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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806922/hepatitis-b-reactivation-characterized-by-hbsag-negativity-and-anti-hbsag-antibodies-persistence-in-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplanted-patient-after-lamivudine-withdrawal
#1
C Cerva, G Maffongelli, V Svicher, R Salpini, L Colagrossi, A Battisti, B Mariotti, R Cerretti, L Cudillo, L Sarmati
BACKGROUND: HBV reactivation is associated with high mortality rates in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and prophylactic lamivudine (LMV) treatment is suggested to prevent this phenomenon. However, the duration of LMV treatment in HSCT patients is not fully defined and the time of immune recovery is considered the best parameter for a drug to be safely interrupted. In patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT, the time of immune recovery is not easy to define and may take years after transplantation and prolonged LMV treatments, which can lead to drug-resistant viral strains...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797289/insulin-resistance-and-associated-factors-among-hiv-infected-patients-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-cross-sectional-study-from-cameroon
#2
Steve Raoul Ngongang Noumegni, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Vicky Jocelyne Moor Ama, Jean Joel Bigna, Felix Kembe Assah, Magellan Guewo-Fokeng, Steve Leumi, Jean-Claude Katte, Mesmin Dehayem, Andre Pascal Kengne, Eugene Sobngwi
BACKGROUND: Little is known on the magnitude and correlates of insulin resistance in HIV-infected people in Africa. We determined the prevalence of insulin resistance and investigated associated factors in HIV-infected adult Cameroonians. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon; during which we enrolled HIV-infected people aged 30 to 74 years with no previous history of cardiovascular disease. An homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) like index served to assess insulin sensitivity with insulin resistance defined by values of 2...
August 10, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783807/comparative-safety-of-antiretroviral-treatment-regimens-in-pregnancy
#3
Rebecca Zash, Denise L Jacobson, Modiegi Diseko, Gloria Mayondi, Mompati Mmalane, Max Essex, Chipo Petlo, Shahin Lockman, Joseph Makhema, Roger L Shapiro
Importance: Maternal antiretroviral treatment (ART) started before conception may increase the risk for adverse birth outcomes among women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but whether the risk differs by ART regimen is unknown. Objective: To compare the risk for selected birth outcomes by maternal ART regimen. Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational birth outcomes surveillance study compared all live births and stillbirths with a gestational age of at least 24 weeks in 8 geographically dispersed government hospitals throughout Botswana (approximately 45% of births nationwide)...
August 7, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770596/high-rates-of-viral-suppression-in-adults-and-children-with-high-cd4-counts-using-a-streamlined-art-delivery-model-in-the-search-trial-in-rural-uganda-and-kenya
#4
Dalsone Kwarisiima, Moses R Kamya, Asiphas Owaraganise, Florence Mwangwa, Dathan M Byonanebye, James Ayieko, Albert Plenty, Doug Black, Tamara D Clark, Bridget Nzarubara, Katherine Snyman, Lillian Brown, Elizabeth Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Elvin H Geng, Edwin D Charlebois, Theodore D Ruel, Maya L Petersen, Diane Havlir, Vivek Jain
INTRODUCTION: The 2015 WHO recommendation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-positive persons calls for treatment initiation in millions of persons newly eligible with high CD4+ counts. Efficient and effective care models are urgently needed for this population. We evaluated clinical outcomes of asymptomatic HIV-positive adults and children starting ART with high CD4+ counts using a novel streamlined care model in rural Uganda and Kenya. METHODS: In the 16 intervention communities of the HIV test-and-treat Sustainable East Africa Research for Community Health Study (NCT01864603), all HIV-positive individuals irrespective of CD4 were offered ART (efavirenz [EFV]/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine (FTC) or lamivudine (3TC)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763473/efficacy-and-safety-of-switching-from-branded-to-generic-antiretrovirals-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-patients
#5
Nicola Gianotti, Andrea Poli, Laura Galli, Michela Franzin, Patrizia Tadini, Nadia Galizzi, Alessia Carbone, Marco Merli, Camilla Muccini, Chiara Oltolini, Andrea Andolina, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Adriano Lazzarin, Antonella Castagna
BACKGROUND: Aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of switching from branded to generic antiretrovirals in patients with HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL. METHODS: Matched-cohort study of patients followed at a single clinical center. Since September 2014, all patients with HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL who were receiving branded lamivudine or zidovudine/lamivudine or efavirenz were switched to the generic compound (switchers) and matched, in a ratio 1:1, for age (±5 years), gender, anti-HCV antibodies, nadir and (±50 cells/μL) baseline CD4+ count (±100 cells/μL), duration of antiretroviral therapy (±1 year), with patients with HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL, on treatment with unavailable generic compounds (non-switchers)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753637/collaborative-update-of-a-rule-based-expert-system-for-hiv-1-genotypic-resistance-test-interpretation
#6
Roger Paredes, Philip L Tzou, Gert van Zyl, Geoff Barrow, Ricardo Camacho, Sergio Carmona, Philip M Grant, Ravindra K Gupta, Raph L Hamers, P Richard Harrigan, Michael R Jordan, Rami Kantor, David A Katzenstein, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Frank Maldarelli, Dan Otelea, Carole L Wallis, Jonathan M Schapiro, Robert W Shafer
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 genotypic resistance test (GRT) interpretation systems (IS) require updates as new studies on HIV-1 drug resistance are published and as treatment guidelines evolve. METHODS: An expert panel was created to provide recommendations for the update of the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVDB) GRT-IS. The panel was polled on the ARVs to be included in a GRT report, and the drug-resistance interpretations associated with 160 drug-resistance mutation (DRM) pattern-ARV combinations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750935/long-acting-intramuscular-cabotegravir-and-rilpivirine-in-adults-with-hiv-1-infection-latte-2-96-week-results-of-a-randomised-open-label-phase-2b-non-inferiority-trial
#7
David A Margolis, Juan Gonzalez-Garcia, Hans-Jürgen Stellbrink, Joseph J Eron, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Daniel Podzamczer, Thomas Lutz, Jonathan B Angel, Gary J Richmond, Bonaventura Clotet, Felix Gutierrez, Louis Sloan, Marty St Clair, Miranda Murray, Susan L Ford, Joseph Mrus, Parul Patel, Herta Crauwels, Sandy K Griffith, Kenneth C Sutton, David Dorey, Kimberly Y Smith, Peter E Williams, William R Spreen
BACKGROUND: Cabotegravir and rilpivirine are antiretroviral drugs in development as long-acting injectable formulations. The LATTE-2 study evaluated long-acting cabotegravir plus rilpivirine for maintenance of HIV-1 viral suppression through 96 weeks. METHODS: In this randomised, phase 2b, open-label study, treatment-naive adults infected with HIV-1 initially received oral cabotegravir 30 mg plus abacavir-lamivudine 600-300 mg once daily. The objective of this study was to select an intramuscular dosing regimen based on a comparison of the antiviral activity, tolerability, and safety of the two intramuscular dosing regimens relative to oral cabotegravir plus abacavir-lamivudine...
July 21, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748198/abacavir-dolutegravir-lamivudine-triumeq-induced-liver-toxicity-in-a-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patient
#8
Erin S Christensen, Rupali Jain, Alison C Roxby
Drug-induced liver injury related to Triumeq (abacavir/lamivudine/dolutegravir) has not been reported in clinical trials. We report a case of hepatotoxicity related to Triumeq exposure in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient. Clinicians should remain aware of the risk for acute and late-onset hepatitis with these agents. Close monitoring is recommended.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746158/lactate-serum-concentrations-during-treatment-with-nucleos-t-ide-analogues-in-hepatitis-b-with-or-without-cirrhosis
#9
Christos Triantos, Maria Kalafateli, Ioanna Aggeletopoulou, Martha Mandellou, Stelios Assimakopoulos, Paraskevi Tselekouni, Dimitra Taprantzi, Giorgos Tsiaoussis, Georgia Vourli, Evangelos D Anastassiou, Charalambos Gogos, Chrisoula Labropoulou-Karatza, Konstantinos Thomopoulos
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical implications of lactate concentrations in patients with hepatitis B with or without cirrhosis during treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and seven consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis B and median age 57 (24-85) years were prospectively included. Lactate concentrations were measured at baseline and at 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months following the baseline measurements...
September 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745207/hiv-drug-resistance-testing-in-a-resource-limited-setting-with-high-viral-diversity-the-first-twenty-eight-months-experience
#10
Elodie Teclaire Ngo-Malabo, Paul Alain Ngoupo, Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba, Emmanuel Akongnwi, Robert Banaï, Laure Ngono, Richard Njouom, Charles Felix Bilong-Bilong, Anfumbom Kfutwah
BACKGROUND: First line antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting consists of nucleotide and non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Protease inhibitors are the hub of second line therapy. The decision to change antiretroviral therapy for a patient is frequently presumptive because of the lack of genotypic resistance tests in routine follow-up. We describe here the resistance profiles observed in patients with varying terms of antiretroviral therapy in Cameroon after implementation of HIV genotypic resistance testing in routine practice...
July 25, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744306/prevalence-and-clinical-profile-of-drug-eruptions-among-antiretroviral-therapy-exposed-hiv-infected-people-in-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon
#11
Emmanuel Armand Kouotou, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Vanessa Nancy Ngono, Sandra A Tatah, Anne Cecile Zoung-Kanyi Bissek, Elie Claude Ndjitoyap Ndam
BACKGROUND: Prevalence and incidence of drug eruptions vary around the world and are influenced by some key factors including HIV infection. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to find the peculiarities of drug eruptions in people living with HIV (PLHIV) and on antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study including ART-taking PLHIV, aged 15+ years, followed up between January 2010 and December 2014 at the day-care unit of the Yaoundé Central Hospital, and who presented with drug eruptions after ART initiation...
2017: Dermatology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741965/cost-effectiveness-of-dolutegravir-abacavir-lamivudine-in-hiv-1-treatment-naive-tn-patients-in-france
#12
Gilles Pialoux, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Hélène Cawston, Caroline Guilmet, Laurent Finkielsztejn, Audrey Laurisse, Céline Aubin
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an integrase inhibitor (INI), dolutegravir (DTG), in combination with abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC) in France, in treatment-naive (TN) HIV adult patients. METHODS: The ARAMIS microsimulation Markov model, evaluates costs and effects of DTG vs. first-line ARVs options including INIs (raltegravir, elvitegravir/c), protease inhibitors (PIs) (darunavir/r, atazanavir/r, lopinavir/r), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (efavirenz and rilpivirine)...
July 31, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737291/nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-reducing-strategies-in-hiv-treatment-assessing-the-evidence
#13
REVIEW
C Orkin, J M Llibre, S Gallien, A Antinori, Gmn Behrens, A Carr
Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, comprising a backbone of two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus another ARV, is the recognized standard of care (SOC), which has helped extend life expectancy in people living with HIV. In a quest to reduce lifelong drug exposure and minimize or avoid the toxicity of NRTIs, "NRTI-reducing" regimens have been investigated. This descriptive review assessing the results of NRTI-reducing strategies from the largest randomized trials focuses on virological efficacy, resistance, regimen safety (in terms of bone mineral density, renal function, lipids and central nervous system function) and simplicity...
July 24, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731907/oral-nucleos-t-ide-analogs-alone-after-liver-transplantation-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-with-preexisting-rt204-mutation
#14
James Fung, Tiffany Wong, Kenneth Chok, Albert Chan, Sui-Ling Sin, Tan-To Cheung, Wing-Chiu Dai, Kelvin Ng, Kevin Ng, Kwan Man, Wai-Kay Seto, Ching-Lung Lai, Man-Fung Yuen, Chung-Mau Lo
BACKGROUND: There is currently limited data regarding the use of oral antiviral therapy alone without HBIG for CHB patients with preexisting LAM-resistance (LAM-R) undergoing liver transplantation. METHODS: This is a cohort study determining the effectiveness and long-term outcome in this group of patients. RESULTS: Fifty-seven consecutive CHB patients with preexisting rt204 LAM-R mutations or virological load refractory to LAM undergoing liver transplantation were included, with a median follow-up of 73 months...
July 21, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729158/fixed-dose-combination-dolutegravir-abacavir-and-lamivudine-versus-ritonavir-boosted-atazanavir-plus-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-and-emtricitabine-in-previously-untreated-women-with-hiv-1-infection-aria-week-48-results-from-a-randomised-open-label-non-inferiority
#15
Catherine Orrell, Debbie P Hagins, Elena Belonosova, Norma Porteiro, Sharon Walmsley, Vicenç Falcó, Choy Y Man, Alicia Aylott, Ann M Buchanan, Brian Wynne, Cindy Vavro, Michael Aboud, Kimberly Y Smith
BACKGROUND: Dolutegravir is a once-daily integrase strand transfer inhibitor with no need for pharmacokinetic boosting that is approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Because women are often under-represented in HIV clinical trials, we addressed the safety and efficacy of dolutegravir in women with HIV-1. METHODS: The ARIA study is a randomised, open-label, multicentre, active-controlled, parallel-group, non-inferiority phase 3b study done in 86 hospital and university infectious disease clinics, local health clinics, and private infectious disease clinics in 12 countries and one US territory, in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia...
July 17, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701257/physician-testing-for-hiv-in-patients-treated-with-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-and-lamivudine-monotherapy-for-hepatitis-b-virus
#16
Jillian S Y Lau, Dilip Ratnam, Ian Woolley
Previously we found that local patients were often not tested for HIV prior to commencing nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcription inhibitor (NRTI) therapy for hepatitis B virus. We performed a national cross-sectional cohort study of physician practices via an online survey. A small majority (23/44; 52%) of participants reported always testing their hepatitis B virus patients for HIV prior to NRTI therapy, and 8/44 (18%) reported testing for HIV the majority of the time. Thirteen (30%) respondents reported testing only if risk factors were present...
July 13, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696345/optimal-hiv-postexposure-prophylaxis-regimen-completion-with-single-tablet-daily-elvitegravir-cobicistat-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-compared-with-more-frequent-dosing-regimens
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Kenneth H Mayer, Daniel Jones, Catherine Oldenburg, Sachin Jain, Marcy Gelman, Shayne Zaslow, Chris Grasso, Matthew J Mimiaga
STRUCTURE: The study evaluated elvitegravir/cobicistat/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) ("Quad pill") for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed individuals may benefit from PEP, but completion rates have been suboptimal because of regimen complexity and side effects. Newer antiretroviral combinations coformulated as single daily pills may optimize PEP adherence. SETTING: One hundred HIV-uninfected individuals who presented to a Boston community health center after an acute HIV sexual exposure were enrolled and initiated PEP with the daily, single-pill combination Quad pill for a 28-day course...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696229/mdr1-and-bcrp-transporter-mediated-drug-drug-interaction-between-rilpivirine-and-abacavir-effect-on-intestinal-absorption
#18
Josef Reznicek, Martina Ceckova, Zuzana Ptackova, Ondrej Martinec, Lenka Tupova, Lukas Cerveny, Frantisek Staud
Rilpivirine (TMC278) is a highly potent second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) representing an effective component of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the treatment of HIV-positive patients. Many antiretroviral drugs commonly used in cART are substrates of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and/or solute carrier (SLC) drug transporters and, therefore, prone to pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The aim of our study was to evaluate rilpivirine interactions with abacavir and lamivudine on selected ABC and SLC transporters in vitro and assess its importance for pharmacokinetics in vivoUsing accumulation assays in MDCK cells overexpressing selected ABC or SLC drug transporters we revealed rilpivirine as a potent inhibitor of MDR1 and BCRP, but not MRP2, OCT1, OCT2 or MATE1...
July 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691231/active-immunization-for-prevention-of-de-novo-hbv-infection-after-adult-living-donor-liver-transplantation-with-hbc-graft
#19
Shih-Ho Wang, Poh-Yen Loh, Ting-Lung Lin, Li-Man Lin, Wei-Feng Lee, Yu-Hung Lin, Chih-Che Lin, Chao-Long Chen
Background De novo hepatitis B infection (DNHB) may occur in recipients who do not receive prophylaxis after liver transplantation (LT) with anti-HBc(+) donor grafts. Active immunization has been shown to prevent DNHB in pediatric recipients. Our aim is to investigate the efficacy of HBV vaccination for preventing DNHB in adult living donor LT (LDLT). Patients and Methods 71 adult HBsAg(-) LDLT patients who received anti-HBc(+) grafts from 2000 to 2010 were enrolled into this study. Patients were given HBV vaccinations with the aim of achieving anti-HBs >1000 IU/L pre-transplant and >100 IU/L post-transplant...
July 10, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686654/a-retrospective-case-cohort-study-comparing-treatment-outcomes-in-abacavir-versus-stavudine-containing-first-line-antiretroviral-treatment-regimens-in-children-3yrs-old-at-a-paediatric-programme-based-in-soweto-south-africa
#20
Haseena Cassim, Kennedy Otwombe, Erica Lazarus, Afaaf Liberty, Glenda E Gray, Oppel B W Greeff, Avy Violari
INTRODUCTION: The current World Health Organization guideline for first line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children recommends the use of abacavir and lamivudine as nucleoside backbones and no longer includes stavudine. We compared treatment outcomes with abacavir (ABC) versus stavudine (d4T) in a cohort of HIV-1 infected children 6 and 12 months after antiretroviral therapy was initiated. METHODS: This was a retrospective case-cohort study, using programmatic data from children enrolled in the Paediatric Wellness Programme at the Perinatal HIV Research Unit in Soweto, South Africa between 2005 and 2013...
2017: PloS One
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