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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769269/trim29-negatively-regulates-the-type-i-ifn-production-in-response-to-rna-virus
#1
Junji Xing, Ao Zhang, Laurie J Minze, Xian Chang Li, Zhiqiang Zhang
The innate immunity is critically important in protection against virus infections, and in the case of RNA viral infections, the signaling mechanisms that initiate robust protective innate immunity without triggering autoimmune inflammation remain incompletely defined. In this study, we found the E3 ligase TRIM29 was specifically expressed in poly I:C-stimulated human myeloid dendritic cells. The induced TRIM29 played a negative role in type I IFN production in response to poly I:C or dsRNA virus reovirus infection...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758301/lipid-roles-in-herg-function-and-interactions-with-drugs
#2
REVIEW
Meruyert Kudaibergenova, Laura L Perissinotti, Sergei Y Noskov
Human-ether-a-go-go-related channel (hERG) is a voltage gated potassium channel (Kv 11.1) abundantly expressed in heart and brain tissues. In addition to playing an important role in mediation of repolarizing K+ currents (IKr ) in Action Potential (AP), hERG is notorious for its propensity to interact with various medications. The drug-induced block of K+ currents across hERG channel are strongly associated with dysrhythmic conditions collectively known as drug-induced long-QT-syndrome. The recent availability of the high-resolution Cryo-EM structures for the hERG channel has provided unique opportunity to resolve structural mechanisms involved into the process of voltage-gating of hERG channels, map various roles played by components of ventricular and neuronal membranes and then to connect it to cellular pathways through which diverse chemical compounds might be affecting function of the channel...
May 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753957/brainstem-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-using-focused-ultrasound-a-demonstration-of-feasibility-and-enhanced-doxorubicin-delivery
#3
Saira Alli, Carlyn A Figueiredo, Brian Golbourn, Nesrin Sabha, Megan Yijun Wu, Andrew Bondoc, Amanda Luck, Daniel Coluccia, Colin Maslink, Christian Smith, Heiko Wurdak, Kullervo Hynynen, Meaghan O'Reilly, James T Rutka
Magnetic Resonance Image-guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) has been used to achieve transient BBB opening without tissue injury. Delivery of a targeted ultrasonic wave causes an interaction between administered microbubbles and the capillary bed resulting in enhanced vessel permeability. The use of MRgFUS in the brainstem has not previously been shown but could provide value in the treatment of tumours such as Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG) where the intact BBB has contributed to the limited success of chemotherapy...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724491/clinical-presentation-of-a-complex-neurodevelopmental-disorder-caused-by-mutations-in-adnp
#4
Anke Van Dijck, Anneke T Vulto-van Silfhout, Elisa Cappuyns, Ilse M van der Werf, Grazia M Mancini, Andreas Tzschach, Raphael Bernier, Illana Gozes, Evan E Eichler, Corrado Romano, Anna Lindstrand, Ann Nordgren, Malin Kvarnung, Tjitske Kleefstra, Bert B A de Vries, Sébastien Küry, Jill A Rosenfeld, Marije E Meuwissen, Geert Vandeweyer, R Frank Kooy
BACKGROUND: In genome-wide screening studies for de novo mutations underlying autism and intellectual disability, mutations in the ADNP gene are consistently reported among the most frequent. ADNP mutations have been identified in children with autism spectrum disorder comorbid with intellectual disability, distinctive facial features, and deficits in multiple organ systems. However, a comprehensive clinical description of the Helsmoortel-Van der Aa syndrome is lacking. METHODS: We identified a worldwide cohort of 78 individuals with likely disruptive mutations in ADNP from January 2014 to October 2016 through systematic literature search, by contacting collaborators, and through direct interaction with parents...
March 15, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710336/association-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-with-recurrent-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-after-an-acute-coronary-syndrome-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Brian A Bergmark, Jacob A Udell, David A Morrow, Christopher P Cannon, Dylan L Steen, Petr Jarolim, Andrzej Budaj, Christian Hamm, Jianping Guo, KyungAh Im, Julia F Kuder, Eugene Braunwald, Marc S Sabatine, Michelle L O'Donoghue
Importance: Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) concentrations are associated with myocardial fibrosis and renin-angiotensin system upregulation, potentially providing prognostic information distinct from standard cardiovascular (CV) biomarkers. Objective: To evaluate the association of FGF-23 with recurrent CV events in patients after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Design, Setting, and Participants: C-terminal FGF-23 was measured in plasma samples using an established enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system for 4947 patients within 30 days of ACS (median, 14 days) and with 1 additional CV risk factor in the Stabilization of Plaques Using Darapladib-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 52 (SOLID-TIMI 52) trial of the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 inhibitor darapladib vs placebo performed from December 1, 2009, to April 24, 2014 (median follow-up, 2...
April 18, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689228/exosomes-and-ectosomes-in-intercellular-communication
#6
REVIEW
Jacopo Meldolesi
Exosomes and ectosomes, two distinct types of extracellular vesicles generated by all types of cell, play key roles in intercellular communication. The formation of these vesicles depends on local microdomains assembled in endocytic membranes for exosomes and in the plasma membrane for ectosomes. These microdomains govern the accumulation of proteins and various types of RNA associated with their cytosolic surface, followed by membrane budding inward for exosome precursors and outward for ectosomes. A fraction of endocytic cisternae filled with vesicles - multivesicular bodies - are later destined to undergo regulated exocytosis, leading to the extracellular release of exosomes...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682509/initiation-and-propagation-of-vascular-calcification-is-regulated-by-a-concert-of-platelet-and-smooth-muscle-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles
#7
Leon J Schurgers, Asim C Akbulut, Dawid M Kaczor, Maurice Halder, Rory R Koenen, Rafael Kramann
The ageing population continues to suffer from its primary killer, cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite recent advances in interventional medicinal and surgical therapies towards the end of the 20th century, the epidemic of cardiovascular disease has not been halted. Yet, rather than receding globally, the burden of CVD has risen to become a top cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most CVD arises from thrombotic rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, the pathologic thickening of coronary and carotid artery segments and subsequent distal ischemia in heart or brain...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674123/effects-of-dietary-toxic-cyanobacteria-and-ammonia-exposure-on-immune-function-of-blunt-snout-bream-megalabrama-amblycephala
#8
Hu Xia, Ting Song, Li Wang, Liangsen Jiang, Qiting Zhou, Weimin Wang, Liangguo Liu, Pinhong Yang, Xuezhen Zhang
Cyanobacterial blooms caused by water eutrophication have become a worldwide problem. During the degradation of toxic cyanobacterial blooms, elevated ammonia and microcystins concentrations co-occur and exert toxicity on fish. Up to now, the combined effect of microcystins and ammonia on fish immunotoxicity has not been reported. The present study investigated immune responses of blunt snout bream (Megalabrama amblycephala) to dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure. Megalobrama amblycephala were exposed to solutions with different concentrations of NH3 -N (0, 0...
April 16, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653111/a-brain-within-the-heart-a-review-on-the-intracardiac-nervous-system
#9
REVIEW
Isabel Durães Campos, Vitor Pinto, Nuno Sousa, Vitor H Pereira
Cardiac function is under the control of the autonomic nervous system, composed by the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions, which are finely tuned at different hierarchical levels. While a complex regulation occurs in the central nervous system involving the insular cortex, the amygdala and the hypothalamus, a local cardiac regulation also takes place within the heart, driven by an intracardiac nervous system. This complex system consists of a network of ganglionic plexuses and interconnecting ganglions and axons...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651554/dual-species-biofilm-of-listeria-monocytogenes-and-escherichia-coli-on-stainless-steel-surface
#10
Aline Zago de Grandi, Uelinton Manoel Pinto, Maria Teresa Destro
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium commonly associated with foodborne diseases. Due its ability to survive under adverse environmental conditions and to form biofilm, this bacterium is a major concern for the food industry, since it can compromise sanitation procedures and increase the risk of post-processing contamination. Little is known about the interaction between L. monocytogenes and Gram-negative bacteria on biofilm formation. Thus, in order to evaluate this interaction, Escherichia coli and L...
April 12, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624675/parasympathetic-and-sympathetic-activity-are-associated-with-individual-differences-in-neural-indices-of-selective-attention-in-adults
#11
Ryan J Giuliano, Christina M Karns, Theodore A Bell, Seth Petersen, Elizabeth A Skowron, Helen J Neville, Eric Pakulak
Multiple theoretical frameworks posit that interactions between the autonomic nervous system and higher-order neural networks are crucial for cognitive and emotion regulation. However, few studies have directly examined the relationship between measures of autonomic physiology and brain activity during cognitive tasks, and fewer studies have examined both the parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic branches when doing so. Here, 93 adults completed an ERP auditory selective attention task concurrently with measures of parasympathetic activity (high-frequency heart rate variability; HF-HRV) and sympathetic activity (preejection period; PEP)...
April 6, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615261/transmission-and-pathogenicity-of-gallibacterium-anatis-and-escherichia-coli-in-embryonated-eggs
#12
Chong Wang, Susanne Elisabeth Pors, Rikke Heidemann Olsen, Anders Miki Bojesen
In laying hens, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gallibacterium anatis (G. anatis) are considered the two major pathogens causing reproductive tract disorders, either as single infections or as co-infections. Vertical transmission has been confirmed for E. coli but remains to be clearly demonstrated for G. anatis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of both G. anatis and E. coli at eggshell transmission using an embryonated egg dipping model, and to investigate the possible interaction between the two organisms in an embryonated egg injection model...
April 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614631/simple-chronic-transfusion-therapy-a-crucial-therapeutic-option-for-sickle-cell-disease-improves-but-does-not-normalize-blood-rheology-what-should-be-our-goals-for-transfusion-therapy
#13
Jon A Detterich
Sickle cell anemia is characterized by a mutation resulting in the formation of an abnormal beta-hemoglobin called hemoglobin S. Hemoglobin S polymerizes upon deoxygenation, causing impaired red blood cell deformability and increased blood viscosity at equivalent hematocrits. Thus, sickle cell disease is a hemorheologic disease that results in various pathologic processes involving multiple organ systems including the lungs, heart, kidneys and brain. Red blood cell mechanics and the perturbations on blood flow-endothelial interaction underlie much of the pathology found in sickle cell disease...
2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607505/brain-heart-interaction-in-perseverative-cognition
#14
Cristina Ottaviani
The move from the concept of homeostasis to that of allostasis has led reactivity stress research to widen the object of its investigation: from the brief physiological response that occurs when one is facing a stressor to what happens when one is anticipating or recovering from a stressor. A paradigmatic example is represented by perseverative cognition, during which human beings react "as if" they were constantly facing a concrete stressor. The core idea behind this review is that the cognitive inflexibility that characterizes perseverative cognition is reflected in both our body (by increased autonomic nervous system rigidity assessed by heart rate variability; HRV) and our brain (by reduced prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity)...
April 1, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604277/jip3-deficiency-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy-by-suppression-of-jnk-pathway
#15
Qinghua Ma, Yuxiu Liu, Lianghua Chen
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms revealing the disease is still unclear. In the present study, we suggested that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting protein 3 (JIP3), involved in various cellular processes, played an essential role in regulating pathological cardiac hypertrophy through in vivo and in vitro studies. JIP3 was highly expressed in human hearts with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and in mouse hypertrophic hearts...
March 28, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603541/augmentation-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-signalling-by-neprilysin-inhibition-potential-implications-for-patients-with-heart-failure
#16
REVIEW
Milton Packer
Augmentation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor signalling is an established approach to the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, endogenous GLP-1 and long-acting GLP-1 receptor analogues are degraded not only by dipeptidyl peptidase-4, but also by neprilysin. This observation raises the possibilities that endogenous GLP-1 contributes to the clinical effects of neprilysin inhibition and that patients concurrently treated with sacubitril/valsartan and incretin-based drugs may experience important drug-drug interactions...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595708/brain-heart-pathways-to-blood-pressure-related-hypoalgesia
#17
Cristina Ottaviani, Sabrina Fagioli, Eugenio Mattei, Federica Censi, Louisa Edwards, Emiliano Macaluso, Marco Bozzali, Hugo Critchley, Giovanni Calcagnini
OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure (BP) is associated with reduced pain sensitivity, known as BP-related hypoalgesia. The underlying neural mechanisms remain uncertain, yet arterial baroreceptor signaling, occurring at cardiac systole, is implicated. We examined normotensives using functional neuroimaging (fMRI) and pain stimulation during distinct phases of the cardiac cycle to test the hypothesized neural mediation of baroreceptor-induced attenuation of pain. METHODS: Eighteen participants (10 women; 32...
March 28, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575352/heart-rate-variability-characteristics-of-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-associations-with-symptoms
#18
A Polster, P Friberg, V Gunterberg, L Öhman, B Le Nevé, H Törnblom, M Cvijovic, M Simren
BACKGROUND: Disturbed brain-gut interactions are assumed to be of importance for symptom generation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is part of the bidirectional brain-gut communication, but previous studies in IBS show diverging results. We aimed to identify subgroups of IBS patients with distinct ANS characteristics differentiating them from healthy controls (HC), and to study associations between ANS status and symptoms. METHODS: Heart rate variability (HRV) was measured in IBS patients and HC (Holter monitoring: supine and standing positions with controlled respiration and ambulatory 24-hour period)...
March 25, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553790/problem-solving-biofeedback-and-severe-brain-injury-the-moderating-role-of-positive-affect
#19
Sonya Kim, Joseph F Rath, Vance Zemon, Marie M Cavallo, Rollin McCraty, Ana Sostre, Frederick W Foley
OBJECTIVE: To examine how positive affect influences ability to benefit from heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback treatment for individuals with severe brain injury. METHOD: Secondary data analysis of a nonrandomized experimental study that assessed the efficacy of biofeedback treatment for executive dysfunction in 13 individuals with chronic severe brain injury. RESULTS: Bivariate correlations between the predictors (levels of HRV and positive affect) and the outcome (change in Category Test errors) showed large effect sizes for higher levels of HRV coherence (r = -...
February 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549223/arterial-stiffness-and-dementia-pathology-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-pet-study
#20
Timothy M Hughes, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Suzanne Craft, Akiva Mintz, Gerardo Heiss, Priya Palta, Dean Wong, Yun Zhou, David Knopman, Thomas H Mosley, Rebecca F Gottesman
OBJECTIVE: Arterial stiffness has been associated with evidence of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) and fibrillar β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain. These complex relationships have not been examined in racially and cognitively diverse cohorts. METHODS: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC)-Neurocognitive Study collected detailed cognitive testing for adjudication of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), brain MRI, and arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity (PWV, carotid-femoral [cfPWV] and heart-carotid [hcPWV])...
April 3, 2018: Neurology
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