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Mutlu Mete, Unal Sakoglu, Jeffrey S Spence, Michael D Devous, Thomas S Harris, Bryon Adinoff
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have yielded significant advances in the understanding of neural processes relevant to the development and persistence of addiction. However, these advances have not explored extensively for diagnostic accuracy in human subjects. The aim of this study was to develop a statistical approach, using a machine learning framework, to correctly classify brain images of cocaine-dependent participants and healthy controls. In this study, a framework suitable for educing potential brain regions that differed between the two groups was developed and implemented...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Gerwyn Morris, George Anderson, Michael Maes
There is evidence that immune-inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways play a role in the pathophysiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). There is also evidence that these neuroimmune diseases are accompanied by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hypoactivity as indicated by lowered baseline glucocorticoid levels. This paper aims to review the bidirectional communications between immune-inflammatory and O&NS pathways and HPA axis hypoactivity in ME/CFS, considering two possibilities: (a) Activation of immune-inflammatory pathways is secondary to HPA axis hypofunction via attenuated negative feedback mechanisms, or (b) chronic activated immune-inflammatory and O&NS pathways play a causative role in HPA axis hypoactivity...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Karina Quevedo, Rowena Ng, Hannah Scott, Garry Smyda, Jennifer H Pfeifer, Sandra Malone
Maltreatment is associated with chronic depression, high negative self-attributions, and lifetime psychopathology. Adolescence is a sensitive period for the formation of self-concept. Identifying neurobiomarkers of self-processing in depressed adolescents with and without maltreatment may parse the effects of trauma and depression on self-development and chronic psychopathology. Depressed adolescents (n = 86) maltreated due to omission (DO, n = 13) or commission (DCM, n = 28) or without maltreatment (DC, n = 45), and HCs (HC, n = 37) appraised positive and negative self-descriptors in the scanner...
October 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Karla Zanolla Dias de Souza, Fabiene Bernardes Castro Vale, Selmo Geber
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Tribulus terrestris for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women and evaluate its effect on the serum levels of testosterone. METHODS: We performed a prospective randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, during 18 months. A total of 45 healthy sexually active postmenopausal women reporting diminished libido were selected to participate in the study and were randomly assigned to receive 750 mg/d of T terrestris or placebo for 120 days...
October 10, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
A Thakar
BACKGROUND: Laboratory experiments indicate that changes in retinal image size result in adaptive recalibration or suppression of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Myopia correction with spectacles or contact lenses also leads to retinal image size changes, and may bring about similar vestibulo-ocular reflex alterations. METHODS: A hypothesis-generating preliminary investigation was conducted. In this cross-sectional study, findings of electronystagmography including bithermal caloric testing were compared between 17 volunteer myopes using spectacles or contact lenses and 17 volunteer emmetropes (with no refractive error)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Hatta Sidi, Duni Asmidar, Loh Huai Seng, Nik Ruzyanei Nik Jaafar, Marhani Midi, Ng Chong Guan
OBJECTIVES: The current study compares the risk of sexual pain in depressed female patients in remission between those who were treated with Escitalopram and Fluoxetine. The associated factors were also examined. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involved 112 depressed female patients (56 treated with Escitalopram and 56 treated with Fluoxetine) who were in remission (as defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) in the past 2 months and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score of ≤ 10) from the psychiatric clinic, University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC)...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Takayuki Komatsu, Tomohisa Nomura, Hiroki Takami, So Sakamoto, Keiko Mizuno, Hajime Sekii, Kotaro Hatta, Manabu Sugita
A 42-year-old Japanese woman with a 10-year history of schizophrenia was admitted due to a disturbance in consciousness that met the diagnostic criteria for both neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and malignant catatonia. Despite systemic supportive treatments, the catatonic symptoms preceding autonomic symptoms persisted. The symptoms improved after lorazepam administration, leading to a retrospective diagnosis of malignant catatonia. Catatonia is thought to be caused by a dysfunction of ganmma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the cortico-cortical networks of the frontal lobes, which causes hypoactivity of the dopaminergic transmission in the subcortical areas...
2016: Internal Medicine
Rostislav Horacek, Barbora Krnacova, Jan Prasko, Klara Latalova
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of somatic illnesses, electrolyte imbalance, red blood cell count, hypotension, and antipsychotic and opioid treatment on the duration of delirium in Central Intensive Care Unit for Surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who were admitted to the Department of Central Intensive Care Unit for Surgery in the University Hospital Olomouc from February 2004 to November 2008 were evaluated using Riker sedation-agitation scale...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Charles H Brown, Andrew LaFlam, Laura Max, Julie Wyrobek, Karin J Neufeld, Khaled M Kebaish, David B Cohen, Jeremy D Walston, Charles W Hogue, Lee H Riley
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the incidence, risk factors, and consequences of delirium in older adults undergoing spine surgery. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 70 and older undergoing spine surgery (N = 89). MEASUREMENTS: Postoperative delirium and delirium severity were assessed using validated methods, including the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), CAM for the Intensive Care Unit, Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98, and chart review...
October 3, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Alexia M Thomas, Michael D Schwartz, Michael D Saxe, Thomas S Kilduff
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Although recent innovations have enabled modification of the rat genome, it is unclear whether enhanced utility of rodents as human disease models will result. We compared EEG and behavioral phenotypes of rats and mice with homozygous deletion of Cntnap2, a gene associated with cortical dysplasia-focal epilepsy (CDFE) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). METHODS: Male Cntnap2 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) rats and male Cntnap2 KO and WT mice were implanted with telemeters to record EEG, EMG, body temperature and locomotor activity...
September 26, 2016: Sleep
Yuchen Li, Yajing Meng, Minlan Yuan, Ye Zhang, Zhengjia Ren, Yan Zhang, Hongru Zhu, Changjian Qiu, Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a meta-analysis of the literature reporting neuroimaging in patients undergoing psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD). DATA SOURCES: Using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase, we searched for English-language studies published between January 2000 and February 2015 with terms related to SAD, therapy, and neuroimaging. DATA SOURCES: Twelve studies were included with a total of 295 subjects with SAD before and after therapy from January 2000 to February 2015...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Frank J A Dennissen, Marta Anglada-Huguet, Astrid Sydow, Eckhard Mandelkow, Eva-Maria Mandelkow
Accumulation of Tau is a characteristic hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases but the mode of toxic action of Tau is poorly understood. Here, we show that the Tau protein is toxic due to its aggregation propensity, whereas phosphorylation and/or missorting is not sufficient to cause neuronal dysfunction. Aggregate-prone Tau accumulates, when expressed in vitro at near-endogenous levels, in axons as spindle-shaped grains. These axonal grains contain Tau that is folded in a pathological (MC-1) conformation...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
C Terrier, J-E Terrier
INTRODUCTION: In August 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Addyi(®) (flibanserin) for treatment of acquired, generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in pre-menopausal women. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of the drug in women with HSDD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A systematic literature review from the PubMed database search was carried out until April 2016 using the following keywords: "HSDD", "flibanserin", "sexual desire" and "ransomised controlled trial"...
September 20, 2016: Progrès en Urologie
T Saller, V V Dossow, K Hofmann-Kiefer
BACKGROUND: Delirium is a common complication in critical care. The syndrome is often underestimated due to its potentially no less dangerous course as a hypoactive delirium. Therefore, current guidelines ask for a structured, regular and routine screening in all intensive care units. If delirium is diagnosed, symptomatic therapy should be initiated promptly. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to evaluate recent German anesthetists' strategies regarding delirium care compared to the German guidelines for sedation and delirium in intensive care...
October 2016: Der Anaesthesist
Jae-Kwon Kim, Mina Yeom, Jin-Kyung Hong, Insil Song, Young-Sam Lee, F Peter Guengerich, Jeong-Yun Choi
DNA polymerase (pol) κ efficiently catalyzes error-free translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) opposite bulky N(2)-guanyl lesions induced by carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We investigated the biochemical effects of nine human nonsynonymous germline POLK variations on the TLS properties of pol κ, utilizing recombinant pol κ (residues 1-526) enzymes and DNA templates containing an N(2)-CH2(9-anthracenyl)G (N(2)-AnthG), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), O(6)-methyl(Me)G, or an abasic site. In steady-state kinetic analyses, the R246X, R298H, T473A, and R512W variants displayed 7- to 18-fold decreases in kcat/Km for dCTP insertion opposite G and N(2)-AnthG, with 2- to 3-fold decreases in DNA binding affinity, compared to that of the wild-type, and further showed 5- to 190-fold decreases in kcat/Km for next-base extension from C paired with N(2)-AnthG...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Paige E Tucker, Christobel Saunders, Max K Bulsara, Jason Jit-Sun Tan, Stuart G Salfinger, Helena Green, Paul A Cohen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in women with a history of breast cancer following risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). A secondary objective was to examine the effect of a prior diagnosis of breast cancer, and other factors, on sexuality and quality of life (QoL) outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 119 women who underwent RRSO between 2009 and 2014. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data were collected via a questionnaire comprising demographic information and validated measures of sexual function, sexual distress, relationship satisfaction, body image, psychological stress, menopause symptoms and general quality of life...
September 1, 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Martine Roussel, Eugénie Lhommée, Pauline Narme, Virginie Czernecki, Didier Le Gall, Pierre Krystkowiak, Momar Diouf, Olivier Godefroy
The objectives of this study were to characterize the frequencies and profiles of behavioral and cognitive dysexecutive syndromes in PD (based on validated battery and diagnostic criteria) and to develop a shortened diagnostic battery. Eighty-eight non-demented patients with a diagnosis of PD were examined with an executive validated battery. Using a validated framework, the patients' test results were interpreted with respect to normative data from 780 controls. A dysexecutive syndrome was observed in 80.6% of the patients [95% confidence interval: 71...
September 1, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Allen F Shaughnessy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2016: American Family Physician
Yasin Abanoz, Yeşim Abanoz, Ayşegül Gündüz, Murat Uludağ, Nurettin I˙rem Örnek, Nurten Uzun, Halil Ünalan, Meral Kızıltan
INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord injury (SCI) may cause functional changes at various levels in central and peripheral nervous systems. One of these changes is increased excitability above the lesion such as enhanced auditory startle responses (ASR). Startle response may also be obtained after somatosensory stimulus (startle reflex to somatosensory stimuli, SSS). In this study, we investigated changes of both ASR and SSS in SCI. METHOD: We examined ASR and SSS in 14 patients with SCI and 18 age-matched healthy volunteers...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Jeroen de Keijzer, Arnout Mulder, Arnoud H de Ru, Dick van Soolingen, Peter A van Veelen
: The spread of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the major challenges in tuberculosis control. In Eurasia, the spread of multidrug resistant tuberculosis is driven by the M. tuberculosis Beijing genotype. In this study, we examined whether selective advantages are present in the proteome of Beijing isolates that contribute to the emergence of this genotype. To this end, we compared the proteome of M. tuberculosis Beijing to that of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, both in the presence and absence of the first-line antibiotic rifampicin...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
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