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Brain heart interaction

Jeffrey M Pyne, Joseph I Constans, Mark D Wiederhold, Douglas P Gibson, Timothy Kimbrell, Teresa L Kramer, Jeffery A Pitcock, Xiaotong Han, D Keith Williams, Don Chartrand, Richard N Gevirtz, James Spira, Brenda K Wiederhold, Rollin McCraty, Thomas R McCune
Heart rate variability is a physiological measure associated with autonomic nervous system activity. This study hypothesized that lower pre-deployment HRV would be associated with higher post-deployment post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Three-hundred-forty-three Army National Guard soldiers enrolled in the Warriors Achieving Resilience (WAR) study were analyzed. The primary outcome was PTSD symptom severity using the PTSD Checklist - Military version (PCL) measured at baseline, 3- and 12-month post-deployment...
October 20, 2016: Biological Psychology
Bernhard Reuss, Abdul R Asif, Abdullah Almamy, Christian Schwerk, Horst Schroten, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Charis Drummer, Rüdiger Behr
Prenatal maternal infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) correlate with an increased lifetime probability for the offspring to develop psychosis. We could previously demonstrate that in human choroid plexus papilloma cells, anti-NG antibodies (α-NG) bind to mitochondrial proteins HSP60 and ATPB, and interfere with cellular energy metabolism. To assess the in vivo relevance for this, especially during prenatal neural development, we investigated here interactions of NG-specific antisera (α-NG1, α-NG2) with brain, choroid plexus and other non-neural tissues in pre- and perinatal samples of the nonhuman primate (NHP) Callithrix jacchus (CJ), a NHP model for preclinical research...
October 17, 2016: Brain Research
Timothy J Hohman, Logan Dumitrescu, Nancy J Cox, Angela L Jefferson
Preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid deposition in the absence of overt clinical impairment. There is substantial heterogeneity in the long-term clinical outcomes among amyloid positive individuals, yet limited work has focused on identifying molecular factors driving resilience from amyloid-related cognitive impairment. We apply a recently developed predicted gene expression analysis (PrediXcan) to identify genes that modify the association between baseline amyloid deposition and longitudinal cognitive changes...
October 14, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Frank J Wolters, Francesco U S Mattace-Raso, Peter J Koudstaal, Albert Hofman, M Arfan Ikram
BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common cause of transient cerebral hypoperfusion in the population. Cerebral hypoperfusion is widely implicated in cognitive impairment, but whether OH contributes to cognitive decline and dementia is uncertain. We aimed to determine the association between OH and the risk of developing dementia in the general population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between 4 October 1989 and 17 June 1993, we assessed OH in non-demented, stroke-free participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Timur Mazitov, Aleksandr Bregin, Mari-Anne Philips, Jürgen Innos, Eero Vasar
Neurotrimin (Ntm) belongs to the IgLON family of cell adhesion molecules with Lsamp, Obcam and kilon that regulate the outgrowth of neurites mostly by forming heterodimers. IgLONs have been associated with psychiatric disorders, intelligence, body weight, heart disease and tumours. This study provides an initial behavioural and pharmacological characterization of the phenotype of Ntm-deficient mice. We expected to see at least some overlap with the phenotype of Lsamp-deficient mice as Ntm and Lsamp are the main interaction partners in the IgLON family and are colocalized in some brain regions...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Peter R Pellegrino, Alicia M Schiller, Karla K V Haack, Irving H Zucker
Elevated sympathetic tone and activation of the renin-angiotensin system are pathophysiologic hallmarks of hypertension, and the interactions between these systems are particularly deleterious. The importance of Rho kinase as a mediator of the effects of angiotensin-II (AngII) in the periphery is clear, but the role of Rho kinase in sympathoexcitation caused by central AngII is not well established. We hypothesized that AngII mediates its effects in the brain by the activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway...
November 2016: Hypertension
I Sukhotnik, N Nissimov, Y Ben Shahar, D Moati, N Bitterman, Y Pollak, D Berkowitz, A G Coran, A Bitterman
PURPOSE: Fenofibrate (FEN) is known as a nuclear receptor activator which regulates many pathophysiological processes, such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and leukocyte endothelium interactions. Recent studies have demonstrated an anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-ischemic role of FEN in the attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in the kidney, liver, brain, and heart. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of FEN on intestinal recovery and enterocyte turnover after intestinal IR injury in rats...
September 20, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Michelle L Booze, Jason M Hansen, Peter F Vitiello
Thiol switches are important regulators of cellular signaling and are coordinated by several redox enzyme systems including thioredoxins, peroxiredoxins, and glutathione. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1), in particular, is an important signaling molecule not only in response to redox perturbations, but also in cellular growth, regulation of gene expression, and apoptosis. The active site of this enzyme is a highly conserved C-G-P-C motif and the redox mechanism of Trx1 is rapid which presents a challenge in determining specific substrates...
September 14, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Lucas A Zena, Glauber S F da Silva, Luciane H Gargaglioni, Kênia C Bícego
Anurans regulate short-term oscillations in blood pressure through changes in heart rate (fH), vascular resistance and lymph hearts frequency. Lung ventilation in anurans is linked to blood volume homeostasis by facilitating lymph return to the cardiovascular system. We hypothesized that the arterial baroreflex modulates pulmonary ventilation in the Cururu toad Rhinella schneideri, and that this relationship is temperature-dependent. Pharmacologically induced hypotension (sodium nitroprusside) and hypertension (phenylephrine) increased ventilation (25°C: 248...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Shengnan Zhang, Rui Zhang, Tengyue Ma, Xingyang Qiu, Xinyan Wang, Anying Zhang, Hong Zhou
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) exerts its regulatory effects by binding one of two TNF receptors, TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1) or TNFR2. In this study, we isolated and identified the cDNA sequence of grass carp TNFR1 (gcTNFR1). Similar to its homologs in other fish species, the putative protein of gcTNFR1 possessed an extracellular region containing three TNF homology domains, a transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic region with a conserved death domain. Consistent with the widespread expression of mammalian TNFR1, gcTNFR1 transcripts ubiquitously expressed in spleen, thymus, liver, heart, gill, intestine, brain and head kidney with the highest expression levels in head kidney...
September 9, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Silvia Grancara, Shinji Ohkubo, Marco Artico, Mauro Ciccariello, Sabrina Manente, Marcantonio Bragadin, Antonio Toninello, Enzo Agostinelli
Mitochondria represent cell "powerhouses," being involved in energy transduction from the electrochemical gradient to ATP synthesis. The morphology of their cell types may change, according to various metabolic processes or osmotic pressure. A new morphology of the inner membrane and mitochondrial cristae, significantly different from the previous one, has been proposed for the inner membrane and mitochondrial cristae, based on the technique of electron tomography. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) transport (the transporter has been isolated) generates reactive oxygen species and induces the mitochondrial permeability transition of both inner and outer mitochondrial membranes, leading to induction of necrosis and apoptosis...
October 2016: Amino Acids
Elham Abbas, Devin M Cox, Teri Smith, Merlin G Butler
We report a 14-year-old adolescent girl with selective mutism (SM) and a 7q11.23 microduplication detected by chromosomal microarray (CMA) analysis and reviewed the literature from 18 published clinical reports. Our patient had specific phobias, SM, extreme anxiety, obesity, cutis marmorata, and a round appearing face with a short neck and over folded ears. We reviewed the published clinical, cognitive, behavioral, and cytogenetic findings grouped by speech and language delay, growth and development, craniofacial, clinical, and behavior and cognitive features due to the 7q11...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
Yaxin Li, Haojin Wang, Jianluan Ren, Ling Chen, Xiangkai Zhuge, Lin Hu, Dezhi Li, Fang Tang, Jianjun Dai
Chaperone-usher (CU) fimbriae, which are adhesive surface organelles found in many Gram-negative bacteria, mediate tissue tropism through the interaction of fimbrial adhesins with specific receptors expressed on the host cell surface. A CU fimbrial gene yfcO, was identified in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strain DE205B via gene functional analysis. In this study, yfcO was found in 13.41% (11/82) of E. coli strains, including phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2 and D, with the highest percentage in group B2. The expression of yfcO in biofilm forming bacteria was significantly higher (P < 0...
September 9, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Peter Taggart, Hugo Critchley, Stefan van Duijvendoden, Pier D Lambiase
Advances in investigative techniques have led to an increasing awareness and understanding of the role of central neural control in the autonomic nervous system regulation of the heart. Substantial evidence exists for a role of the higher centres in neuro-cardiac control including the effect of focal brain stimulation and acute brain lesions on cardiac electrophysiology, blood pressure, contractile function and the development of arrhythmias. Mental stress and strong emotions have long been associated with sudden cardiac death...
August 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Xiaojing Li, Yingzi Ming, Ying Niu, Qianwen Liu, Qifa Ye
Recent years, the researchers have found a new type of cell death, referred to programmed necrosis or necroptosis, which involves the death receptor and the ligand binds and is initiated under the inhibition of apoptosis pathway. Programmed necrosis possesses the morphological features of typical necrosis accompanied by inflammation. The receptor interacting protein kinase 1/3(RIPK1/3) can be inhibited by the specific inhibitors, such as necrostatin-1. RIPK1/3 could regulate programmed necrosis and play a key role in the process...
July 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Albert Pérez-Martí, Viviana Sandoval, Pedro F Marrero, Diego Haro, Joana Relat
Obesity is a worldwide health problem mainly due to its associated comorbidities. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a peptide hormone involved in metabolic homeostasis in healthy individuals and considered a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of obesity. FGF21 is predominantly produced by the liver but also by other tissues, such as white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), skeletal muscle, and pancreas in response to different stimuli such as cold and different nutritional challenges that include fasting, high-fat diets (HFDs), ketogenic diets, some amino acid-deficient diets, low protein diets, high carbohydrate diets or specific dietary bioactive compounds...
September 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Yuko Kato, Shinya Suzuki, Tokuhisa Uejima, Hiroaki Semba, Hiroto Kano, Shunsuke Matsuno, Hideaki Takai, Takayuki Otsuka, Yuji Oikawa, Kazuyuki Nagashima, Hajime Kirigaya, Koichi Sagara, Takashi Kunihara, Junji Yajima, Hitoshi Sawada, Tadanori Aizawa, Takeshi Yamashita
This study aimed to examine the discrete impacts of peak oxygen consumption (VO2) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels on future heart failure (HF) events in sinus rhythm (SR) and atrial fibrillation (AF). A total of 1447 patients who underwent symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing and whose BNP values were determined simultaneously were analysed (SR, N = 1151 and AF, N = 296). HF events were defined as HF hospitalization or HF death. Over a mean follow-up period of 1472 days, 140 HF events were observed...
August 22, 2016: Heart and Vessels
Vincent J Schmithorst, Ashok Panigrahy, J William Gaynor, Christopher G Watson, Vince Lee, David C Bellinger, Michael J Rivkin, Jane W Newburger
OBJECTIVE: Little is currently known about the impact of congenital heart disease (CHD) on the organization of large-scale brain networks in relation to neurobehavioral outcome. We investigated whether CHD might impact ADHD symptoms via changes in brain structural network topology in a cohort of adolescents with d-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) repaired with the arterial switch operation in early infancy and referent subjects. We also explored whether these effects might be modified by apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, as the APOE ε2 allele has been associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcomes after repair of d-TGA in infancy...
August 2016: Brain and Behavior
Ludwig Kappos, Douglas L Arnold, Amit Bar-Or, John Camm, Tobias Derfuss, Bernd C Kieseier, Till Sprenger, Kristin Greenough, Pingping Ni, Tomohiko Harada
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis, a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with autoimmune pathogenesis, have shown partial response to a number of immunomodulating treatments, but the search for more effective, safe, and convenient therapeutic options continues. Amiselimod is an oral selective modulator of sphingosine 1-phosphate 1 (S1P1) receptor, which is being developed for the treatment of various autoimmune-mediated diseases. We assessed the safety and efficacy of amiselimod in patients with relapsing- remitting multiple sclerosis...
October 2016: Lancet Neurology
Dingsheng Li, Masako Morishita, James G Wagner, Mohammad Fatouraie, Margaret Wooldridge, W Ethan Eagle, James Barres, Ulrika Carlander, Claude Emond, Olivier Jolliet
BACKGROUND: Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles used as a diesel fuel additive can be emitted into the ambient air leading to human inhalation. Although biological studies have shown CeO2 nanoparticles can cause adverse health effects, the extent of the biodistribution of CeO2 nanoparticles through inhalation has not been well characterized. Furthermore, freshly emitted CeO2 nanoparticles can undergo an aging process by interaction with other ambient airborne pollutants that may influence the biodistribution after inhalation...
2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
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