose with the fixed dose combination of efavirenz/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (Atripla). The acute kidney injury was most probably caused by tenofovir. Efavirenz and emtricitabine seemed relatively safe in overdose. The pharmacokinetics in overdose of all three drugs and the effect of hemodialysis on the tenofovir clearance were studied by measuring the plasma concentrations and by the use of clinical pharmacokinetic software...
February 20, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225438/levels-of-intracellular-phosphorylated-tenofovir-and-emtricitabine-correlate-with-natural-substrate-concentrations-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-persons-prescribed-daily-oral-truvadatm-for-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#2
Richard E Haaland, Angela Holder, Chou-Pong Pau, Alison Swaims-Kohlmeier, Carolyn Dawson, Dawn K Smith, Tebogo M Segolodi, Michael C Thigpen, Lynn A Paxton, Teresa L Parsons, Craig W Hendrix, Clyde E Hart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219610/bictegravir-versus-dolutegravir-each-with-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-alafenamide-for-initial-treatment-of-hiv-1-infection-a-randomised-double-blind-phase-2-trial
#3
Paul E Sax, Edwin DeJesus, Gordon Crofoot, Douglas Ward, Paul Benson, Robin Dretler, Anthony Mills, Cynthia Brinson, Julie Peloquin, Xuelian Wei, Kirsten White, Andrew Cheng, Hal Martin, Erin Quirk
BACKGROUND: All recent treatment guidelines recommend integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) as components of initial HIV therapy. Bictegravir, a novel, once-daily, unboosted INSTI, showed potent activity in a 10 day monotherapy study and has a high in-vitro resistance barrier. On the basis of these results, we did a phase 2 trial comparing bictegravir with dolutegravir. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, phase 2 trial, we recruited previously untreated adults (aged ≥18 years) with HIV-1 infections from 22 outpatient centres in the USA...
February 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208119/hiv-prevention-opportunities-and-challenges
#4
Jeanne M Marrazzo
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-based regimens has been shown to be effective in preventing acquisition of HIV infection, with protective efficacy being dependent on adherence to treatment. Data from the PROUD (Preexposure Option for Reducing HIV in the UK) and IPERGAY (Action to Prevent Risk Exposure By and For Gay Men) studies, the later of which employed event-driven PrEP, showed a high rate of protective efficacy of PrEP with TDF and emtricitabine among men who have sex with men...
December 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186251/switch-as-maintenance-to-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-week-48-results-in-a-clinical-cohort
#5
Marine Perrier, Charlotte Charpentier, Gilles Peytavin, Minh Lê, Louis Blondel, Benoit Visseaux, Véronique Joly, Adriana Pinto, Sophie Matheron, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Diane Descamps, Roland Landman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182625/viability-of-primary-osteoblasts-after-treatment-with-tenofovir-alafenamide-lack-of-cytotoxicity-at-clinically-relevant-drug-concentrations
#6
Christian Callebaut, Yang Liu, Darius Babusis, Adrian Ray, Michael Miller, Kathryn Kitrinos
Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a phosphonoamidate prodrug of the nucleotide HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir (TFV). TAF is approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection as part of the single-tablet regimen containing elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and TAF. When dosed once-daily, TAF results in approximately 90% lower levels of plasma TFV and a 4-fold increase in intracellular TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) in PBMCs compared with the TFV prodrug tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Several antiretrovirals, including TDF, have been associated with bone mineral density decreases in patients; the effect of clinically relevant TAF concentrations on primary osteoblast viability was therefore assessed in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166190/pharmacokinetics-of-crushed-elvitegravir-combination-tablet-given-with-or-without-enteral-nutrition
#7
Mieke Jongbloed-de Hoon, Angela Colbers, Kirsten Velthoven-Graafland, Marjolijn Duisenberg-van Essenberg, Martine Kruijssen, Evertine Abbink, Reinout van Crevel, David Burger
We investigated whether a fixed-dose combination tablet of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovirDF (Stribild®), can be crushed and combined with enteral nutrition without influencing pharmacokinetics. This was an open-label, 3-period, single dose, randomized, cross-over, trial in 24 healthy volunteers. Subjects received Stribild whole tablet with breakfast (reference), crushed/suspended Stribild+breakfast, crushed/suspended Stribild+enteral nutrition. Crushed/suspended Stribild plus enteral nutrition was bio-equivalent (90% CI between 80-125%) with a whole Stribild tablet...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160503/comment-on-efficacy-of-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-as-treatment-for-primary-or-recent-hiv-infection
#8
Juan Ambrosioni, María M Mosquera, José M Miró
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151023/emtricitabine-tenofovir-alafenamide-for-the-treatment-of-hiv
#9
Katya C Corado, Eric S Daar
Tenofovir alafenamide is a new oral prodrug of tenofovir resulting in relatively low plasma levels and rapid uptake into peripheral blood mononuclear cells in its active form. The United States Food and Drug Administration has now approved this drug coformulated with elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine, rilpivirine/emtricitabine and emtricitabine. United States guidelines now list this formulation as one of the preferred components of a variety of antiretroviral regimens, and is included as an alternative in other international guidelines, with the notable exception of the World Health Organization, mostly due to limited availability...
February 2, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145050/cytochrome-2b6-polymorphism-and-efavirenz-induced-central-nervous-system-symptoms-a-substudy-of-the-anrs-alize-trial
#10
S Gallien, V Journot, M-A Loriot, H Sauvageon, P Morlat, J Reynes, V Reliquet, G Chêne, J-M Molina
OBJECTIVES: Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6 gene have been associated with high interindividual variation in efavirenz pharmacokinetics. However, clinical data on the relationship of CYP2B6 polymorphisms with the occurrence of efavirenz-induced central nervous system (CNS) symptoms are limited. METHODS: We analysed four polymorphisms in the CYP2B6 (516 G>T), CYP3A5 (6986 A>G) and ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 1 (ABCB1) (2677 G>T/A and 3435 C>T) genes in HIV-infected adults virologically suppressed on a protease inhibitor-based regimen who switched to a regimen containing emtricitabine, didanosine and efavirenz in the setting of the ANRS ALIZE trial...
February 1, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143756/real-world-persistence-with-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-in-the-united-kingdom-a-multicentre-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Joseph M Lewis, Colette Smith, Adele Torkington, Craig Davies, Shazaad Ahmad, Andrew Tomkins, Jonathan Shaw, Margaret Kingston, Ghadeer Muqbill, Philip Hay, Larissa Mulka, Deborah Williams, Laura Waters, Nataliya Brima, Neal Marshall, Margaret Johnson, Mas Chaponda, Mark Nelson
OBJECTIVES: Persistence with an antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen for HIV can be defined as the length of time a patient remains on therapy before stopping or switching. We aimed to describe ART persistence in treatment naïve patients starting therapy in the United Kingdom, and to describe differential persistence by treatment regimen. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study at eight UK centres of ART-naïve adults commencing ART between 2012 and 2015...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134057/hiv-viral-kinetics-and-t-cell-dynamics-in-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-persons-starting-an-integrase-strand-transfer-inhibitor-and-protease-inhibitor-regimen
#12
Maile Y Karris, Sonia Jain, Tyler R C Day, Josué Pérez-Santiago, Miguel Goicoechea, Michael P Dubé, Xiaoying Sun, Celsa Spina, Eric S Daar, Richard H Haubrich, Sheldon Morris
BACKGROUND: Nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-sparing regimens may potentially minimize antiretroviral (ART) toxicities, but demonstrate mixed efficacy and toxicity results. The impact of an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) and protease inhibitor (PI) regimen on HIV viral dynamics and T cell kinetics remains underdescribed. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of raltegravir + ritonavir boosted lopinavir (RAL + LPV/r) to efavirenz/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (EFV/TDF/FTC) on HIV kinetics and T cell dynamics...
January 30, 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130774/pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-safety-concerns
#13
REVIEW
Raymond A Tetteh, Barbara A Yankey, Edmund T Nartey, Margaret Lartey, Hubert G M Leufkens, Alexander N O Dodoo
Available evidence supports the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in decreasing the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among high-risk individuals, especially when used in combination with other behavioural preventive methods. Safety concerns about PrEP present challenges in the implementation and use of PrEP. The aim of this review is to discuss safety concerns observed in completed clinical trials on the use of PrEP. We performed a literature search on PrEP in PubMed, global advocacy for HIV prevention (Aids Vaccine Advocacy Coalition) database, clinical trials registry " http://www...
January 28, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127144/a-nodular-ulcerative-form-of-secondary-syphilis-in-aids
#14
Ofelya Gevorgyan, Benjamin D Owen, Arvind Balavenkataraman, Mitchell R Weinstein
An uncommon variant in the pre-AIDS era, lues maligna is a nodular-ulcerative form of secondary syphilis. We present a case of a 41-year-old man with HIV infection who developed fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, right upper quadrant abdominal pain, weight loss, watery diarrhea, and a painless, nonpruritic rash. He had diffuse nodular-ulcerative lesions in various stages of development. He was found to have a CD4 count of 101 cells/mm(3) (22%), an HIV viral load of 2,735,060 copies/mL, and a positive rapid plasma reagin at 1:64...
January 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117606/tenofovir-alafenamide-emtricitabine-elvitegravir-and-cobicistat-combination-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-hiv
#15
Arkaitz Imaz, Daniel Podzamczer
Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a novel prodrug of the nucleotide analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitor, tenofovir. TAF has been co-formulated with emtricitabine (FTC), elvitegravir (EVG) and the EVG metabolic enhancer, cobicistat (COBI) as a single-tablet regimen being the first TAF-containing antiretroviral combination available. Areas covered: This article summarizes the available information on the pharmacology of the novel compound TAF and overviews TAF/FTC/EVG/COBI use for HIV-1 infected patients, with specific focus on clinical efficacy and safety data...
January 24, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116848/plasma-trough-concentrations-of-darunavir-ritonavir-and-raltegravir-in-older-patients-with-hiv-1-infection
#16
L Calza, V Colangeli, E Magistrelli, L Bussini, M Conti, E Ramazzotti, R Mancini, P Viale
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess plasma concentrations of darunavir/ritonavir and raltegravir in older patients compared with younger patients with HIV-1 infection. METHODS: In this observational, open-label study, adult HIV-infected out-patients aged ≤ 40 years (younger patients) or ≥ 60 years (older patients) and treated with tenofovir/emtricitabine plus darunavir/ritonavir (800/100 mg daily) or raltegravir (400 mg twice daily) were asked to participate...
January 24, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112280/tenofovir-alafenamide-fumarate-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-infection
#17
R Sampath, J Zeuli, S Rizza, Z Temesgen
Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate is a recently developed prodrug of tenofovir, a nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor with potent inhibitory activity against HIV. The utility of a previously developed tenofovir prodrug, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, had been hampered by renal and bone mineral adverse events. Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate overcomes the shortcomings of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate by delivering high intracellular concentrations of the parent drug, tenofovir, while substantially reducing systemic exposure...
November 2016: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091393/viral-blips-were-infrequent-in-treatment-naive-adults-treated-with-rilpivirine-emtricitabine-tenofovir-df-or-efavirenz-emtricitabine-tenofovir-df-through-96-weeks
#18
Danielle P Porter, Rima Kulkarni, Will Garner, Michael D Miller, Kirsten L White
BACKGROUND: The clinical impact of transient episodes of HIV viremia (viral blips) on virologic failure and resistance development is not fully understood. Here we investigated the blip frequency and virologic outcomes of HIV-1-infected subjects experiencing viral blips among treatment-naïve subjects initiating therapy on rilpivirine (RPV)/emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or efavirenz (EFV)/FTC/TDF through 96 weeks of treatment. METHODS: Subjects treated with at least one dose of study drug and with at least one post-baseline HIV-1 RNA value were included in this analysis...
January 16, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076335/infrequent-development-of-drug-resistance-in-hiv-1-infected-treatment-naive-subjects-after-96-weeks-of-treatment-with-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir-alafenamide-or-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate
#19
Nicolas Margot, Stephanie Cox, Moupali Das, Scott McCallister, Michael D Miller, Christian Callebaut
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a novel prodrug of the nucleotide RT inhibitor (NtRTI) tenofovir (TFV) that loads lymphocytes with TFV-diphosphate more efficiently than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). The single-tablet regimen (STR) composed of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/TAF (E/C/F/TAF) has demonstrated non-inferiority to the STR of E/C/F/TDF in clinical studies, with high proportions of subjects achieving HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL at week 48, and maintained through week 96...
January 11, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073964/single-dose-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-oral-tenofovir-and-emtricitabine-in-blood-saliva-and-rectal-tissue-a-sub-study-of-the-anrs-ipergay-trial
#20
Julien Fonsart, Sentob Saragosti, Milad Taouk, Gilles Peytavin, Lane Bushman, Isabelle Charreau, Allan Hance, Lauriane Goldwirt, Stéphane Morel, Fabrizio Mammano, Bénédicte Loze, Catherine Capitant, François Clavel, Nadia Mahjoub, Laurence Meyer, Peter L Anderson, Constance Delaugerre, Jean-Michel Molina
OBJECTIVES: In the ANRS IPERGAY pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trial, a single dose of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine was taken orally 2-24 h before sexual intercourse. A sub-study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetics of tenofovir and emtricitabine in blood, saliva and rectal tissue following this initial oral intake. METHODS: Plasma, PBMC, saliva and rectal tissue sampling was performed over 24 h in 12 seronegative men before enrolment in the ANRS IPERGAY trial, following a single dose of 600 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/400 mg emtricitabine...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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