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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782548/dyslipidemia-among-rural-and-urban-hiv-patients-in-south-east-malawi
#1
Alemayehu Amberbir, Victor Singano, Alfred Matengeni, Zahra Ismail, Gift Kawalazira, Adrienne K Chan, Sumeet D Sodhi, Joep J van Oosterhout
BACKGROUND: While dyslipidemia importantly contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk among patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), data on lipid patterns among African adults on ART are limited. We describe the prevalence of lipid abnormalities and associated factors in two HIV clinics in Malawi. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2014 and enrolled adult patients at a rural and an urban HIV clinic in Zomba district, Malawi. We recorded patient characteristics, CVD risk factors and anthropometric measurements, using the WHO STEPS validated instrument...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782545/rosmarinic-acid-is-a-novel-inhibitor-for-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-targeting-viral-epsilon-rna-polymerase-interaction
#2
Yuta Tsukamoto, Sotaro Ikeda, Koji Uwai, Riho Taguchi, Kazuaki Chayama, Takemasa Sakaguchi, Ryo Narita, Wan-Ling Yao, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Yukie Otakaki, Koichi Watashi, Takaji Wakita, Hiroki Kato, Takashi Fujita
Current therapeutics for hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients such as nucleoside analogs (NAs) are effective; however, new antiviral drugs against HBV are still desired. Since the interaction between the epsilon (ε) sequence of HBV pregenomic RNA and viral polymerase (Pol) is a key step in the HBV replication cycle, we aimed to identify small compounds for its inhibition, and established a pull-down assay system for the detection of ε-RNA-binding-Pol. Screening showed that 5 out of 3,965 compounds inhibited ε-Pol binding, and we identified rosmarinic acid, which exhibited specificity, as a potential antiviral agent...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772601/hollow-mesoporous-structured-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-as-adsorbent-in-pipette-tip-solid-phase-extraction-for-the-determination-of-antiretrovirals-from-plasma-of-hiv-infected-patients
#3
Nathália Soares Simões, Hanna Leijoto de Oliveira, Ricky Cássio Santos da Silva, Leila Suleimara Teixeira, Thaís Lorenna Souza Sales, Whocely Victor de Castro, Maria José Nunes de Paiva, Cristina Sanches, Keyller Bastos Borges
In this work a hollow mesoporous structured molecularly imprinted polymer was synthetized and used as adsorbent in pipette-tip solid-phase extraction for the determination of lamivudine (3TC), zidovudine (AZT) and efavirenz (EFZ) from plasma of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All parameters that influence the recovery of the pipette tip based on hollow mesoporous molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction (PT-HM-MIP-SPE) method were systematically studied and discussed in detail...
May 17, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771285/increased-dolutegravir-peak-concentrations-in-people-living-with-hiv-aged-60-and-over-and-analysis-of-sleep-quality-and-cognition
#4
Emilie R Elliot, Xinzhu Wang, Suveer Singh, Bryony Simmons, Jaime H Vera, Robert F Miller, Colin Fitzpatrick, Graeme Moyle, Myra McClure, Marta Boffito
Background: Demographic data show an increasingly aging HIV population worldwide. Recent concerns over dolutegravir-related neuropsychiatric toxicity have emerged, particularly amongst older HIV patients. We describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of dolutegravir (DTG) 50mg once daily in people living with HIV (PLWH) aged 60 and older. Additionally, to address the call for prospective neuropsychiatric toxicodynamic data, we evaluate changes in sleep quality and cognitive function after switching to abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC)/DTG, over 6 months in this population...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759422/executive-summary-of-the-gesida-national-aids-plan-consensus-document-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-adults-infected-by-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-updated-january-2018
#5
(no author information available yet)
This update to the document on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in adults, which has been prepared jointly by GeSIDA and the Spanish National AIDS Plan for the last two decades, supersedes the document published in 2017.1 The update provides physicians treating HIV-1-infected adults with evidence-based recommendations to guide their therapeutic decisions. The main difference with respect to the previous document concerns recommended initial ART regimens, only three of which are maintained as preferential. All three include dolutegravir or raltegravir, together with emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide or abacavir/lamivudine...
May 11, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753085/effects-of-virologic-response-to-treatment-on-short-and-long-term-outcomes-of-patients-with-chronic-hbv-infection-and-decompensated-cirrhosis
#6
Jeong Won Jang, Jong Young Choi, Young Seok Kim, Jeong-Ju Yoo, Hyun Young Woo, Sung Kyu Choi, Chung Hwan Jun, Chang Hyeong Lee, Joo Hyun Sohn, Won Young Tak, Yu Rim Lee, Kwang-Hyub Han
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the effects of antiviral therapy on short- and long-term survival of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related decompensated cirrhosis. We aimed to determine whether a maintained virologic response (MVR, defined as persistent undetectable HBV DNA during therapy) associates with short-term (6-month) and long-term (6-120 months) survival of patients with decompensated cirrhosis. METHODS: We performed a 10-year observation analysis using data from the Epidemiology and Natural History of Liver Cirrhosis study of patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis in Korea...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753024/chemical-system-biology-based-molecular-interactions-to-identify-inhibitors-against-q151m-mutant-of-hiv-1-reverse-transcriptase
#7
Rajan Kumar Pandey, Drista Sharma, Rupal Ojha, Tarun Kumar Bhatt, Vijay Kumar Prajapati
The emergence of mutations leading to drug resistance is the main cause of therapeutic failure in the human HIV infection. Chemical system biology approach has drawn great attention to discover new antiretroviral hits with high efficacy and negligible toxicity, which can be used as a prerequisite for HIV drug resistance global action plan 2017-21. To discover potential hits, we docked 49 antiretroviral analogs (n = 6294) against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase Q151M mutant & its wild-type form and narrow downed their number in three sequential modes of docking using Schrödinger suite...
May 9, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752943/distinct-notch-signaling-expression-patterns-between-nucleoside-and-nucleotide-analogues-treatment-for-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#8
Zijing Wang, Kazunori Kawaguchi, Masao Honda, Yoshio Sakai, Tatsuya Yamashita, Eishiro Mizukoshi, Shuichi Kaneko
Nucleos(t)ide analogues therapies are currently approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, which effectively suppress HBV replication and correlate with the anti-HBV-specific immune response. Notch signaling serves pleiotropic roles in the immune system that also contribute to virus-specific immunity. In this study, we assessed Notch signal-related gene expression after administrating nucleoside or nucleotide analogues to HBV-replicating cells and clinical liver tissues. We found distinct Notch signaling expression patterns under nucleos(t)ide analogues therapies, with high expression for nucleotide analogues (adefovir pivoxil or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) and low expression for nucleoside analogues (lamivudine or entecavir) in the presence of HBV infection...
May 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751313/occurrence-fate-and-removal-of-pharmaceuticals-personal-care-products-and-pesticides-in-wastewater-stabilization-ponds-and-receiving-rivers-in-the-nzoia-basin-kenya
#9
Kenneth Otieno K'oreje, Faith Jebiwot Kandie, Leendert Vergeynst, Margaret Akinyi Abira, Herman Van Langenhove, Maurice Okoth, Kristof Demeestere
Although there is increased global environmental concern about emerging organic micropollutants (EOMPs) such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) and polar pesticides, limited information is available on their occurrence in Africa. This study presents unique data on concentrations and loads of 31 PPCPs and 10 pesticides in four wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) and receiving rivers (flowing through urban centres) in Kenya. The WSPs indicate a high potential to remove pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) with removals by up to >4 orders of magnitude (>99...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746295/the-transition-to-dolutegravir-and-other-new-antiretrovirals-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-what-are-the-issues
#10
Marco Vitoria, Andrew Hill, Nathan Ford, Meg Doherty, Polly Clayden, Francois Venter, David Ripin, Charles Flexner, Paul Domanico
: There are currently approximately 16 million people taking NNRTI-based first-line treatment in low- and middle-income countries. Most of these patients are using the combination of tenofovir (TDF), lamivudine (3TC) and efavirenz (EFV). The integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) has shown an improved safety profile compared to EFV in randomised studies. DTG also has a high barrier to development of drug resistance. New co-formulated tablets with TDF/3TC/DTG are being introduced into LMICs, for a median price of $75 per person-year...
May 9, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718247/emerging-resistance-mutations-in-pi-naive-patients-failing-an-atazanavir-based-regimen-anrs-multicentre-observational-study
#11
S Lambert-Niclot, M Grude, M L Chaix, C Charpentier, S Reigadas, H Le Guillou-Guillemette, A Rodallec, C Amiel, A Maillard, J Dufayard, T Mourez, A Mirand, J Guinard, B Montes, S Vallet, A G Marcelin, D Descamps, P Flandre, C Delaugerre, L Morand-Joubert
Background: Atazanavir is a PI widely used as a third agent in combination ART. We aimed to determine the prevalence and the patterns of resistance in PI-naive patients failing on an atazanavir-based regimen. Methods: We analysed patients failing on an atazanavir-containing regimen used as a first line of PI therapy. We compared the sequences of reverse transcriptase and protease before the introduction of atazanavir and at failure [two consecutive viral loads (VLs) >50 copies/mL]...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715359/chronic-hepatitis-b-infection-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Lydia S Y Tang, Emily Covert, Eleanor Wilson, Shyam Kottilil
Importance: More than 240 million individuals worldwide are infected with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV). Among individuals with chronic HBV infection who are untreated, 15% to 40% progress to cirrhosis, which may lead to liver failure and liver cancer. Observations: Pegylated interferon and nucleos(t)ide analogues (lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir, tenofovir disoproxil, and tenofovir alafenamide) suppress HBV DNA replication and improve liver inflammation and fibrosis...
May 1, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707388/risk-factors-and-co-morbidities-associated-with-changes-in-renal-function-among-antiretroviral-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-in-south-africa-a-chart-review
#13
Shirelle Assaram, Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson, Nombulelo P Magula
Introduction: Our systematic scoping review has demonstrated a research gap in antiretroviral treatment (ART) nephrotoxicity as well as in the long-term outcomes of renal function for patients on ART in South Africa. Bearing in mind the high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in South Africa, this is of great concern. Objectives: To determine the risk factors and co-morbidities associated with changes in renal function in HIV-infected adults in South Africa...
2018: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694825/birth-outcomes-for-pregnant-women-with-hiv-using-tenofovir-emtricitabine
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Kathryn Rough, George R Seage, Paige L Williams, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz, Yanling Huo, Ellen G Chadwick, Judith S Currier, Risa M Hoffman, Emily Barr, David E Shapiro, Kunjal Patel
BACKGROUND: In a previous trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART) involving pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, those randomly assigned to receive tenofovir, emtricitabine, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (TDF-FTC-LPV/r) had infants at greater risk for very premature birth and death within 14 days after delivery than those assigned to receive zidovudine, lamivudine, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (ZDV-3TC-LPV/r). METHODS: Using data from two U...
April 26, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677098/update-treatment-for-hbv-infection-and-persistent-risk-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-prospect-for-an-hbv-cure
#15
REVIEW
Joseph Yoo, Hie-Won Hann, Robert Coben, Mitchell Conn, Anthony J DiMarino
Since the discovery of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) by Blumberg et al. in 1965, its genome, sequence, epidemiology, and hepatocarcinogenesis have been elucidated. Globally, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is still responsible for the majority of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is the sixth-most common cancer in the world and the second-most common cancer death. The ultimate goal of treating HBV infection is the prevention of HCC. Fortunately, anti-HBV treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), which began with lamivudine in 1998, has resulted in remarkable improvements in the survival of patients with chronic hepatitis B and a reduced incidence of HCC...
April 20, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676935/current-and-emerging-two-drug-approaches-for-hiv-1-therapy-in-art-na%C3%A3-ve-and-art-experienced-virologically-suppressed-patients
#16
Barbara Rossetti, Francesca Montagnani, Andrea De Luca
Current guidelines recommend a 2-drug antiretroviral regimen as an alternative to triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) in selected patients to reduce long-term toxicity and costs. Areas covered: This review is intended to provide insight into the efficacy, safety and tolerability of 2-drug versus 3-drug ART in naïve and in treatment-experienced virologically-suppressed patients. Expert opinion: Dual therapy regimens are not feasible in HBV-coinfected individuals and should not be applied during pregnancy. Positive data on 2-drug ART in drug naïve patients are still limited, while, in virologically-suppressed individuals, several regimens have shown non-inferiority as compared to 3-drug regimens...
May 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668978/atazanavir-ritonavir-with-lamivudine-as-maintenance-therapy-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-patients-96-week-outcomes-of-a-randomized-trial
#17
Massimiliano Fabbiani, Roberta Gagliardini, Nicoletta Ciccarelli, Eugenia Quiros Roldan, Alessandra Latini, Gabriella d'Ettorre, Andrea Antinori, Antonella Castagna, Giancarlo Orofino, Daniela Francisci, Pierangelo Chinello, Giordano Madeddu, Pierfrancesco Grima, Stefano Rusconi, Barbara Del Pin, Francesca Lombardi, Alessandro D'Avino, Emanuele Focà, Manuela Colafigli, Roberto Cauda, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Andrea De Luca
Objectives: To investigate the long-term safety and efficacy of a treatment switch to dual ART with atazanavir/ritonavir + lamivudine versus continuing a standard regimen with atazanavir/ritonavir + 2NRTI in virologically suppressed patients. Methods: ATLAS-M is a 96 week open-label, randomized, non-inferiority (margin -12%) trial enrolling HIV-infected adults on atazanavir/ritonavir + 2NRTI, with stable HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL and CD4 counts >200 cells/mm3...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662321/serum-hepatitis-b-core-antibody-levels-predict-hbeag-seroconversion-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-with-high-viral-load-treated-with-nucleos-t-ide-analogs
#18
Shaohang Cai, Zhandong Li, Tao Yu, Muye Xia, Jie Peng
Background: Patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection who are hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) positive are increasingly being treated with nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUCs). However, the predictive value of serum hepatitis B virus core antibody (HBcAb) levels for HBeAg seroconversion among patients with high viral load remains unclear. Methods: This study consisted of 74 patients with high viral load (HBV DNA >1 × 107 copies/mL) enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial, treated with lamivudine and adefovir (N = 32) or entecavir (N = 42) for up to 96 weeks...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660249/shorter-hbig-administration-is-not-associated-to-hbv-recurrence-when-receiving-combined-prophylaxis-after-liver-transplantation
#19
Sabela Lens, María García-Eliz, Inmaculada Fernández, Lluis Castells, Martin Bonacci, Antoni Mas, Gonzalo Crespo, María Buti, Martín Prieto, Xavier Forns
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The combination of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and a nucleos(t)ide analogs (NA) has markedly reduced the rate of hepatitis B (HBV) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT); however, the optimal duration of HBIG has not been clarified. This lack of consensus perpetuates the use of different strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated to HBV recurrence after LT in a large cohort of patients under different HBIG regimens. METHODS: Retrospective multicenter analysis of HBV-related LT recipients receiving combined prophylaxis (HBIG+NA)...
April 16, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660214/precore-g1896a-mutation-is-associated-with-reduced-rates-of-hbsag-seroclearance-in-treated-hiv-hepatitis-b-virus-co-infected-patients-from-western-africa
#20
Anders Boyd, Raoul Moh, Sarah Maylin, Mariama Abdou Chekaraou, Nadia Mahjoub, Delphine Gabillard, Xavier Anglaret, Serge Paul Eholié, Constance Delaugerre, Christine Danel, Fabien Zoulim, Karine Lacombe
The nucleotide substitution G1896A on the precore (pc) region has been implicated in virological and serological responses during treatment in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. Whether this mutation affects the therapeutic course of HIV-HBV co-infected patients, especially from Western Africa, is unknown. In this prospective cohort study, 86 antiretroviral (ARV)-naïve HIV-HBV co-infected patients from Côte d'Ivoire, initiating ARV-treatment containing lamivudine (n=53) or tenofovir (n=33), had available baseline pc sequences...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
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