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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517038/do-trainees-feel-that-they-belong-to-a-team
#1
Sophie Price, Rosie Lusznat
BACKGROUND: Postgraduate medical education has undergone significant reorganisation in recent years, with changes to the traditional apprenticeship model and an increasing reliance on shift working. The importance of teamwork in clinical care is well established; however, there is little literature on the extent to which trainees actually feel part of a team in the context of current working patterns. METHOD: This is a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews of medical and surgical trainees...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516306/peritoneal-metastasis-from-pancreatic-cancer-treated-with-pressurized-intraperitoneal-aerosol-chemotherapy-pipac
#2
Martin Graversen, Sönke Detlefsen, Jon Kroll Bjerregaard, Per Pfeiffer, Michael Bau Mortensen
Patients with peritoneal metastasis (PM) from pancreatic cancer have a short life expectancy. Systemic combination chemotherapy leads to a median overall survival of 7-8 months. Pressurized IntraPeritoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC) is a treatment alternative, where studies in patients with PM from ovarian, gastric and colorectal cancer show a high safety profile and interesting results. This case study report data on the PIPAC treatment in patients with PM from pancreatic cancer. In a standard laparoscopy, chemotherapeutics (cisplatin and doxorubicin) are nebulized within the peritoneal cavity...
May 17, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513198/cleaning-and-infection-control-of-airway-clearance-devices-used-by-cf-patients
#3
Eynav Manor, Michal Gur, Yuval Geffen, Lea Bentur
Respiratory treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients includes use of respiratory devices. Contamination of airway clearance devices has not been adequately explored. We aimed to determine whether airway clearance devices are contaminated after use and whether cleaning guidelines for nebulizers are as effective for airway clearance devices. Patients brought their airway clearance devices to the clinic. Swabs from the devices were taken before and after cleaning and were cultured for bacterial counts. Total colony-forming units (CFU) was determined, and predominant colonies were identified using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry technology...
January 1, 2017: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509852/inhaled-antibiotic-therapy-in-chronic-respiratory-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Diego J Maselli, Holly Keyt, Marcos I Restrepo
The management of patients with chronic respiratory diseases affected by difficult to treat infections has become a challenge in clinical practice. Conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchiectasis require extensive treatment strategies to deal with multidrug resistant pathogens that include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia species and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM). These challenges prompted scientists to deliver antimicrobial agents through the pulmonary system by using inhaled, aerosolized or nebulized antibiotics...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507430/investigating-the-feasibility-of-text-message-reminders-to-improve-adherence-to-nebulized-medication-in-children-and-adolescents-with-cystic-fibrosis
#5
Robert W Morton, Heather E Elphick, Elaine Edwards, William J Daw, Noreen S West
BACKGROUND: Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) often have suboptimal adherence rates to nebulized medication. Adherence barriers cited include forgetting to take the nebulizers, due to busy home and social lives. Text message reminders have been shown to be effective at improving adherence rates in other chronic diseases such as asthma and diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of sending text reminders for a prolonged period of time to children with CF...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506902/ski3301-a-purified-herbal-extract-from-sophora-tonkinensis-inhibited-airway-inflammation-and-bronchospasm-in-allergic-asthma-animal-models-in-vivo
#6
Hunseung Yoo, Minseok Kang, Sungsoo Pyo, Hee-Sung Chae, Keun Ho Ryu, Jinwoong Kim, Young-Won Chin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sophora tonkinensis (Leguminosae, ST) is a traditional herbal plant in Korea and China. Its roots and rhizomes have been used to dissipate heat, to clear toxic material and to treat acute pharyngolaryngeal infections and sore throats. AIM OF STUDY: In this study, we tried to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic effects of a purified extract (SKI3301) from Sophora tonkinensis using in vitro enzyme assay models and ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma animal models...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506057/liquid-spray-dielectric-barrier-discharge-induced-plasma-chemical-vapor-generation-for-the-determination-of-lead-by-icp-ms
#7
Xing Liu, Zhenli Zhu, Huilai Li, Dong He, Yatai Li, Hongtao Zheng, Yiqun Gan, Yanxiang Li, Nicholas Stanley Belshaw, Shenghong Hu
In the present study, a novel and sensitive liquid spray dielectric barrier discharge induced plasma-chemical vapor generation technique (LSDBD-CVG) is developed for the determination of lead concentration by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The dissolved Pb(2+) is readily converted to volatile species by LSDBD plasma induced chemical processes in the presence of 5% (v/v) formic acid in a supporting electrolyte (HCl, 0.01 mol L(-1)). In this LSDBD approach, the sample solution is converted to aerosol and simultaneously mixed with the DBD plasma generated at the nozzle of a pneumatic nebulizer, which greatly facilitates Pb vapor generation because of the enhanced interaction of sprayed analytes and the plasma...
May 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500933/functional-consequences-of-inhibitory-plasticity-homeostasis-the-excitation-inhibition-balance-and-beyond
#8
REVIEW
Henning Sprekeler
Computational neuroscience has a long-standing tradition of investigating the consequences of excitatory synaptic plasticity. In contrast, the functions of inhibitory plasticity are still largely nebulous, particularly given the bewildering diversity of interneurons in the brain. Here, we review recent computational advances that provide first suggestions for the functional roles of inhibitory plasticity, such as a maintenance of the excitation-inhibition balance, a stabilization of recurrent network dynamics and a decorrelation of sensory responses...
May 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499855/electrolyte-type-and-nozzle-composition-affect-the-process-of-vibrating-membrane-nebulization
#9
Moritz Beck-Broichsitter, Nina Oesterheld
The size of airborne particles determines their deposition pattern within the lungs and therefore, the efficacy of inhalation therapy. The present study analyzed factors affecting liquid atomization performed by vibrating-membrane technology. First, the process of vibrating-membrane nebulization (eFlow(®)rapid and Aeroneb(®) Pro) was challenged with numerous inorganic salts and active pharmaceutical ingredients. All investigated samples caused a sigmoidal decrease in aerosol droplet size upon an increase in concentration...
May 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486961/role-of-heparin-in-pulmonary-cell-populations-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-acute-lung-injury
#10
Marta Camprubí-Rimblas, Raquel Guillamat-Prats, Thomas Lebouvier, Josep Bringué, Laura Chimenti, Manuela Iglesias, Carme Obiols, Jessica Tijero, Lluís Blanch, Antonio Artigas
BACKGROUND: In the early stages of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pro-inflammatory mediators inhibit natural anticoagulant factors and initiate an increase in procoagulant activity. Previous studies proved the beneficial effects of heparin in pulmonary coagulopathy, which derive from its anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory activities, although it is uncertain whether heparin works. Understanding the specific effect of unfractioned heparin on cell lung populations would be of interest to increase our knowledge about heparin pathways and to treat ARDS...
May 10, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483587/driving-and-regulating-temporal-association-learning-coordinated-by-entorhinal-hippocampal-network
#11
REVIEW
Takashi Kitamura
Episodic memories shape future behaviour and by aiding adaptive behaviour, are therefore important for survival in nature. Entorhinal cortex (EC)-hippocampal (HPC) networks have a crucial role in the formation of episodic memory, which consists of associations of space, objects, individuals and time. Neural circuits have been identified in the EC-HPC networks that provide spatial, contextual and object information. However, the specific neural circuits that allow animals to associate two temporally segregated events, called temporal association learning, are still nebulous...
May 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481631/peak-inspiratory-flow-rate-as-a-criterion-for-dry-powder-inhaler-use-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
Donald A Mahler
Dry powder bronchodilator devices have an internal resistance. Effective use depends on the patient generating an adequate inspiratory flow to break up the powder packets into particles less than five micron in diameter that can be inhaled into the loser respiratory tract. This de-aggregation takes place inside the device before the dose leaves the inhaler; this process is increased if the acceleration is fast at the start of inhalation. Peak inspiratory flow depends on an individual's effort along with strength of the respiratory muscles, which may be compromised in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to lung hyperinflation, hypoxemia, and muscle wasting...
May 8, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479359/aerosol-production-by-vibrating-membrane-technology-analysis-of-the-electrolyte-effect-on-generated-droplet-size-and-nebulizer-output-rate
#13
Moritz Beck-Broichsitter
The performance of vibrating-membrane technology (i.e., aerosol droplet size and output rate) depend on the specific electrolyte concentration. However, the underlying factors, which determine nebulizer performance, are currently only poorly understood. This study compared the charge of aerosol droplets (Dekati(®) BOLAR(TM)) nebulized with the eFlow(®)rapid and the streaming potential (SurPASS(®)) forming at the liquid/metal interface. Nebulization of 0.01 mM sodium chloride resulted in a rather large droplet size of >8 μm and an output rate of only ∼0...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478753/antibiotic-prescription-patterns-in-spanish-cystic-fibrosis-patients-results-from-a-national-multicenter-study
#14
Juan de Dios Caballero, Rosa Girón, Rosa Del Campo, Concepción Prados, María-Isabel Barrio, Antonio Salcedo, Rafael Cantón
OBJECTIVE: Information about antibiotic prescription patterns for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and, specifically, about inhaled treatment strategies for their management is lacking in Spain due to the absence of a national patient registry. In this study we present data about antibiotic prescription in the Spanish CF context that were obtained in a multicenter study, being inhaled treatment strategies the special focus of this work. METHODS: Twenty-four specialized CF units (12 adult, 12 pediatric) from 17 tertiary-care hospitals covering all Spanish Autonomous Communities provided sputa and clinical data from 15 consecutive patients...
May 1, 2017: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476135/the-effects-of-inhaled-aztreonam-on-the-cystic-fibrosis-lung-microbiome
#15
Alya A Heirali, Matthew L Workentine, Nicole Acosta, Ali Poonja, Douglas G Storey, Ranjani Somayaji, Harvey R Rabin, Fiona J Whelan, Michael G Surette, Michael D Parkins
BACKGROUND: Aztreonam lysine for inhalation (AZLI) is an inhaled antibiotic used to treat chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in CF. AZLI improves lung function and quality of life, and reduces exacerbations-improvements attributed to its antipseudomonal activity. Given the extremely high aztreonam concentrations achieved in the lower airways by nebulization, we speculate this may extend its spectrum of activity to other organisms. As such, we sought to determine if AZLI affects the CF lung microbiome and whether community constituents can be used to predict treatment responsiveness...
May 5, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470142/multicomponent-aerosol-particle-deposition-in-a-realistic-cast-of-the-human-upper-respiratory-tract
#16
Markus Nordlund, Miloslav Belka, Arkadiusz K Kuczaj, Frantisek Lizal, Jan Jedelsky, Jakub Elcner, Miroslav Jicha, Youri Sauser, Soazig Le Bouhellec, Stephane Cosandey, Shoaib Majeed, Grégory Vuillaume, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
Inhalation of aerosols generated by electronic cigarettes leads to deposition of multiple chemical compounds in the human airways. In this work, an experimental method to determine regional deposition of multicomponent aerosols in an in vitro segmented, realistic human lung geometry was developed and applied to two aerosols, i.e. a monodisperse glycerol aerosol and a multicomponent aerosol. The method comprised the following steps: (1) lung cast model preparation, (2) aerosol generation and exposure, (3) extraction of deposited mass, (4) chemical quantification and (5) data processing...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470113/nebulized-drug-delivery-in-respiratory-medicine-what-does-the-future-hold
#17
John N Pritchard
In the later half of the 20th century, nebulized therapy was in decline, but in the 21st century the prospects for the expanded use of nebulized therapy within respiratory medicine look bright. The advent of mesh nebulizers, which combine the universal applicability of the nebulizer in the treatment of all respiratory patients with the convenience of portable inhaler use, is ideally timed to capitalize on the forecast of increased numbers of patients who will require nebulized therapy in the future. This special report will highlight some of the opportunities that the development of mesh nebulizers presents in the field of respiratory medicine...
May 4, 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470103/tobramycin-inhalation-powder-for-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-review-based-on-clinical-evidence
#18
Kamal Hamed, Laurie Debonnett
Chronic airway infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The development and widespread use of nebulized antibacterial therapies, including tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS), has led to improvements in lung function and quality of life. However, the use of nebulizers is associated with various challenges, including extended administration times and the need for frequent device cleaning and disinfection. Multiple therapies are required for patients with CF, which poses a considerable burden to patients, and adherence to the recommended treatments remains a challenge...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469943/deposition-dosages-of-three-cromolyn-forms-by-cascade-impactor
#19
Norihide Murayama, Kei Asai, Kikuno Murayama, Chihiro Kitatsuji, Satoru Doi
Among inhaled asthma therapies, the present study aimed to identify factors for selecting the type of inhalation therapy for asthma. Three methods are used to deliver inhaled cromoglycate, and the airway deposition rate was evaluated using a cascade impactor with 3 dosage forms: dry powder (DP), pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI), and solution (jet- and mesh-types). The percentage of particles with diameters of 2-6 μm was 17.0% for the capsule, 51.8% for pMDI, 49.0% for jet-type NE-C28, and 40.4% for mesh-type NE-U22...
2017: Journal of Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467361/studies-on-trans-resveratrol-carboxymethylated-1-3-1-6-%C3%AE-d-glucan-association-for-aerosol-pharmaceutical-applications
#20
Antonio Francioso, Riccardo Cossi, Sergio Fanelli, Paola Mastromarino, Luciana Mosca
A resveratrol/carboxymethylated glucan (CM-glucan) combination is known to inhibit rhinovirus replication and expression of inflammatory mediators in nasal epithelia. The aim of this study was to develop an aerosol formulation containing an association of the two molecules which could reach the lower respiratory tract. Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of a resveratrol/CM-glucan combination was lower than that shown by resveratrol or CM-glucan alone (2.83 versus 3.28 and 2.96 µm, respectively). The resveratrol/CM-glucan association results in the finest and most monodispersed particles in comparison to the two single components...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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