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Transplant skin cancer

Liezel L Griffin, John T Lear
Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy among the Caucasian population. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is gaining popularity for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), Bowen's disease (BD) and actinic keratosis (AK). A topical or systemic exogenous photosensitiser, results in selective uptake by malignant cells. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is produced then activated by the introduction of a light source. Daylight-mediated MAL (methyl aminolaevulinate) PDT for AKs has the advantage of decreased pain and better patient tolerance...
October 22, 2016: Cancers
James W Behan, Adam Sutton, Ashley Wysong
Skin cancer is the most common of human cancers and outnumbers all other types of cancer combined in the USA by over threefold. The majority of non-melanoma skin cancers are easily treated with surgery or locally destructive techniques performed under local anesthesia in the cost-effective outpatient setting. However, there is a subset of "high-risk" cases that prove challenging in terms of morbidity, mortality, adjuvant treatment required, as well as overall cost to the health care system. In our opinion, the term "high risk" when applied to skin cancer can mean one of three things: a high-risk tumor with aggressive histologic and/or clinical features with an elevated risk for local recurrence or regional/distant metastasis, a high-risk patient with the ongoing development of multiple skin cancers, and a high-risk patient based on immunosuppression...
December 2016: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Jin Kyung Chae, Jeong Hee Kim, Eun Jung Kim, Kun Park
BACKGROUND: The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) recently emerged as a promising method, reflecting both observer's and patient's opinions in evaluating scar. This tool was shown to be consistent and reliable in burn scar assessment, but it has not been tested in the setting of skin graft scar in skin cancer patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate facial skin graft scar applied to POSAS and to compare with objective scar assessment tools. METHODS: Twenty three patients, who diagnosed with facial cutaneous malignancy and transplanted skin after Mohs micrographic surgery, were recruited...
October 2016: Annals of Dermatology
Linda Cook
Over the last 10 years, the number of identified polyomaviruses has grown to more than 35 subtypes, including 13 in humans. The polyomaviruses have similar genetic makeup, including genes that encode viral capsid proteins VP1, 2, and 3 and large and small T region proteins. The T proteins play a role in viral replication and have been implicated in viral chromosomal integration and possible dysregulation of growth factor genes. In humans, the Merkel cell polyomavirus has been shown to be highly associated with integration and the development of Merkel cell cancers...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Michael Bickell, Jonathan Beilan, Jared Wallen, Lucas Wiegand, Rafael Carrion
This article reviews the most up-to-date surgical treatment options for the reconstructive management of patients with penile, urethral, and scrotal cancer. Each organ system is examined individually. Techniques and discussion for penile cancer reconstruction include Mohs surgery, glans resurfacing, partial and total glansectomy, and phalloplasty. Included in the penile cancer reconstruction section is the use of penile prosthesis in phalloplasty patients after penectomy, tissue engineering in phallic regeneration, and penile transplantation...
November 2016: Urologic Clinics of North America
Satona Tanaka, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa, Kyoko Hijiya, Masatsugu Hamaji, Hideki Motoyama, Akihiko Aoyama, Hiroshi Date
Patients after lung transplantation are at risk for postoperative malignancy mainly due to postoperative immunosuppression. Skin cancer and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) are common in Western countries. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 120 patients undergoing lung transplantation between April 2002 and July 2015 at Kyoto University. Postoperative malignancy developed in 14 patients(11.7%):PTLD in 8, gastric cancer in 2, breast cancer in 1, glioblastoma in 1, lung cancer in 1, and adenocarcinoma of unknown primary in 1...
October 2016: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Georges Mourad, Jean-Emmanuel Serre, Cyrielle Alméras, Olivia Basel, Valérie Garrigue, Vincent Pernin, Moglie Le Quintrec
Infections and malignancies are the expected complications of immunosuppressive therapy, which non-specifically impairs cellular and humoral immune responses in renal transplant recipients. Infections were usually frequent and severe during the early post-transplant period (first year). Recent diagnostic methods (molecular biology) and availability of new antivirals, antifungal and antibiotic drugs made rapid diagnosis and systematic preventive strategies much easier and this resulted in a significant reduction of infections and infectious death in this population...
September 24, 2016: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Robert P Feehan, Lisa M Shantz
Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer worldwide and the incidence continues to rise, in part due to increasing numbers in high-risk groups such as organ transplant recipients and those taking photosensitizing medications. The most significant risk factor for NMSC is ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunlight, specifically UVB, which is the leading cause of DNA damage, photoaging, and malignant transformation in the skin. Activation of apoptosis following UVR exposure allows the elimination of irreversibly damaged cells that may harbor oncogenic mutations...
October 1, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Orit Markowitz, Michelle Schwartz
Immunosuppressed transplant recipients have increased risk for the development of basal cell carcinoma skin cancers. While oral vismodegib therapy has been successful in treating locally advanced basal cell tumors, few studies document its use and efficacy in organ transplant patients. In this immunocompromised population, topical imiquimod 5% cream has been shown to be an effective and well-tolerated option for superficial and nodular basal cell carcinomas. To the authors' knowledge, no data documents the use of optical coherence tomography, a noninvasive imaging technique, to monitor progress of such combined therapies on in vivo skin...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
Sarah Baldwin, Sheila Au
The Skin Cancer Post-Transplant (SCREEN) Clinic is a skin-cancer screening clinic that is fully integrated into the renal transplantation clinic at St Paul's Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia. The purpose of this review was to determine characteristics of patients most at risk for skin cancer, to specify types and locations of skin cancers diagnosed, and to identify areas for patient and physician education. Transplant patients (91% renal; 5% heart) screened by a dermatologist during a 12-month period were stratified into low-, medium-, and high-risk groups based on detailed history and skin examination...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
Dongdong Han, Chengjie Cao, Ya Su, Jun Wang, Jian Sun, Huasheng Chen, Aihua Xu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: A fruit of Ginkgo biloba L. also known as Ginkgo biloba, can be used for the treatment of cancer in Chinese traditional medicine. The scientific name of succulent skin, which is the episperm of Ginkgo nuts, is exocarp. Experiment shows that Ginkgo biloba exocarp extracts (GBEE) has the effects of immune promotion, cancer inhibition and etc. AIM OF STUDY: Study on the activity of GBEE against Lewis lung cancer (LLC) angiogenesis and its partial molecular mechanism...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
David Bennett, Antonella Fossi, Rosa Metella Refini, Francesco Gentili, Luca Luzzi, Luca Voltolini, Piero Paladini, Maria Antonietta Mazzei, Paola Rottoli
PURPOSE: Solid-organ tumor incidences are higher in solid organ transplant patients than in the general population. The aim of this study was to analyze solid-organ tumor frequency and characteristics in a population of lung transplant patients and provide a brief review of the literature. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of all patients who underwent a lung transplant in the Lung Transplant Program at the University Hospital of Siena, Italy, from 2001 to 2014 (n = 119)...
August 23, 2016: Tumori
Yi-Chan Chen, Chih-Hsien Cheng, Yu-Chao Wang, Ting-Jun Wu, Hong-Shiue Chou, Kun-Ming Chan, Wei-Chen Lee, Chen-Fang Lee, Ruey Shyang Soong
Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the choice of treatment not only for end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure but also for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The development of de novo malignancies after liver transplantation plays an important role in late mortality; the incidence of late mortality has increased owing to improved survival. The incidence of de novo malignancies is 2.3% to 25%, which is 2 to 3 times that of malignancies in the general population. The most commonly reported de novo malignancies in solid organs are skin cancer, Karposi sarcoma, and colon cancer according to the frequency of exposure to a specific carcinogen...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Venkata S Katabathina, Christine O Menias, Varaha S Tammisetti, Meghan G Lubner, Ania Kielar, Akram Shaaban, Joseph Mansour, Venkateshwar R Surabhi, Amy K Hara
Life expectancies for solid organ recipients as well as graft survival rates for these patients have improved over the years because of advanced immunosuppressive therapies; however, with chronic use of these drugs, posttransplant malignancy has become one of the leading causes of morbidity for them. The risk of carcinogenesis in transplant recipients is significantly higher than for the general population and cancers tend to manifest at an advanced stage. Posttransplant malignancies are thought to develop by three mechanisms: de novo development, donor-related transmission, and recurrence of a recipient's pretransplant malignancy...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Stephanie Rodgers, Aleksandra Aleksandrowicz, Margot Mutsch, Nina Steinemann, Viktor von Wyl, Roland von Känel, Matthias Bopp
BACKGROUND: To examine the site-specific cancer mortality among deaths registered with Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). We focused on the patterns related to the most frequent cancers. METHODS: We analyzed Swiss mortality data over a 39-year period (1969-2007), using a statistical approach applicable to unique daabases, i.e. when no linkage with morbidity databases or disease registries is possible. It was based on a case-control design with bootstrapping to derive standardized mortality ratios (SMR)...
October 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Weifeng Shang, Liu Huang, Li Li, Xiaojuan Li, Rui Zeng, Shuwang Ge, Gang Xu
It has been reported that patients receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT), including dialysis and kidney transplantation, tend to have an increased risk of cancer; however, studies on the degree of this risk have remained inconclusive. The present meta-analysis was therefore performed to quantify the cancer risk in patients with RRT. Cohort studies assessing overall cancer risk in RRT patients published before May 29, 2015 were included following systematic searches with of PubMed, EMBASE and the reference lists of the studies retrieved...
September 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Howard L Kaufman, Jeffery Russell, Omid Hamid, Shailender Bhatia, Patrick Terheyden, Sandra P D'Angelo, Kent C Shih, Céleste Lebbé, Gerald P Linette, Michele Milella, Isaac Brownell, Karl D Lewis, Jochen H Lorch, Kevin Chin, Lisa Mahnke, Anja von Heydebreck, Jean-Marie Cuillerot, Paul Nghiem
BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive skin cancer with poor prognosis in patients with advanced disease. Current standard care uses various cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens, but responses are seldom durable. Tumour oncogenesis is linked to Merkel cell polyomavirus integration and ultraviolet-radiation-induced mutations, providing rationale for treatment with immunotherapy antibodies that target the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway. We assessed treatment with avelumab, an anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody, in patients with stage IV Merkel cell carcinoma that had progressed after cytotoxic chemotherapy...
October 2016: Lancet Oncology
Zhiwei Zhang, Hua Sun, Jianhua Zhang, Chunlei Ge, Suwei Dong, Zhen Li, Ruilei Li, Xiaodan Chen, Mei Li, Yun Chen, Yingying Zou, Zhongyi Qian, Lei Yang, Jinyan Yang, Zhitao Zhu, Zhimin Liu, Xin Song
BACKGROUND Transplantation with allogeneic cells has become a promising modality for cancer therapy, which can induce graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect. This study was aimed at assessing the safety, efficacy, and tissue type GVT (tGVT) response of transplantation with allogeneic skin tumors to treat chemically-induced skin tumors in mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS FVB/N and ICR mice were exposed topically to chemicals to induce skin tumors. Healthy ICR mice were transplanted with allogeneic skin tumors from FVB/N mice to test the safety...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Amy V Paschall, Kebin Liu
Metastasis is the primary cause of mortality of breast cancer patients. The mechanism underlying cancer cell metastasis, including breast cancer metastasis, is largely unknown and is a focus in cancer research. Various breast cancer spontaneous metastasis mouse models have been established. Here, we report a simplified procedure to establish orthotopic transplanted breast cancer primary tumor and resultant spontaneous metastasis that mimic human breast cancer metastasis. Combined with the bioluminescence live tumor imaging, this mouse model allows tumor growth and progression kinetics to be monitored and quantified...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
André Pinho, Miguel Gouveia, José Carlos Cardoso, Maria Manuel Xavier, Ricardo Vieira, Rui Alves
BACKGROUND: Cancer is currently among the three leading causes of death after solid organ transplantation and its incidence is increasing. Non-melanoma skin cancer - squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma - is the most common malignancy found in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in KTRs has not been extensively studied in Portugal. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in KTRs from the largest Portuguese kidney transplant unit; and to study risk factors for non-melanoma skin cancer...
July 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
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