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Postactivation potentiation

Benjamin Pageaux, Jean Theurel, Romuald Leper
PURPOSE: To describe the effects of uphill walking versus cycling exercises on knee extensors (KE) neuromuscular properties and subsequent running exercise. METHODS: Nine athletes performed four different sessions (one familiarization and three experimental sessions, visit 2 to 4). Visit 2 (cycling + 10 km condition) consisted of the completion of 1-h cycling followed by a 10 km running time trial. Visit 3 consisted of the completion of 1-h uphill walking followed by a 10 km running exercise (RE)...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Chris Bishop, Anthony N Turner, Jon Cree, Sean Maloney, James Marshall, Paul Jarvis
This study investigated the effect of preceding pro-agility sprints with maximal isometric squats to determine if postactivation potentiation (PAP) could be harnessed in change of direction speed. Sixteen elite under-17 rugby union players (age: 16 ± 0.41yrs; body mass: 88.7 ± 12.1kg, height: 1.83 ± 0.07m) from an Aviva Premiership rugby club were tested. Subjects performed a change of direction specific warm-up, followed by two baseline pro-agility tests. After 10 minutes recovery, 3 x 3-second maximal isometric squats with a 2 minute recovery between sets were completed as a conditioning activity (CA) on a force plate where peak force and mean rate of force development over 300 milliseconds were measured...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Bent R Rønnestad, Gunnar Slettaløkken Falch, Stian Ellefsen
PURPOSE: Postactivation potentiation (PAP) exercise with added whole-body vibration (WBV) has been suggested as a potential way to acutely improve sprint performance. In cycling, there are many competitions and situations where sprinting abilities are important. In the present study we investigated the effect of adding WBV to warm-up procedures on subsequent cycle sprint performance. METHODS: Eleven well-trained cyclists participated in the study. All cyclists performed a familiarization session before two separate test sessions in randomized order...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
J Kümmel, A Kramer, N J Cronin, M Gruber
Stretching can decrease a muscle's maximal force, whereas short but intense muscle contractions can increase it. We hypothesized that when combined, postactivation potentiation induced by reactive jumps would counteract stretch-induced decrements in drop jump (DJ) performance. Moreover, we measured changes in muscle twitch forces and ankle joint stiffness (KAnkle ) to examine underlying mechanisms. Twenty subjects completed three DJs and 10 electrically evoked muscle twitches of the triceps surae subsequent to four different conditioning activities and control...
December 9, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Amri Hammami, James Zois, Maamer Slimani, Mark Russel, Ezdine Bouhlel
INTRODUCTION: This review aimed (i) to evaluate the current research that examines the efficacy of warm-up (WU) and re-warm-up (RWU) on physical performance, and (ii) to highlight the WU and RWU characteristics that optimise subsequent performance in soccer players. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A computerized search was performed in the PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar (from 1995 to December 2015) for English-language, peer- reviewed investigations using the terms "soccer" OR "football" AND "warm-up" OR "stretching" OR "post-activation potentiation" OR "pre-activity" OR "re-warm-up" AND "performance" OR "jump" OR "sprint" OR "running"...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Austyn L Nealer, Dustin D Dunnick, Kylie K Malyszek, Megan A Wong, Pablo B Costa, Jared W Coburn, Lee E Brown
Nealer, AL, Dunnick, DD, Malyszek, KK, Wong, MA, Costa, PB, Coburn, JW, and Brown, LE. Influence of rest intervals after assisted sprinting on bodyweight sprint times in female collegiate soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 88-94, 2017-Speed is a crucial element an athlete must possess to be successful. In soccer, the ability to accelerate faster than your opponent can result in being first to reach a ball on a breakaway or stopping a counter attack. A unique way to train explosive movements is to evoke postactivation potentiation (PAP) in the working muscles...
January 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Gert Ulrich, Mario Parstorfer
PURPOSE: There is limited data on postactivation potentiation (PAP) effects following plyometric conditioning contractions (CC), especially in the upper body. Therefore, the study compared plyometric CC with concentric-eccentric and eccentric CC aiming to improve upper body power performance due to a PAP-effect. METHODS: Sixteen resistance-trained males completed three experimental trials in a randomized order which composed of either a plyometric (PLY), a concentric-eccentric (CON) or an eccentric-only (ECC) CC...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Lee A Bridgeman, Michael R McGuigan, Nicholas D Gill, Deborah Dulson
The aims of this study were to (A) investigate the acute effects of different drop jump (DJ) accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) protocols and (B) to investigate the effect of these AEL DJ protocols on subsequent countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. The subjects were 12 strength-trained athletes, initially, baseline CMJ performance was assessed and individual optimal DJ drop height identified. In subsequent weeks subjects completed 1 set of 5 DJ's with no additional load or an AEL of 10, 20 or 30% of their individual body mass (BM) utilising dumbbells to provide the extra load...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Bent R Rønnestad, Gunnar Slettaløkken, Stian Ellefsen
The phenomenon postactivation potentiation can possibly be used to acutely improve sprint performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of body-loaded half-squats with added whole body vibration (WBV) on subsequent 20 m on-ice sprint performance. Fifteen male ice-hockey players performed 4 test sessions on separate days and in a randomized order. Two of this test sessions were with WBV and 2 were with noWBV and the best sprint time was used to determine effectiveness. Each test session included preconditioning 30 seconds half-squat exercise, 2 of which were supplemented with 50 Hz WBV at a amplitude of 3 mm...
April 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Cameron N Munger, Whitney D Leyva, David C Archer, Andrew J Galpin, Jared W Coburn, Lee E Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Kenji Doma, Wade H Sinclair, Sarah R Hervert, Anthony S Leicht
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the post-activation potentiation effects of maximal dynamic contractions and gender on rowing sprint ability. DESIGN: Repeated measures. METHODS: Thirty-four male (n=17) and female (n=17) university students with experience in rowing took part in this study conducted across three weeks. Following familiarisation of the 10-second maximal rowing performance test on a rowing ergometer during Week 1, participants were randomly allocated to either complete a control or experimental session during Week 2 and 3...
November 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Chad A Cabrera, Jacobo Morales, Felicia Greer, Robert W Pettitt
Postactivation potentiation (PAP) has been hypothesized previously to occur during voluntary, concentric actions. We tested the hypothesis that one of at least three different intensities of conditioning exercises would evoke potentiation of power during the concentric, bench press throw (BPT). Twelve men (age = 22.9 ± 2.7 years, bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) = 1.20 ± 0.12 kg·kg(-1) body weight) completed five isotonic conditioning presses at ~55, 70, and 86% 1RM, in counterbalanced order, and on separate days...
2009: International Journal of Exercise Science
Laurent B Seitz, Gabriel S Trajano, G Gregory Haff, Charles C L S Dumke, James J Tufano, Anthony J Blazevich
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between maximal voluntary postactivation potentiation (PAP) and maximal knee extensor torque, quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and volume, and type II myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform percentage in human skeletal muscle. Thirteen resistance-trained men completed a test protocol consisting of 2 isokinetic knee extensions at 180°·s(-)(1) performed before and 1, 4, 7, and 10 min after the completion of 4 maximal knee extensions at 60°·s(-)(1) (i...
May 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Chia-Chi Wang, Ming-Ta Yang, Kang-Hao Lu, Kuei-Hui Chan
Creatine plays an important role in muscle energy metabolism. Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is a phenomenon that can acutely increase muscle power, but it is an individualized process that is influenced by muscle fatigue. This study examined the effects of creatine supplementation on explosive performance and the optimal individual PAP time during a set of complex training bouts. Thirty explosive athletes performed tests of back squat for one repetition maximum (1RM) strength and complex training bouts for determining the individual optimal timing of PAP, height and peak power of a counter movement jump before and after the supplementation...
March 4, 2016: Nutrients
Lawrence W Judge, David M Bellar, Bruce W Craig, Erin L Gilreath, Scott A Cappos, Ashley B Thrasher
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the acute effects of heavy and light implements on subsequent overhead back (OHB) shot put performance with a competition weight shot put. This investigation was designed to test the efficacy of heavy implements for potentiating subsequent OHB performance. Participants included 41 athletes (20.9 ± 1.18 years.) from 2 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I schools in the Midwestern United States (n = 23 male and n = 18 female). Mean distance for OHB throw with a competition shot put was examined after treatment (control, light shot put warm-up, and heavy shot put warm-up) through repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Bonferroni-corrected post hoc analysis...
February 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Timothy J Suchomel, Hugh S Lamont, Gavin L Moir
This review article discusses previous postactivation potentiation (PAP) literature and provides a deterministic model for vertical jump (i.e., squat jump, countermovement jump, and drop/depth jump) potentiation. There are a number of factors that must be considered when designing an effective strength-power potentiation complex (SPPC) focused on vertical jump potentiation. Sport scientists and practitioners must consider the characteristics of the subject being tested and the design of the SPPC itself. Subject characteristics that must be considered when designing an SPPC focused on vertical jump potentiation include the individual's relative strength, sex, muscle characteristics, neuromuscular characteristics, current fatigue state, and training background...
June 2016: Sports Medicine
Marián Vanderka, Matúš Krčmár, Katarína Longová, Simon Walker
The purpose of the study was to determine the acute responses to a jump squat protocol designed to induce postactivation potentiation on sprint running performance in experienced track and field athletes and soccer players. Twenty-five regional level athletes (12 track and field: ∼17 years; ∼177 cm; ∼73 kg and 13 soccer: ∼18 years; ∼175 cm; ∼72 kg) performed 2 test sessions assessing 40-m sprint running performance in a balanced, crossover design. Dual-beam light timing gates measured 0-20 and 20-40 m sprint times before and after either 9 minutes of sitting (control) or 2 sets of 6 repetition half-squat jump with the load eliciting maximum power (experimental) conditions...
2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Joni A Mettler, Lisa Griffin
With muscular training, the central nervous system may regulate motor unit firing rates to sustain force output and delay fatigue. The aims of this study were to investigate motor unit firing rates and patterns of the adductor pollicis (AdP) muscle in young, able-bodied adults throughout a sustained submaximal isometric fatiguing contraction and postactivation potentiation pre-post 4 weeks of muscular endurance training. Fifteen participants (training group: N = 10; control group: N = 5) performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) and a sustained isometric 20 % MVC fatigue task pre-post training...
January 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Myrina Boulais, Philippe Soudant, Nelly Le Goïc, Claudie Quéré, Pierre Boudry, Marc Suquet
In the Pacific oyster, spermatozoa are characterized by a remarkably long movement phase (i.e., over 24 h) sustained by a capacity to maintain intracellular ATP level. To gain information on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) functionality during the motility phase of Pacific oyster spermatozoa, we studied 1) changes in spermatozoal mitochondrial activity, that is, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and intracellular ATP content in relation to motion parameters and 2) the involvement of OXPHOS for spermatozoal movement using carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP)...
November 2015: Biology of Reproduction
Sean A Horan, Steven L Watson, Conor Lambert, Benjamin K Weeks
High-load resistance-based exercise is a common approach to facilitating improved neuromuscular performance via postactivation potentiation. Popular field-based warm-up activities, however, have been largely overlooked despite their specificity and practicality for sports performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated bouts of alternating lunges on neuromuscular performance determined by a maximal vertical jump (VJ). Forty-three healthy young adults (24 women and 19 men: age, 25...
September 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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