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Delirium , infection

Mehmet Ali Aslaner, Mustafa Boz, Ali Çelik, Asliddin Ahmedali, Sercan Eroğlu, Nalan Metin Aksu, Serkan Emre Eroğlu
OBJECTIVES: Altered mental status (AMS) is a challenging diagnosis in older patients and has a large range of etiologies. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of such etiologies for physicians to be better aware of AMS backgrounds and hence improve outcomes and mortality rates. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted at 4 emergency departments. Patients 65 years and older who presented to the emergency department with acute AMS (≤1 week), with symptoms ranging from comas and combativeness, were eligible for inclusion in this study...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Emily McNicholas, Ahmed H Abdelhafiz
Unexplained fever and confusion is a common reason for emergency medical admission. When this occurs in the context of new urinary incontinence, a urinary tract infection may be considered to be the most likely cause. However it is also important to consider spinal pathology when this combination of symptoms arises. We present a case of a retropharygeal collection presenting in a patient with this combination of symptoms.
2016: Acute Medicine
Sanka Amadoru, Kwang Lim, Mark Tacey, Craig Aboltins
AIMS: To explore differences in presentation and outcomes between younger and older patients with bacterial spinal infections. METHODS: Clinical, microbiological and radiological information was collected for patients at a single metropolitan hospital with spinal infections (spondylodiscitis, vertebral osteomyelitis, septic discitis, facet joint septic arthritis, and spinal epidural abscess) between January 2008 and January 2015. Patients were excluded if under 18 years of age, or if clinical and imaging findings were inconsistent with the diagnosis...
October 18, 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
Huimin Lin, Samuel T H Chew
An 85-year-old female with chronic kidney disease and newly acquired seizures on oral phenytoin received intravenous ertapenem 500 mg once daily for a urinary tract infection and bacteraemia involving extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. After three ertapenem doses, she developed seizures which self-aborted. Corrected phenytoin level was sub-therapeutic initially, but became therapeutic following a phenytoin dose increase. On Day 14 of ertapenem, the patient suffered another episode of seizure...
December 2015: Drug Saf Case Rep
Ian Brockington
In addition to bipolar cycloid episodes, infective delirium and eclamptic psychosis, each of which has characteristic clinical features and course, brief episodes of delirium and stupor are also seen in the immediate aftermath of parturition. Several mothers have had similar episodes developing later in the first 10 days, and some have cyclical disorders with an unusual time base. Bipolar/cycloid disorders can start on day 1 or even earlier.
October 16, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Marieke Zegers, Gijs Hesselink, Wytske Geense, Charles Vincent, Hub Wollersheim
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of effective interventions aimed at reducing rates of adverse events in hospitals. DESIGN: Systematic review of systematic reviews. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE were searched for systematic reviews published until October 2015. STUDY SELECTION: English-language systematic reviews of interventions aimed at reducing adverse events in hospitals, including studies with an experimental design and reporting adverse event rates, were included...
2016: BMJ Open
Sean van Diepen, Wendy I Sligl, Jeffrey B Washam, Ian C Gilchrist, Rakesh C Arora, Jason N Katz
Over the past half century, coronary care units have expanded from specialized ischemia arrhythmia monitoring units into intensive care units (ICUs) for acutely ill and medically complex patients with a primary cardiac diagnosis. Patients admitted to contemporary coronary intensive care units (CICUs) are at risk for common and preventable critical care complications, yet many CICUs have not adopted standard-of-care prevention protocols and practices from general ICUs. In this article, we (1) review evidence-based interventions and care bundles that reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, excess sedation during mechanical ventilation, central line infections, stress ulcers, malnutrition, delirium, and medication errors and (2) recommend pragmatic adaptations for common conditions in critically ill patients with cardiac disease, and (3) provide example order sets and practical CICU protocol implementation strategies...
July 1, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Jai Gon Seo, Sang Min Kim, Jung Min Shin, Youngjun Kim, Byung Hoon Lee
INTRODUCTION: Simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. The orthopedic surgeon must, therefore, decide whether bilateral simultaneous TKA is a safe operation to perform and endeavor to decrease the risk of serious complications or even death. METHODS: This retrospective review included 2098 consecutive patients who underwent bilateral simultaneous TKAs by the protocol used in our institution, including the use of extramedullary instruments to minimize medullary canal invasion and overlapping procedures for both knees to decrease operation time...
November 2016: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Lisa J Rosenthal, Brandon A Francis, Jennifer L Beaumont, David Cella, Michael D Berman, Matthew B Maas, Eric M Liotta, Robert Askew, Andrew M Naidech
BACKGROUND: Delirium predicts higher long-term cognitive morbidity. We previously identified a cohort of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and delirium and found worse outcomes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the domain of cognitive function. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that agitation would have additional prognostic significance on later cognitive function HRQoL. METHODS: Prospective identification of 174 patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage, measuring stroke severity, agitation, and delirium, with a standardized protocol and measures...
August 5, 2016: Psychosomatics
Sara J E Beishuizen, Rikie M Scholtens, Barbara C van Munster, Sophia E de Rooij
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between serum S100B levels (a marker of brain damage), delirium, and subsequent cognitive decline. DESIGN: Substudy of a multicenter randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Surgical, orthopedic, and trauma surgery wards of two teaching hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older (range 65-102) admitted for hip fracture surgery (N = 385). MEASUREMENTS: During hospitalization, presence of delirium was assessed daily...
September 19, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Edel Hennessy, Shane Gormley, Ana Belen Lopez-Rodriguez, Caoimhe Murray, Carol Murray, Colm Cunningham
Inflammation influences chronic neurodegeneration but its precise roles are not yet clear. Systemic inflammation caused by infection, trauma or co-morbidity can alter the brain's inflammatory status, produce acute cognitive impairments, such as delirium, and drive new pathology and accelerated decline. Consistent with this, elevated systemic TNF-α is associated with more rapid cognitive decline over 6 months in Alzheimer's disease patients. In the current study we challenged normal animals and those with existing progressive neurodegeneration (ME7 prion disease) with TNF-α (i...
September 12, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Romina Deldar, Derek Thomas, Anna Maria Storniolo
Importance. Oftentimes, when patients with metastatic cancer present with acute encephalopathy, it is suspected to be secondary to their underlying malignancy. However, there are multiple causes of delirium such as central nervous system (CNS) infections, electrolyte abnormalities, and drug adverse reactions. Because West Nile Virus (WNV) neuroinvasive disease has a high mortality rate in immunosuppressed patients, a high index of suspicion is required in patients who present with fever, altered mental status, and other neurological symptoms...
2016: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Carlos Jorge-Ripper, María-Remedios Alemán, Rosa Ros, Selena Aguilera, Emilio González-Reimers, Elisa Espelosín, Francisco Santolaria
AIM: To analyze the prognostic impact of short-term changes in the intensity of delirium in association or not with sepsis. We also aimed to analyze if s100B, a serum protein derived from astrocytes related to cerebral damage, could be a marker of delirium or sepsis. METHODS: We included 47 patients with acute delirium and sepsis, 36 with delirium and no evidence of infection, and 36 patients with sepsis without delirium. The diagnosis of delirium was established by the Confusion Assessment Method...
July 19, 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Ahsan Rao, Amna Suliman, Sabine Vuik, Paul Aylin, Ara Darzi
INTRODUCTION: Aim of the study was to compare various outcomes of dementia patients with elderly patients without dementia by conducting a systematic review of previous population-based studies. METHODS: The relevant studies were retrieved from search of electronic databases. RESULTS: The pooled data from included 11 studies consisted of outcomes of 1,044,131 dementia patients compared to 9,639,027 elderly patients without dementia. Meta-analysis showed that the mortality in dementia patients was 15...
September 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Bonnie Fergie, James Basha, Michelle McRae, Ian McCrossin
We report five cases of Rickettsia australis infection from southern coastal New South Wales, Australia. All patients presented with a cutaneous eruption of erythematous papules and pustules and systemic features of malaise, headache, lymphadenopathy and myalgia. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was present in two of five cases and one of five cases had acute delirium. Improvement was only seen after treatment with doxycycline 100 mg b.i.d. Positive serology for R. australis was present in four of five cases and a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was seen in one of five cases...
June 10, 2016: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
Yukako Mokutani, Tsunekazu Mizushima, Makoto Yamasaki, Hiromi Rakugi, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori
AIMS: The study aims to determine whether the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) could predict complications of colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery and identify the problems. So we compared the prognostic value of the CGA with patient characteristics and determined predictive scores. METHODS: A total of 156 patients aged 75 years and older, who underwent surgery for CRC at Osaka University Hospital, were enrolled. Each patient was examined by the CGA prospectively, and all postoperative complications were obtained from the medical records...
2016: Digestive Surgery
B Mollon, S A Mahure, D Y Ding, J D Zuckerman, Y W Kwon
AIMS: Depression can significantly affect quality of life and is associated with higher rates of medical comorbidities and increased mortality following surgery. Although depression has been linked to poorer outcomes following orthopaedic trauma, total joint arthroplasty and spinal surgery, we wished to examine the impact of depression in elective total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) as this has not been previously explored. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to identify patients undergoing elective TSA over a ten-year period...
June 2016: Bone & Joint Journal
Kenneth S Boockvar, Jeanne A Teresi, Sharon K Inouye
Nursing home (NH) residents have a high prevalence of delirium risk factors, experience two to four acute medical conditions (e.g., infections) each year, and have an incidence of delirium during these conditions similar to that of hospitalized older adults. Many NH residents with delirium do not return to their prior level of cognitive function. They are more likely to die, be hospitalized, and less likely to be discharged home than those without delirium. Research on the prevention or treatment of delirium in NHs is limited...
May 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Rushna Ali, Jason M Schwalb, David R Nerenz, Heath J Antoine, Ilan Rubinfeld
OBJECTIVE Limited tools exist to stratify perioperative risk in patients undergoing spinal procedures. The modified frailty index (mFI) based on the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Frailty Index (CSHA-FI), constructed from standard demographic variables, has been applied to various other surgical populations for risk stratification. The authors hypothesized that it would be predictive of postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing spine surgery. METHODS The 2006-2010 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) data set was accessed for patients undergoing spine surgeries based on Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes...
May 6, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Alex Soroceanu, Douglas C Burton, Jonathan H Oren, Justin S Smith, Richard Hostin, Christopher I Shaffrey, Behrooz A Akbarnia, Christopher P Ames, Thomas J Errico, Shay Bess, Munish C Gupta, Vedat Deviren, Frank J Schwab, Virginie Lafage
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of a prospective multi-center database evaluating surgical ASD patients. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify risk factors for medical complications in ASD patients undergoing surgery SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Adult Spinal Deformity (ASD) surgery is known for its high complication rate. This study examines baseline patient characteristics for predictors of medical complications in surgical ASD patients. METHODS: Intra and perioperative medical complications were included...
April 19, 2016: Spine
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