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Lamivudine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150845/effect-of-sorbitol-on-the-pharmacokinetic-profile-of-lamivudine-oral-solution-in-adults-an-open-label-randomized-study
#1
Kimberly Adkison, Allen Wolstenholme, Yu Lou, Zhiping Zhang, Amy Eld, Teodora Perger, Harald Vangerow, Katy Hayward, Mark Shaefer, Cynthia McCoig
In children aged ≤4 years, the relative bioavailability of lamivudine oral solution was 37% lower than that of a tablet formulation. An open-label, 4-way crossover study was conducted in healthy adults to evaluate the effect of sorbitol, a common liquid excipient, on the pharmacokinetics of lamivudine oral solution (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02634073). Sixteen subjects were randomized to 1 of 4 sequences consisting of 4 doses of lamivudine 300 mg (10 mg/mL) alone or with sorbitol 3.2, 10.2, or 13...
November 18, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145330/pathologic-femoral-fracture-due-to-tenofovir-induced-fanconi-syndrome-in-patient-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-a-case-report
#2
You-Sung Suh, Dong-Il Chun, Sung-Woo Choi, Hwan-Woong Lee, Jae-Hwi Nho, Soon-Hyo Kwon, Jae-Ho Cho, Sung Hun Won
RATIONALE: We report a case of a hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive patient with preexisting bone disease who developed tenofovir-induced Fanconi syndrome and subsequently sustained pathologic fracture. To our best knowledge, this is the first report in the English literature about pathologic femoral fracture due to tenofovir-induced Fanconi syndrome in patient with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The present report describes detailed our experience with the diagnosis of pathologic femoral fracture due to tenofovir-induced Fanconi syndrome and treatment...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136032/virological-response-and-resistance-among-hiv-infected-children-receiving-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy-without-virological-monitoring-in-uganda-and-zimbabwe-observational-analyses-within-the-randomised-arrow-trial
#3
Alexander J Szubert, Andrew J Prendergast, Moira J Spyer, Victor Musiime, Philippa Musoke, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Patricia Nahirya-Ntege, Margaret J Thomason, Emmanuel Ndashimye, Immaculate Nkanya, Oscar Senfuma, Boniface Mudenge, Nigel Klein, Diana M Gibb, A Sarah Walker
BACKGROUND: Although WHO recommends viral load (VL) monitoring for those on antiretroviral therapy (ART), availability in low-income countries remains limited. We investigated long-term VL and resistance in HIV-infected children managed without real-time VL monitoring. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the ARROW factorial trial, 1,206 children initiating ART in Uganda and Zimbabwe between 15 March 2007 and 18 November 2008, aged a median 6 years old, with median CD4% of 12%, were randomised to monitoring with or without 12-weekly CD4 counts and to receive 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (2NRTI, mainly abacavir+lamivudine) with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or 3 NRTIs as long-term ART...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126456/virological-response-hiv-1-drug-resistance-mutations-and-genetic-diversity-among-patients-on-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-n-djamena-chad-findings-from-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Chatté Adawaye, Joseph Fokam, Erick Kamangu, Hamit Mahamat Alio, Aoudalkarim Moussa Chahad, Fabrice Susin, Ali Mahamat Moussa, Tchombou Hig-Zounet Bertin, Abdelsalam Tidjani, Dolores Vaira, Michel Moutschen
BACKGROUND: The national antiretroviral therapy in the Republic of Chad provides free of charge antiretroviral regimens and therapeutic monitoring for patients receiving antiretroviral therapy nationwide. For a successful programmatic uptake, these efforts merit to be supported by thorough assessments of antiretroviral therapy response and HIV-1 drug resistance surveillance, especially with risks of cross-resistance due to the gradual stavudine phasing out in such national settings. We therefore evaluated the virological response to antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 drug resistance emergence and circulating HIV-1 clades in a Chad context...
November 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126299/cns-penetration-of-art-in-hiv-infected-children
#5
Malon Van den Hof, Charlotte Blokhuis, Sophie Cohen, Henriette J Scherpbier, Ferdinand W N M Wit, M C M Pistorius, Neeltje A Kootstra, Charlotte E Teunissen, Ron A A Mathot, Dasja Pajkrt
Background: Paediatric data on CNS penetration of antiretroviral drugs are scarce. Objectives: To evaluate CNS penetration of antiretroviral drugs in HIV-infected children and explore associations with neurocognitive function. Patients and methods: Antiretroviral drug levels were measured in paired CSF and blood samples of clinically stable HIV-infected children between 8 and 18 years old on long-term combined ART. Plasma drug concentrations were corrected for protein binding...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125261/hepatitis-b-and-liver-transplantation
#6
Alberto Ferrarese, Alberto Zanetto, Francesco P Russo
Liver transplantation (LT) is the only effective treatment for hepatitis B-virus (HBV) related end stage liver disease, even if the outcome of these patients, has significantly improved after introduction of effective and well tolerated nucleos/tide analogues (NUC). Pre-transplant therapy has been initially based on lamivudine, but entecavir and tenofovir represent the currently recommended first-line therapeutic option in patients with HBV decompensated cirrhosis. After LT, the development of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) in the early 1990s change dramatically the prognosis of these patients by reducing the incidence of HBV recurrence and increasing survival rate...
November 10, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118985/acute-development-of-cushing-syndrome-in-an-hiv-infected-child-on-atazanavir-ritonavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
Gueorgui Dubrocq, Andrea Estrada, Shannon Kelly, Natella Rakhmanina
An 11-year-old male with perinatally acquired human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection on antiretroviral regimen, which included abacavir plus lamivudine (Epzicom), didanosine, ritonavir and atazanavir presented with bilateral axillary striae, increased appetite, fatigue, facial swelling and acute weight gain. Two months prior to presentation, the patient had received a diagnostic and therapeutic intra-articular triamcinolone injection in the knee for pain relief and subsequently became progressively swollen in the face, developed striae bilaterally at the axillae, experienced increased appetite, fatigue and an 8 pound weight gain...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118562/obstetricians-and-gynecologists-knowledge-education-and-practices-regarding-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-pregnancy
#8
Bolin Niu, Dina Halegoua-De Marzio, Jonathan M Fenkel, Steven K Herrine
Background: In pregnant women with high viral loads, third-trimester initiation of antiviral agents can reduce the risk of vertical transmission. We aimed to assess obstetricians' and gynecologists' (OB-GYN) knowledge and clinical practice when treating pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV). Methods: All program directors (PDs) from 250 US OB-GYN residency programs were invited to anonymously complete an 18-item questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated and analyzed...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116050/real-world-evidence-for-nucleoside-nucleotide-analogues-in-a-5-year-multicentre-study-of-antiviral-naive-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-in-china-52-week-results
#9
Jidong Jia, Hong Tang, Qin Ning, Jiaji Jiang, Xiaoguang Dou, Mingxiang Zhang, Shuqin Zhang, Jia Shang, Wei Lu, Yinong Ye, Xin Wang, Mingshu Li, Jie Liu, Qingyan Bo, Wenzhong Tan
BACKGROUND: In China, the clinical management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is complicated by the use of various nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) regimens in treatment-naïve patients, including NUCs with low genetic barriers to resistance, with/without add-on therapy and de novo NUC combinations. This longitudinal observational study therefore investigated the real-world clinical management and efficacy of NUC therapy in treatment-naïve CHB patients in China. METHODS: Treatment-naïve CHB patients initiated on NUC therapy were enrolled from 63 hospitals in tier-2 Chinese cities...
November 8, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112066/emulating-a-target-trial-of-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-started-before-conception-and-risk-of-adverse-birth-outcomes
#10
Ellen C Caniglia, Rebecca Zash, Denise L Jacobson, Modiegi Diseko, Gloria Mayondi, Shahin Lockman, Jennifer Chen, Mompati Mmalane, Joseph Makhema, Miguel A Hernán, Roger L Shapiro
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of pre-conception initiation of zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine (ZDV/3TC/NVP) versus tenofovir, emtricitabine, efavirenz (TDF/FTC/EFV) on adverse birth outcomes. DESIGN: Emulation of a hypothetical (target) trial using a birth surveillance study in Botswana during an era of CD4-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. METHODS: In women who initiated ART < 3 years from HIV diagnosis, conceived 0...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105160/strength-in-amalgamation-newer-combination-agents-for-hiv-and-implications-for-practice
#11
Christopher McCoy, Melissa Badowski, Elizabeth Sherman, Rustin Crutchley, Ethan Smith, Daniel B Chastain
Antiretroviral (ART) therapy for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has undergone significant changes over the past 30 years. Many single tablet regimens (STR), including newer fixed dose combination (FDC) tablets, are available, offering patients several options for choosing a treatment regimen that works best for them. Given these changes, patients are more likely to adhere to treatment, achieve better clinical outcomes, and experience both fewer side effects and drug-drug interactions...
November 3, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103183/an-anti-hbv-anthraquinone-from-aciduric-fungus-penicillium-sp-oucmdz-4736-under-low-ph-stress
#12
Yanzheng Jin, Shidong Qin, Hai Gao, Guoliang Zhu, Wei Wang, Weiming Zhu, Yi Wang
To obtain new bioactive natural products, the effect of acidic stress on the metabolites of an aciduric fungus was investigated. This fungus, Penicillium sp. OUCMDZ-4736, which was isolated from the sediment around roots of mangrove (Acanthus ilicifolius), produced different compounds and higher yields under pH 2.5 than under neutral conditions. Using spectroscopic analyses and calculations, three new anthraquinone derivatives (1-3) were isolated and identified from the acidic fermentation broth (pH 2.5) of OUCMDZ-4736...
November 4, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100029/validation-of-an-lc-ms-ms-assay-to-simultaneously-monitor-the-intracellular-active-metabolites-of-tenofovir-emtricitabine-and-lamivudine-in-dried-blood-spots
#13
Amanda P Schauer, Craig Sykes, Mackenzie L Cottrell, Heather Prince, Angela D M Kashuba
The ability to monitor adherence to antiretroviral therapy is critical for the interpretation of outcomes from clinical studies of HIV, and for optimizing patient care. The antiretrovirals tenofovir (TFV), emtricitabine (FTC), and lamivudine (3TC) are commonly included in drug regimens for HIV prevention and treatment. The active form of the drugs tenofovir diphosphate (TFVdp), emtricitabine triphosphate (FTCtp), and lamivudine triphosphate (3TCtp) are found intracellularly in erythrocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095799/comparing-efficacy-of-lamivudine-adefovir-dipivoxil-telbivudine-and-entecavir-in-treating-nucleoside-analogues-na%C3%A3-ve-for-hbeag-negative-hepatitis-b-with-medium-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-dna-levels
#14
Hong Shi, Zongping Han, Jian Liu, Jinfang Xue, Shuya Zhang, Zhe Zhu, Jinyu Xia, Mingxing Huang
BACKGROUND The antiviral effect of HBV in different nucleos (t) ide analogues is still not well known. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of lamivudine (LMV), adefovir dipivoxil (ADV), telbivudine (LdT), and entecavir (ETV) monotherapy in chronic HBeAg-negative hepatitis B patients with medium load of HBV DNA. MATERIAL AND METHODS The effective data of 207 patients treated by LMV (n=43), ADV (n=57), LdT (n=54) or ETV (n=53) were collected and analyzed during 144-week follow-up by retrospective analysis...
November 2, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091219/dolutegravir-plus-abacavir-lamivudine-works-in-adolescents-but-size-matters
#15
Ferran Bossacoma Busquets, Antoni Noguera-Julian, Emilia Sanchez, Claudia Fortuny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091218/hiv-1-dna-ultra-deep-sequencing-analysis-at-initiation-of-the-dual-therapy-dolutegravir%C3%A2-%C3%A2-lamivudine-in-the-maintenance-dolulam-pilot-study
#16
Charlotte Charpentier, Brigitte Montes, Marine Perrier, Nadia Meftah, Jacques Reynes
Background: The DOLULAM study assessed the efficacy of dolutegravir + lamivudine dual therapy to maintain virological suppression in heavily treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected adults. No virological failure occurred during the first year of the dual therapy. Objectives: A virological substudy was conducted to assess the prevalence of M184I/V mutations at dual therapy initiation using historical DNA/RNA genotypes and baseline DNA genotype obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS)...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089265/tenofovir-entecavir-and-lamivudine-in-patients-with-severe-acute-exacerbation-and-hepatic-decompensation-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#17
Jung Gil Park, Yu Rim Lee, Soo Young Park, Heon Ju Lee, Won Young Tak, Young Oh Kweon, Se Young Jang, Jae Min Chun, Young Seok Han, Keun Hur, Hye Won Lee, Min Kyu Kang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of and mortality after lamivudine (LAM), tenofovir (TDF), and entecavir (ETV) treatment in patients with severe acute chronic hepatitis B (CHB) exacerbation. METHODS: We analyzed 91 patients with severe acute CHB exacerbation treated with LAM (n=28), TDF (n=26), or ETV (n=37) for 10 years. The primary endpoint was overall mortality or liver transplantation (LT) by 48 weeks. The determined predictors of mortality, virologic and biochemical responses, and drug resistance were also evaluated...
October 28, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082645/efficacy-and-safety-of-three-adefovir-based-combination-therapies-in-hbeag-positive-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-with-suboptimal-response-to-adefovir-monotherapy
#18
M-L Wang, E-Q Chen, D-M Zhang, L-Y Du, L-B Yan, T-Y Zhou, X-Z Lei, B-J Lei, J-J Lu, J Liao, H Tang
Although high potent nucleos(t)ide analogues are strongly recommended as first-line therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China, some patients are still being treated with adefovir disoproxil (ADV), especially those low-income patients whose health insurance could not reimburse the drug cost. Therefore, the management of patients who have failed ADV therapy or who sustained renal damage during ADV therapy remains an important clinical problem in China. This retrospective study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of lamivudine (LAM), telbivudine (LdT) or entecavir (ETV) add-on strategies to optimize the treatment of patients with prior suboptimal response to ADV monotherapy...
November 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078745/single-virion-sequencing-of-lamivudine-treated-hbv-populations-reveal-population-evolution-dynamics-and-demographic-history
#19
Yuan O Zhu, Pauline P K Aw, Paola Florez de Sessions, Shuzhen Hong, Lee Xian See, Lewis Z Hong, Andreas Wilm, Chen Hao Li, Stephane Hue, Seng Gee Lim, Niranjan Nagarajan, William F Burkholder, Martin Hibberd
BACKGROUND: Viral populations are complex, dynamic, and fast evolving. The evolution of groups of closely related viruses in a competitive environment is termed quasispecies. To fully understand the role that quasispecies play in viral evolution, characterizing the trajectories of viral genotypes in an evolving population is the key. In particular, long-range haplotype information for thousands of individual viruses is critical; yet generating this information is non-trivial. Popular deep sequencing methods generate relatively short reads that do not preserve linkage information, while third generation sequencing methods have higher error rates that make detection of low frequency mutations a bioinformatics challenge...
October 27, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077211/switching-from-tenofovir-and-nucleoside-analogue-therapy-to-tenofovir-monotherapy-in-virologically-suppressed-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-with-antiviral-resistance
#20
Dong Yun Kim, Hye Won Lee, Jeong Eun Song, Beom Kyung Kim, Seung Up Kim, Do Young Kim, Sang Hoon Ahn, Kwang-Hyub Han, Jun Yong Park
It is unclear whether chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with antiviral resistance, who achieve a complete virologic response (CVR) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and nucleoside analogue (NUC) combination therapy, maintain CVR if switched to TDF monotherapy. We investigated the persistence of CVR after cessation of NUC in virologically suppressed antiviral resistant CHB patients using TDF+NUC combination therapy. This study recruited 76 antiviral-resistant CHB patients showing CVR on TDF+entecavir (ETV) (n = 52), TDF+lamivudine (LAM; n = 14), and TDF+telbivudine (LdT; n = 10) combination therapy, who were switched to TDF monotherapy as step-down therapy...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
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