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effect of angiotensin 2 on the kidneys

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203527/superoxide-increases-angiotensin-ii-at1-receptor-function-in-human-kidney-2-cells
#1
Mohammad Saleem, Indira Pokkunuri, Mohammad Asghar
The redox-sensitive Sp family transcription factor has been linked to the regulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). However, the exact mechanism of AT1R regulation in renal cells is poorly understood. We tested the specificity of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide vs. hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the specific role of Sp3 transcription factor, if any, in the regulation of AT1R in human kidney cells (HK2 cells). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC), but not H2O2 treatment, increased fluorescence levels of superoxide probe dihydroethidium (DHE)...
December 2016: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177279/sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitors-and-their-nephroprotective-potential%C3%A2
#2
Natalia G Vallianou, Kyriakos Trigkidis, Christos Kazazis
Chronic kidney disease among patients with diabetes is on the rise. The sodium glucose co-transporters 2 inhibitors are a new class of glucose-lowering agents, which act through a novel mechanism by producing a decline in glucose reabsorption in the kidney, thereby increasing glucosuria and decreasing serum glucose levels. Data suggest that they possess nephroprotective properties. It is noteworthy that the efferent glomerular arteriole is 10 - 100 times more sensitive to the vasoconstrictive properties of angiotensin II than the afferent one and this might account for the consequently higher intra-glomerular capillary pressure, which is believed to be the cornerstone of diabetic nephropathy...
February 8, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153377/effects-of-reducing-blood-pressure-on-renal-outcomes-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-focus-on-sglt2-inhibitors-and-empa-reg-outcome
#3
REVIEW
A J Scheen, P Delanaye
Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has enabled remarkable reductions in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality as well as in renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and a history of cardiovascular disease in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME. These results have been attributed to haemodynamic rather than metabolic effects, in part due to the osmotic/diuretic action of empagliflozin and the reduction in arterial blood pressure (BP). The present narrative review includes the results of meta-analyses of trials evaluating the effects on renal outcomes of lowering BP in patients with T2D, with a special focus on the influence of baseline and achieved systolic BP, and compares the renal outcome results of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME with those of other major trials with inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system in patients with T2D and the preliminary findings with other SGLT2 inhibitors, and also evaluates post hoc analyses from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME of special interest as regards the BP-lowering hypothesis and renal function...
January 30, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146117/anti-fibrotic-effect-of-losartan-an-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blocker-is-mediated-through-inhibition-of-er-stress-via-up-regulation-of-sirt1-followed-by-induction-of-ho-1-and-thioredoxin
#4
Hyosang Kim, Chung Hee Baek, Raymond Bok Lee, Jai Won Chang, Won Seok Yang, Sang Koo Lee
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is increasingly identified as modulator of fibrosis. Losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, has been widely used as the first choice of treatment in chronic renal diseases. We postulated that anti-fibrotic effect of losartan is mediated through inhibition of ER stress via SIRT1 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1) hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1)/thioredoxin pathway. Renal tubular cells, tunicamycin (TM)-induced ER stress, and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse model were used...
January 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130181/differential-response-of-bone-and-kidney-to-acei-in-db-db-mice-a-potential-effect-of-captopril-on-accelerating-bone-loss
#5
Yan Zhang, Xiao-Li Li, Nan-Nan Sha, Bing Shu, Yong-Jian Zhao, Xin-Luan Wang, Hui-Hui Xiao, Qi Shi, Man-Sau Wong, Yong-Jun Wang
The components of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are expressed in the kidney and bone. Kidney disease and bone injury are common complications associated with diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, on the kidney and bone of db/db mice. The db/db mice were orally administered by gavage with captopril for 8weeks with db/+ mice as the non-diabetic control. Serum and urine biochemistries were determined by standard colorimetric methods or ELISA...
January 24, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129247/effectiveness-of-patiromer-in-the-treatment-of-hyperkalemia-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-with-hypertension-on-diuretics
#6
Matthew R Weir, Martha R Mayo, Dahlia Garza, Susan A Arthur, Lance Berman, David Bushinsky, Daniel J Wilson, Murray Epstein
OBJECTIVE: Recurrent hyperkalemia frequently limits use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with hypertension, diabetes, and/or heart failure. Patiromer is a sodium-free, nonabsorbed potassium (K)-binding polymer approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hyperkalemia. This post-hoc analysis of OPAL-HK examined the effectiveness and safety of patiromer in reducing serum K in hyperkalemic CKD patients on RAASi, with hypertension, receiving diuretic therapy versus those not on diuretics...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122064/the-impact-of-renin-angiotensin-system-blockade-on-renal-outcomes-and-mortality-in-pre-dialysis-patients-with-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
Yun Jung Oh, Sun Moon Kim, Byung Chul Shin, Hyun Lee Kim, Jong Hoon Chung, Ae Jin Kim, Han Ro, Jae Hyun Chang, Hyun Hee Lee, Wookyung Chung, Chungsik Lee, Ji Yong Jung
Renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) blockade is thought to slow renal progression in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, it remains uncertain if the habitual use of RAS inhibitors affects renal progression and outcomes in pre-dialysis patients with advanced CKD. In this multicenter retrospective cohort study, we identified 2,076 pre-dialysis patients with advanced CKD (stage 4 or 5) from a total of 33,722 CKD patients. RAS blockade users were paired with non-users for analyses using inverse probability of treatment-weighted (IPTW) and propensity score (PS) matching...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118402/effects-of-direct-renin-blockade-on-renal-systemic-hemodynamics-and-on-raas-activity-in-weight-excess-and-hypertension-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
A J Kwakernaak, L C Roksnoer, H J Lambers Heerspink, I van den Berg-Garrelds, G A Lochorn, J H van Embden Andres, M A Klijn, H Kobori, A H J Danser, G D Laverman, G J Navis
AIM: The combination of weight excess and hypertension significantly contributes to cardiovascular risk and progressive kidney damage. An unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile is thought to contribute to this increased risk and may be ameliorated by direct renin inhibition (DRI). The aim of this trial was to assess the effect of DRI on renal and systemic hemodynamics and on RAAS activity, in men with weight excess and hypertension. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial to determine the effect of DRI (aliskiren 300 mg/day), with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (ACEi; ramipril 10 mg/day) as a positive control, on renal and systemic hemodynamics, and on RAAS activity (n = 15)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093841/effect-of-valsartan-on-kidney-outcomes-in-people-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance
#9
Gemma Currie, M Angelyn Bethel, Björn Holzhauer, Steven M Haffner, Rury R Holman, John J V McMurray
AIMS: Renin-angiotensin system blockers reduce the incidence and progression of microalbuminuria and the subsequent development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to examine the effect of valsartan on kidney outcomes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). METHODS: In a double-blind randomized trial, 9306 patients with IGT were assigned to valsartan (160 mg daily) or placebo. The co-primary endpoints were the development of diabetes and two composite cardiovascular outcomes...
January 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052871/myoglobin-facilitates-angiotensin-ii-induced-constriction-of-renal-afferent-arterioles
#10
Zhi Zhao Liu, Susanne Mathia, Tamara Margit Pahlitzsch, Inggrid Christine Wennysia, Pontus B Persson, En Yin Lai, Anica Högner, Min Ze Xu, Rudolf Schubert, Christian Rosenberger, Andreas Patzak
Vasoconstriction plays an important role in the development of acute kidney injury in rhabdomyolysis. We hypothesized that myoglobin enhances the angiotensin II (Ang II) response in afferent arterioles by increasing superoxide and reducing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Afferent arterioles of C57Bl6 mice were isolated perfused and vasoreactivity was analyzed using video microscopy. NO bioavailability, superoxide concentration in the vessels wall, and changes in cytosolic calcium were measured using fluorescence techniques...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045910/comparative-efficacy-and-safety-of-antihypertensive-agents-for-adult-diabetic-patients-with-microalbuminuric-kidney-disease-a-network-meta-analysis
#11
Rongzhong Huang, Yuxing Feng, Ying Wang, Xiaoxia Qin, Narayan Dhruvaraj Melgiri, Yang Sun, Xingsheng Li
BACKGROUND: Antihypertensive treatment mitigates the progression of chronic kidney disease. Here, we comparatively assessed the effects of antihypertensive agents in normotensive and hypertensive diabetic patients with microalbuminuric kidney disease. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing oral antihypertensive agents in adult diabetic patients with microalbuminuria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040266/angiotensin-ii-at1-receptor-signaling-is-necessary-for-cyclooxygenase-2-dependent-postnatal-nephron-generation
#12
Stefanie Frölich, Patrick Slattery, Dominique Thomas, Itamar Goren, Nerea Ferreiros, Boye L Jensen, Rolf M Nüsing
Deletion of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) causes impairment of postnatal kidney development. Here we tested whether the renin angiotensin system contributes to COX-2-dependent nephrogenesis in mice after birth and whether a rescue of impaired renal development and function in COX-2(-/-) mice was achievable. Plasma renin concentration in mouse pups showed a birth peak and a second peak around day P8 during the first 10 days post birth. Administration of the angiotensin II receptor AT1 antagonist telmisartan from day P1 to P3 did not result in cortical damage...
December 28, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033130/the-effect-of-vitamin-d-on-renin-angiotensin-system-activation-and-blood-pressure-a-randomized-control-trial
#13
Ciaran J McMullan, Lea Borgi, Gary C Curhan, Naomi Fisher, John P Forman
OBJECTIVE: Disruption of vitamin D signaling in rodents causes activation of the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) and development of hypertension. Observational studies in humans found lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is associated with increased RAS activity and blood pressure (BP). We performed the first randomized control trial to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the RAS in humans. METHODS: Vitamin D deficient, [25(OH)D ≤20 ng/ml), overweight individuals without hypertension were randomized into a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 8-weeks treatment with ergocalciferol or placebo...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019119/evaluation-of-bacillus-subtilis-spb1-biosurfactant-effects-on-hyperglycemia-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-ace-activity-and-kidney-function-in-rats-fed-on-high-fat-high-fructose-diet
#14
Raida Zouari, Khaled Hamden, Abdelfattah El Feki, Khansa Chaabouni, Fatma Makni-Ayadi, Fahima Sallemi, Semia Ellouze-Chaabouni, Dhouha Ghribi-Aydi
This study investigated the protective and the curative effects of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 crude lipopeptide biosurfactant in alleviating induced obesity complications in rats fed on high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD). Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups with the following treatment schedule: normal diet-fed rats (CD), HFFD-fed rats, HFFD-fed rats supplemented with SPB1 biosurfactant from the first day of the experiment (HFFD + Bios1), rats fed on HFFD receiving standard drug (HFFD + Torva), or SPB1 biosurfactant (HFFD + Bios2) during the last 4 weeks of the study...
December 25, 2016: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011230/sglt-2-inhibitors-their-pleiotropic-properties
#15
REVIEW
Natalia G Vallianou, Eleni Geladari, Christos E Kazazis
Type 2 diabetes mellitus has become a global pandemic. Nowadays, it is estimated that approximately 415 million people all over the world have diabetes. The sodium glucose co-transporters 2 inhibitors are a new class of glucose-lowering agents, which act through a novel mechanism by producing a decline in glucose re-absorption in the kidney, thereby increasing glycosuria and decreasing serum glucose levels. Data suggest that apart from lowering HbA1c, they produce a small but significant weight loss and a small decrease in blood pressure...
December 9, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003191/calcineurin-inhibitor-cyclosporine-a-activates-renal-na-k-cl-cotransporters-via-local-and-systemic-mechanisms
#16
Katharina Ilse Blankenstein, Aljona Borschewski, Robert Labes, Alexander Paliege, Christin Boldt, James A McCormick, David H Ellison, Michael Bader, Sebastian Bachmann, Kerim Mutig
Calcineurin dephosphorylates NFAT transcription factors, thereby facilitating T-cell mediated immune responses. Calcineurin inhibitors are instrumental for immunosuppression after organ transplantation, but may cause side effects including hypertension and electrolyte disorders. Kidneys were recently shown to display activation of the furosemide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) of the thick ascending limb and the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) of the distal convoluted tubule upon calcineurin inhibition using cyclosporin A (CsA)...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942913/genomic-and-rapid-effects-of-aldosterone-what-we-know-and-do-not-know-thus-far
#17
Milla Marques Hermidorff, Leonardo Vinícius Monteiro de Assis, Mauro César Isoldi
Aldosterone is the most known mineralocorticoid hormone synthesized by the adrenal cortex. The genomic pathway displayed by aldosterone is attributed to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) signaling. Even though the rapid effects displayed by aldosterone are long known, our knowledge regarding the receptor responsible for such event is still poor. It is intense that the debate whether the MR or another receptor-the "unknown receptor"-is the receptor responsible for the rapid effects of aldosterone. Recently, G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1) was elegantly shown to mediate some aldosterone-induced rapid effects in several tissues, a fact that strongly places GPER-1 as the unknown receptor...
December 12, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925507/haematopoietic-effects-of-angelica-sinensis-root-cap-polysaccharides-against-lisinopril-induced-anaemia-in-albino-rats
#18
Fryal Younas, Bilal Aslam, Faqir Muhammad, Mashkoor Mohsin, Ahmad Raza, Muhammad Naeem Faisal, Shamshud-Ul- Hassan, Wafa Majeed
CONTEXT: Angelica sinensis L. (Umbelliferae) has medicinal properties. OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluates the haematopoietic effects of A. sinensis polysaccharides (ASP) against lisinopril-induced anaemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty healthy adult male albino rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 6). Group I was control group. Group II was treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI, 20 mg/kg/day) to induce anaemia...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916702/chronic-kidney-disease-accelerates-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-through-angiotensin-ii
#19
Takashi Nakagawa, Yu Hasegawa, Ken Uekawa, Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
Epidemiological studies suggest that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant risk factor in the development of cognitive decline. However, the exact role of CKD in cognitive impairment or dementia is unclear. This work was performed to examine the potential impact of CKD on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD), focusing on angiotensin II. (1) CKD was induced in 5XFAD mice, an AD model mouse, and wild-type mice by feeding an adenine-containing diet and the effect on cognitive function was compared between both strains...
January 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913661/effects-of-exendin-4-on-the-intrarenal-renin-angiotensin-system-and-interstitial-fibrosis-in-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction-mice-exendin-4-and-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction
#20
Ying Le, Zongji Zheng, Junyu Xue, Mengling Cheng, Meiping Guan, Yaoming Xue
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to investigate the renoprotecive effects of exendin-4 in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and explore the putative mechanisms. METHODS: Male Balbc mice underwent sham operation or UUO surgery, and then received intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or exendin-4, respectively. After 14 days, mice were sacrificed and the left kidneys were collected and analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, Western blot, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
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