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Transfer entropy

Tomomi Shimazaki, Motomichi Tashiro, Takahito Nakajima
A bulk-heterojunction structure is often employed to develop high-performance organic photocells, in which the donor and acceptor regions are complexly intertwined. In such situations, mesoscopic-scale islands and peninsulas that compose the donor materials may be formed in the acceptor region. Alternatively, the donor region may extend deeply into the acceptor region. This yields mesoscopic-size impurities that can create obstacles in the charge separation (exciton dissociation) process of organic photocells and prevents the dissociation of excitons (electron-hole pairs)...
May 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xiaoling Chen, Ping Xie, Yuanyuan Zhang, Yuling Chen, Fangmei Yang, Litai Zhang, Xiaoli Li
Recently, functional corticomuscular coupling (FCMC) between the cortex and the contralateral muscle has been used to evaluate motor function after stroke. As we know, the motor-control system is a closed-loop system that is regulated by complex self-regulating and interactive mechanisms which operate in multiple spatial and temporal scales. Multiscale analysis can represent the inherent complexity. However, previous studies in FCMC for stroke patients mainly focused on the coupling strength in single-time scale, without considering the changes of the inherently directional and multiscale properties in sensorimotor systems...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Priyalakshmi Sheela, Subha D Puthankattil
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) comprise all pervasive neurodevelopmental diseases marked by deficits in social and communication skills, delayed cognitive development, restricted and repetitive behaviors. The core symptoms begin in early childhood, may continue life-long resulting in poor performance in adult stage. Event-related potential (ERP) is basically a time-locked electroencephalogram signal elicited by various stimuli, related to sensory and cognitive processes. The various ERP based techniques used for the study of ASD are considered in this review...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Yuanyuan Zhang, Ce Zou, Xiaoling Chen, Yonghao Yin, Shengcui Cheng, Yingya Chen, Ping Xie
Synchronization analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) could reveal the functional corticomuscular coupling (FCMC) during the motor task in human. A novel method combining Gabor wavelet and transfer entropy (Gabor-TE) is proposed to quantitatively analyze the nonlinearly synchronous corticomuscular function coupling and direction characteristics under different steady-state force. Firstly, the Gabor wavelet transform method was used to acquire the local frequency-band signals of the EEG and EMG signals recorded from nine healthy controls simultaneously during performing grip task with four different steady-state forces...
December 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
Peishi Jiang, Praveen Kumar
Complex systems arise as a result of interdependences between multiple variables, whose causal interactions can be visualized in a time-series graph. Transfer entropy and information partitioning approaches have been used to characterize such dependences. However, these approaches capture net information transfer occurring through a multitude of pathways involved in the interaction and as a result mask our ability to discern the causal interaction within a subgraph of interest through specific pathways. We build on recent developments of momentary information transfer along causal paths proposed by Runge [Phys...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Anna Krakovská, Jozef Jakubík, Martina Chvosteková, David Coufal, Nikola Jajcay, Milan Paluš
In this comparative study, six causality detection methods were compared, namely, the Granger vector autoregressive test, the extended Granger test, the kernel version of the Granger test, the conditional mutual information (transfer entropy), the evaluation of cross mappings between state spaces, and an assessment of predictability improvement due to the use of mixed predictions. Seven test data sets were analyzed: linear coupling of autoregressive models, a unidirectional connection of two Hénon systems, a unidirectional connection of chaotic systems of Rössler and Lorenz type and of two different Rössler systems, an example of bidirectionally connected two-species systems, a fishery model as an example of two correlated observables without a causal relationship, and an example of mediated causality...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Frederic Zubler, Andrea Seiler, Thomas Horvath, Corinne Roth, Silvia Miano, Christian Rummel, Heidemarie Gast, Lino Nobili, Kaspar A Schindler, Claudio L Bassetti
OBJECTIVE: Large-scale connectivity, especially interhemispheric connections, plays a crucial role for recovery after stroke. Here we used methods from information theory to characterize interhemispheric information flow in wake- and sleep-EEG after cerebral ischemia. METHODS: 34 patients with unilateral ischemic stroke were included. Symbolic Transfer Entropy (STE) was applied between bipolar EEG signals on the left and the right cerebral hemisphere during polysomnographic recordings in the acute phase and 3 months after stroke...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Jie Wei, Dexin Xu, Xiao Zhang, Jing Yang, Qiuyu Wang
The interaction between Anthocyanins in Aronia melanocarpa (AMA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied in this paper by multispectral technology, such as fluorescence quenching titration, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results of the fluorescence titration revealed that AMA could strongly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA by static quenching. The apparent binding constants KSV and number of binding sites n of AMA with BSA were obtained by fluorescence quenching method...
May 2, 2018: AMB Express
Alya A Arabi, Chérif F Matta
The effect of strong electric fields on the tautomerization of the adenine-thymine (AT) base pair in DNA is explored using density functional theory. It was found that the AT base pair is not likely to undergo a double proton transfer reaction even in the presence of electric fields ranging from 5.14 × 108 to 5.14 × 109 V m-1. This conclusion holds true in Gibbs energies computed at 25 °C or 37 °C. Energy correction terms to the electronic energy, such as total internal energy, Gibbs energy, zero-point energy, enthalpy and entropy corrections, were investigated in detail to pinpoint the major contributors to the low probability of the AT tautomerization...
April 25, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
X Yu, H Zheng, C Liu, Y Huang, X Ding
Recently, the deep learning methods have received more attention in histopathological image analysis. However, the traditional deep learning methods assume that training data and test data have the same distributions, which causes certain limitations in real-world histopathological applications. However, it is costly to recollect a large amount of labeled histology data to train a new neural network for each specified image acquisition procedure even for similar tasks. In this paper, an unsupervised domain adaptation is introduced into a typical deep convolutional neural network (CNN) model to mitigate the repeating of the labels...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
Hyungchae Kim, Han Gyeol Park, Min-Jae Maeng, Yu Ri Kang, Kyung Ryoul Park, Junho Choi, Yongsup Park, Young Dong Kim, Changsoon Kim
For organic solar cells (OSCs) based on non-planar phthalocyanines, it has previously been reported that a thin film composed of triclinic crystals with face-on (or flat-lying) oriented molecules, typically obtained with a CuI template layer, is desired for optical absorption in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region. However, this work demonstrates that for a PbPc-C60 donor-acceptor pair, less face-on orientation with a broader orientation distribution obtained with a new template layer consisting of a ZnPc/CuI bilayer is more desirable in terms of solar cell efficiency than the face-on orientation...
April 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tuan-Wu Cao, Wen-Bing Huang, Jian-Wei Shi, Wei He
Scrophularia ningpoensis has exhibited a variety of biological activities and been used as a pharmaceutical product for the treatment of inflammatory ailment, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and so on. Harpagoside (HAR) is considerer as a main bioactive compound in this plant. Serum albumin has important physiological roles in transportation, distribution and metabolism of many endogenous and exogenous substances in body. It is of great significance to study the interaction mechanism between HAR and bovine serum albumin (BSA)...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Sabina Stefan, Barbara Schorr, Alex Lopez-Rolon, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Jonathan P Shock, Martin Rosenfelder, Suzette Heck, Andreas Bender
We applied the following methods to resting-state EEG data from patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) for consciousness indexing and outcome prediction: microstates, entropy (i.e. approximate, permutation), power in alpha and delta frequency bands, and connectivity (i.e. weighted symbolic mutual information, symbolic transfer entropy, complex network analysis). Patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) were classified into these two categories by fitting and testing a generalised linear model...
April 17, 2018: Brain Topography
Federico Da Rold
The embodied and situated view of cognition stresses the importance of real-time and nonlinear bodily interaction with the environment for developing concepts and structuring knowledge. In this article, populations of robots controlled by an artificial neural network learn a wall-following task through artificial evolution. At the end of the evolutionary process, time series are recorded from perceptual and motor neurons of selected robots. Information-theoretic measures are estimated on pairings of variables to unveil nonlinear interactions that structure the agent-environment system...
March 27, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Julia A Cook, Sarah E Sasor, Sunil S Tholpady, Michael W Chu
BACKGROUND:  Vascularized lymph node transfer is an increasingly popular option for the treatment of lymphedema. The omental donor site is advantageous for its copious soft tissue, well-defined collateral circulation, and large number of available nodes, without the risk of iatrogenic lymphedema. The purpose of this study is to define the anatomy of the omental flap in the context of vascularized lymph node harvest. METHODS:  Consecutive abdominal computed tomography angiography (CTA) images performed at a single institution over a 1-year period were reviewed...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Sandra Pérez, Pablo J Sanz Miguel, Ramón Macías
The reaction of 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene-which is often referred by the trade name Proton-Sponge (PS)-with decaborane in hexane afforded [HPS][B10H13] (1) salt as a pale-yellow precipitate. Variable-temperature NMR studies allowed the full assignment of 1H and 11B spectra for this familiar ten-vertex polyhedral anion. In addition, this work reveals that an increase in the temperature leads to the intramolecular exchange of three B-H-B hydrogen atoms around the hexagonal face of the boat-shaped cluster...
April 12, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Donghui Song, Da Chang, Jian Zhang, Wei Peng, Yuanqi Shang, Xin Gao, Ze Wang
Entropy indicates system irregularity and the capacity for information processing. Recent research has identified interesting voxel-wise entropy distribution patterns in normal brain and its changes due to aging and brain disorders. A question of great scientific and clinical importance is whether brain entropy (BEN) can be modulated using non-invasive neuromodulations. The purpose of this study was to address this open question using high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). BEN was calculated from resting state fMRI at each voxel acquired before and after applying 20 Hz rTMS or SHAM (control) stimulation...
April 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Evangelos Paraskevopoulos, Nikolas Chalas, Panagiotis Kartsidis, Andreas Wollbrink, Panagiotis Bamidis
The present study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to identify the neural correlates of audiovisual statistical learning, while disentangling the differential contributions of uni- and multi-modal statistical mismatch responses in humans. The applied paradigm was based on a combination of a statistical learning paradigm and a multisensory oddball one, combining an audiovisual, an auditory and a visual stimulation stream, along with the corresponding deviances. Plasticity effects due to musical expertise were investigated by comparing the behavioral and MEG responses of musicians to non-musicians...
April 3, 2018: NeuroImage
Philippe Lherminier
We distinguish two types of predations: the predation of matter-energy equals the food chain, and the informative predation is the capture of the information brought by the sexual partners. The cell or parent consumes energy and matter to grow, multiply and produce offspring. A fixed amount of resources is divided by the number of organisms, so individual growth and numerical multiplication are limited by depletion resources of the environment. Inversely, fertilization does not destroy information, but instead produces news...
March 29, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Arunkumar Krishnan, Lakshminarayan M Iyer, Stephen J Holland, Thomas Boehm, L Aravind
AID/APOBEC deaminases (AADs) convert cytidine to uridine in single-stranded nucleic acids. They are involved in numerous mutagenic processes, including those underpinning vertebrate innate and adaptive immunity. Using a multipronged sequence analysis strategy, we uncover several AADs across metazoa, dictyosteliida, and algae, including multiple previously unreported vertebrate clades, and versions from urochordates, nematodes, echinoderms, arthropods, lophotrochozoans, cnidarians, and porifera. Evolutionary analysis suggests a fundamental division of AADs early in metazoan evolution into secreted deaminases (SNADs) and classical AADs, followed by diversification into several clades driven by rapid-sequence evolution, gene loss, lineage-specific expansions, and lateral transfer to various algae...
April 3, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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