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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453836/commonly-transmitted-hiv-1-drug-resistance-mutations-in-reverse-transcriptase-and-protease-in-antiretroviral-treatment-naive-patients-and-response-to-regimens-containing-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-or-tenofovir-alafenamide
#1
Nicolas A Margot, Pamela Wong, Rima Kulkarni, Kirsten White, Danielle Porter, Michael E Abram, Christian Callebaut, Michael D Miller
Background.: The presence of transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRMs) in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive patients can adversely affect the outcome of ART. Methods.: Resistance testing was conducted in 6704 ART-naive subjects predominantly from the United States and Europe in 9 clinical studies conducted by Gilead Sciences from 2000 to 2013. Results.: The presence of TDRMs increased during this period (from 5.2% to 11.4%), primarily driven by an increase in nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutations (from 0...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449189/reply-adalimumab-is-a-safe-option-for-psoriasis-patients-with-concomitant-hepatitis-b-or-c-infection-a-multicentre-cohort-study-of-37-patients-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
F Ricceri, L Pescitelli, L Lazzeri, A Di Cesare, F Prignano
We have read with interest the article by Piaserico et al. concerning the use of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) blocking agent adalimumab in psoriatic patients with concomitant hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). The authors describe 17 psoriatic patients affected by chronic HBV infection and 20 affected by chronic HCV who were successfully treated with adalimumab with no evidence of HBV or HCV reactivation in a mean follow-up period of 27 and 40 months, respectively. We have previously described our successful experience of treatment with anti-TNF-alpha therapy in 17 psoriatic patients (11 with past HBV infection, 5 with chronic HCV infection and one affected by both HBV and HCV) without the use of lamivudine or adenofovir, and can now report on long-term follow-up data (mean follow-up period of 60 months)...
April 27, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447585/metabolic-profiles-of-individuals-switched-to-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy-after-failing-standard-first-line-therapy-for-treatment-of-hiv-1-infection-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Amanda H Yao, Cecilia L Moore, Poh Lian Lim, Jean-Michel Molina, Juan Sierra Madero, Stephen Kerr, Paddy Wg Mallon, Sean Emery, David A Cooper, Mark A Boyd
BACKGROUND: To investigate metabolic changes associated with second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) following virological failure of first-line ART. METHODS: SECOND-LINE was an open-label randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) with 2-3 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N(t)RTI-group) or raltegravir (RAL-group) Two hundred and ten participants had a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-scan at baseline, week 48 and 96...
April 27, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445403/detection-of-hepatitis-b-virus-m204i-mutation-by-quantum-dot-labeled-dna-probe
#4
Cheng Zhang, Yiping Chen, Xinmiao Liang, Guanhua Zhang, Hong Ma, Leng Nie, Yu Wang
Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanoparticles with a diameter of less than 10 nm, which have been widely used as fluorescent probes in biochemical analysis and vivo imaging because of their excellent optical properties. Sensitive and convenient detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) gene mutations is important in clinical diagnosis. Therefore, we developed a sensitive, low-cost and convenient QDs-mediated fluorescent method for the detection of HBV gene mutations in real serum samples from chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who had received lamivudine or telbivudine antiviral therapy...
April 26, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440785/impacts-of-hbv-rth55r-polymerase-substitution-on-viral-replication-and-rtm204i-v-resistance-to-nucleoside-nucleotide-antiviral-drugs
#5
Kuan-Hui Xiang, Cheng-Yu Zhao, Shuai Wang, Yao Li, Ming-Ze Su, Qiang-Yi Wang, Xi-Zhan Xu, Juan Deng, Hui Zhuang, Tong Li
BACKGROUND: High genetic variability at reverse transcriptase (RT) region of hepatitis B virus (HBV) could confer resistance to nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs). The aim of this study was to identify new RT amino acid (AA) substitutions related to NUCs resistance. METHODS: HBV RT sequences of genotype C from 501 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients were analyzed to identify potential RT substitutions related to NUCs resistance. In vitro studies without and with NUCs were performed in HepG2 cell line transfected by clones with RT harboring wild-type or substituted AA(s) of interest...
April 25, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436380/tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-monotherapy-is-superior-to-entecavir-adefovir-combination-therapy-in-patients-with-suboptimal-response-to-lamivudine-adefovir-therapy-for-nucleoside-resistant-hbv-a-96-week-prospective-multicenter-trial
#6
Sae Hwan Lee, Gab Jin Cheon, Hong Soo Kim, Sang Gyune Kim, Young Seok Kim, Soung Won Jeong, Jae Young Jang, Boo Sung Kim, Baek Gyu Jun, Young Don Kim, Dae Won Jun, Joo Hyun Sohn, Tae Yeob Kim, Byung Seok Lee
BACKGROUND: A complete virologic response is closely related to the long-term outcome of patients with chronic hepatitis B and prevention of emerging hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutations. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) monotherapy compared to entecavir-adefovir dipivoxil (ETV-ADV) combination therapy in patients with suboptimal responses to long-term lamivudine-adefovir dipivoxil (LAM-ADV) therapy for nucleoside analogue-resistant chronic hepatitis B...
April 24, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434406/efavirenz-based-simplification-after-successful-early-lopinavir-boosted-ritonavir-based-therapy-in-hiv-infected-children-in-burkina-faso-and-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-the-monod-anrs-12206-non-inferiority-randomised-trial
#7
Désiré Lucien Dahourou, Madeleine Amorissani-Folquet, Karen Malateste, Clarisse Amani-Bosse, Malik Coulibaly, Carole Seguin-Devaux, Thomas Toni, Rasmata Ouédraogo, Stéphane Blanche, Caroline Yonaba, François Eboua, Philippe Lepage, Divine Avit, Sylvie Ouédraogo, Philippe Van de Perre, Sylvie N'Gbeche, Angèle Kalmogho, Roger Salamon, Nicolas Meda, Marguerite Timité-Konan, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: The 2016 World Health Organization guidelines recommend all children <3 years start antiretroviral therapy (ART) on protease inhibitor-based regimens. But lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) syrup has many challenges in low-income countries, including limited availability, requires refrigeration, interactions with anti-tuberculous drugs, twice-daily dosing, poor palatability in young children, and higher cost than non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs. Successfully initiating LPV/r-based ART in HIV-infected children aged <2 years raises operational challenges that could be simplified by switching to a protease inhibitor-sparing therapy based on efavirenz (EFV), although, to date, EFV is not recommended in children <3 years...
April 24, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424561/response-by-gender-of-hiv-1-infected-subjects-treated-with-abacavir-lamivudine-plus-atazanavir-with-or-without-ritonavir-for-144-weeks
#8
Kathleen E Squires, Benjamin Young, Lizette Santiago, Robin H Dretler, Sharon L Walmsley, Henry H Zhao, Gary E Pakes, Lisa L Ross, Mark S Shaefer
PURPOSE: The 144-week results of the open-label, multicenter Atazanavir/Ritonavir Induction with Epzicom Study (ARIES) were stratified by gender to compare treatment responses. METHODS: A total of 369 HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve subjects receiving once-daily abacavir/lamivudine + atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) whose HIV-1 RNA was <50 copies/mL by week 30 were randomized 1:1 at week 36 to maintain or discontinue ritonavir for 108 subsequent weeks. Between- and within-treatment gender-related efficacy and safety differences were analyzed...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419270/raltegravir-plus-lamivudine-as-maintenance-therapy-in-suppressed-hiv-1-infected-patients-in-real-life-settings
#9
Giulia Cucchetto, Massimiliano Lanzafame, Stefano Nicolè, Emanuela Lattuada, Leonardo Calza, Ercole Concia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418990/bone-density-microarchitecture-and-tissue-quality-following-long-term-treatment-with-tenofovir-emtricitabine-or-abacavir-lamivudine
#10
Robert Güerri-Fernández, Daniel Molina-Morant, Judit Villar-García, Sabina Herrera, Alicia González-Mena, Ana Guelar, Marta Trenchs-Rodríguez, Adolfo Díez-Pérez, Hernando Knobel
OBJECTIVES: HIV infection has been associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD). Antiretroviral therapy has a deleterious effect on BMD, but its effect on bone fragility is not clear. The objective of this study is to analyze the BMD, microarchitecture and tissue quality of bone in patients receiving long-term tenofovir- or abacavir-based antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study in HIV patients undergoing tenofovir or abacavir antiretroviral therapy for more than five years...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403619/insulin-like-growth-factor-is-associated-with-changes-in-body-composition-with-art-initiation
#11
Kristine M Erlandson, Suzanne P Fiorillo, Sandra Wagner Cardoso, Cynthia Rivere, Jorge Sanchez, James Hakim, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Sharlaa Badal-Fasesen, Umesh Lalloo, Johnstone J Kumwenda, Thomas B Campbell, Todd Brown
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis abnormalities have been associated with body composition changes among HIV-infected persons with wasting or lipodystrophy. Little is known of GH/IGF-1 axis alterations with ART initiation or differing ART therapies. METHODS: The AIDS Clinical Trials Group Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource- Limited Settings (PEARLS) study was a prospective, randomized clinical trial of ART initiation with emtricitabine/tenofovir + efavirenz (FTC/TDF+EFV) vs lamivudine/zidovudine + efavirenz (3TC/ZDV+EFV) in HIV-1-infected individuals from resource-diverse settings...
April 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403026/candidates-for-inclusion-in-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen-are-lamivudine-and-emtricitabine-interchangeable
#12
Nathan Ford, Marco Vitoria, Meg Doherty, Andy Gray
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lamivudine (3TC) and emtricitabine (FTC) are the most widely used antiretroviral medications worldwide and are considered by the WHO to be interchangeable. This article reviews evidence supporting interchangeability of 3TC and FTC and considerations for future use. RECENT FINDINGS: Three randomized trials have directly compared the safety and efficacy of 3TC and FTC against identical backbone regimens. Each of these trials reported a nonsignificant difference in virological suppression, and when results were pooled the overall difference was nonsignificant (relative risk 1...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402499/structural-basis-for-the-d-stereoselectivity-of-human-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE
#13
Rajan Vyas, Andrew J Reed, Austin T Raper, Walter J Zahurancik, Petra C Wallenmeyer, Zucai Suo
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) with L-stereochemistry have long been an effective treatment for viral infections because of the strong D-stereoselectivity exhibited by human DNA polymerases relative to viral reverse transcriptases. The D-stereoselectivity of DNA polymerases has only recently been explored structurally and all three DNA polymerases studied to date have demonstrated unique stereochemical selection mechanisms. Here, we have solved structures of human DNA polymerase β (hPolβ), in complex with single-nucleotide gapped DNA and L-nucleotides and performed pre-steady-state kinetic analysis to determine the D-stereoselectivity mechanism of hPolβ...
April 10, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401876/dolutegravir-abacavir-lamivudine-versus-current-art-in-virally-suppressed-patients-striiving-a-48-week-randomized-non-inferiority-open-label-phase-iiib-study
#14
Benoît Trottier, Jordan E Lake, Ken Logue, Cynthia Brinson, Lizette Santiago, Clare Brennan, Justin A Koteff, Brian Wynne, Judy Hopking, Catherine Granier, Michael Aboud
BACKGROUND: Simplified dosing regimens are important for patients who face challenges in adhering to HIV-1 therapy. We investigated the safety and virologic efficacy of switching to once-daily abacavir/dolutegravir/lamivudine (ABC/DTG/3TC). METHODS: The STRIIVING study was a randomized, open-label, phase IIIb study in adults with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at enrolment (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02105987). Subjects were randomly assigned to switch to ABC/DTG/3TC once daily for 48 weeks (early-switch group) or continue current ART for 24 weeks and then switch to ABC/DTG/3TC (late-switch group)...
April 12, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389458/probable-interaction-between-levothyroxine-and-ritonavir-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Rahul Sahajpal, Rabia A Ahmed, Christine A Hughes, Michelle M Foisy
PURPOSE: A case of probable interaction of levothyroxine and ritonavir is presented along with a review of the relevant literature and recommendations on clinical management. SUMMARY: A 37-year-old woman with human immunodeficiency virus infection who had recently undergone thyroidectomy for a benign multinodular goiter presented to a clinic with hypothyroidism (she was also found to be pregnant), and treatment with levothyroxine 75 μg daily was initiated. While receiving antiretroviral therapy (abacavir-lamivudine and lopinavir-ritonavir) during pregnancy, the patient had persistently elevated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations (up to 125...
April 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384599/the-effect-of-veno-venous-ecmo-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-ritonavir-darunavir-tenofovir-and-lamivudine
#16
Mohamed A Ghazi Suliman, Kayode Ogungbenro, Christos Kosmidis, Alan Ashworth, Julian Barker, Anita Szabo-Barnes, Andrew Davies, Lee Feddy, Igor Fedor, Tim Hayes, Sarah Stirling, Ignacio Malagon
INTRODUCTION: To our knowledge, there is no published data on the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of antiretroviral (ART) drugs on patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy. We present PK analyses of Ritonavir, Darunavir, Lamivudine and Tenofovir in a patient with HIV who required veno-venous ECMO (VV ECMO). METHODS: Plasma concentrations for Ritonavir, Darunavir, Tenofovir and Lamivudine were obtained while the patient was on ECMO following pre-emptive dose adjustments...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383299/a-cost-savings-analysis-of-a-candidate-universal-antiretroviral-regimen
#17
David Ripin, Vineet R Prabhu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite significant strides in tackling HIV/AIDS in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), many treatment shortcomings remain, with limited drug selection to patients emerging as a critical challenge. The potential cost-savings benefits of adopting newer drugs as near-universal first-line antiretroviral (ARV) regimens that also provide improved clinical outcomes are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: In the near term, a fixed-dose combination of dolutegravir (DTG or D) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and either lamivudine or emtricitabine (XTC), that is, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/XTC/DTG (TXD) (X = XTC), could represent a near-universal first-line antiretroviral regimen offering significant clinical benefit, commodity savings, and overall health system savings...
April 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380208/evolution-of-hepatitis-b-serological-markers-in-hiv-coinfected-patients-a-case-study
#18
Ana Luiza de Castro Conde Toscano, Maria Cássia Mendes Corrêa
OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution of serological markers among HIV and hepatitis B coinfected patients, with emphasis on evaluating the reactivation or seroreversion of these markers. METHODS: The study population consisted of patients met in an AIDS Outpatient Clinic in São Paulo State, Brazil. We included in the analysis all HIV-infected and who underwent at least two positive hepatitis B surface antigen serological testing during clinical follow up, with tests taken six months apart...
March 30, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376825/antiretroviral-therapy-supply-chain-quality-control-and-assurance-in-improving-people-living-with-hiv-therapeutic-outcomes-in-cameroon
#19
M P Ngogang Djobet, David Singhe, Julienne Lohoue, Christopher Kuaban, Jeanne Ngogang, Ernest Tambo
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of medication efficacy and safety is an essential guarantee to successful therapeutic outcome in public health practices. However, larger distribution chain supply in developing countries such as Cameroon is often challenged by counterfeit drugs, poor manufacturing, storage and degradation leading to health and patient adverse consequences. Yet, access to supply chain management in strengthening ARVs quality assurance and outcomes remains poorly documented. More than 53,000 patients have been enrolled on free ARVs medications, but little is documented on quality assurance and validity of safety for affected populations along the supply chain management since 2008...
April 4, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373116/telbivudine-attenuates-gentamicin-induced-kidney-injury-in-rats
#20
Cigdem Kader, Mustafa Sunbul, Yavuz Kursad Das, Murat Yarim, Abdulkerim Bedir, Efe Karaca, Mehmet Celikbilek, Resat Ozaras
Nephrotoxicity has been associated with nucleos(t)ide analogues other than telbivudine (LdT). This study investigated the potential effects of LdT and lamivudine (LAM) on renal function in an experimental rat model of gentamicin-induced acute nephrotoxicity. A total of 28 healthy Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups: negative control; positive control (PC); LdT; and LAM. Nephrotoxicity was induced by gentamicin in the LdT, LAM and PC groups. LdT and LAM were administered to two groups for 6 weeks starting on the ninth day...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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