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effect of angiotensin 2 on the kidneys

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093841/effect-of-valsartan-on-kidney-outcomes-in-people-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance
#1
Gemma Currie, M Angelyn Bethel, Björn Holzhauer, Steven M Haffner, Rury R Holman, John J V McMurray
AIMS: Renin-angiotensin system blockers reduce the incidence and progression of microalbuminuria and the subsequent development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to examine the effect of valsartan on kidney outcomes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). METHODS: In a double-blind randomized trial, 9306 patients with IGT were assigned to valsartan (160 mg daily) or placebo. The co-primary endpoints were the development of diabetes and two composite cardiovascular outcomes...
January 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052871/myoglobin-facilitates-angiotensin-ii-induced-constriction-of-renal-afferent-arterioles
#2
Zhi Zhao Liu, Susanne Mathia, Tamara Margit Pahlitzsch, Inggrid Christine Wennysia, Pontus B Persson, En Yin Lai, Anica Högner, Min Ze Xu, Rudolf Schubert, Christian Rosenberger, Andreas Patzak
Vasoconstriction plays an important role in the development of acute kidney injury in rhabdomyolysis. We hypothesized that myoglobin enhances the angiotensin II (Ang II) response in afferent arterioles by increasing superoxide and reducing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Afferent arterioles of C57Bl6 mice were isolated perfused and vasoreactivity was analyzed using video microscopy. NO bioavailability, superoxide concentration in the vessels wall, and changes in cytosolic calcium were measured using fluorescence techniques...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045910/comparative-efficacy-and-safety-of-antihypertensive-agents-for-adult-diabetic-patients-with-microalbuminuric-kidney-disease-a-network-meta-analysis
#3
Rongzhong Huang, Yuxing Feng, Ying Wang, Xiaoxia Qin, Narayan Dhruvaraj Melgiri, Yang Sun, Xingsheng Li
BACKGROUND: Antihypertensive treatment mitigates the progression of chronic kidney disease. Here, we comparatively assessed the effects of antihypertensive agents in normotensive and hypertensive diabetic patients with microalbuminuric kidney disease. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing oral antihypertensive agents in adult diabetic patients with microalbuminuria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040266/angiotensin-ii-at1-receptor-signaling-is-necessary-for-cyclooxygenase-2-dependent-postnatal-nephron-generation
#4
Stefanie Frölich, Patrick Slattery, Dominique Thomas, Itamar Goren, Nerea Ferreiros, Boye L Jensen, Rolf M Nüsing
Deletion of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) causes impairment of postnatal kidney development. Here we tested whether the renin angiotensin system contributes to COX-2-dependent nephrogenesis in mice after birth and whether a rescue of impaired renal development and function in COX-2(-/-) mice was achievable. Plasma renin concentration in mouse pups showed a birth peak and a second peak around day P8 during the first 10 days post birth. Administration of the angiotensin II receptor AT1 antagonist telmisartan from day P1 to P3 did not result in cortical damage...
December 28, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033130/the-effect-of-vitamin-d-on-renin-angiotensin-system-activation-and-blood-pressure-a-randomized-control-trial
#5
Ciaran J McMullan, Lea Borgi, Gary C Curhan, Naomi Fisher, John P Forman
OBJECTIVE: Disruption of vitamin D signaling in rodents causes activation of the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) and development of hypertension. Observational studies in humans found lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is associated with increased RAS activity and blood pressure (BP). We performed the first randomized control trial to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the RAS in humans. METHODS: Vitamin D deficient, [25(OH)D ≤20 ng/ml), overweight individuals without hypertension were randomized into a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 8-weeks treatment with ergocalciferol or placebo...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019119/evaluation-of-bacillus-subtilis-spb1-biosurfactant-effects-on-hyperglycemia-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-ace-activity-and-kidney-function-in-rats-fed-on-high-fat-high-fructose-diet
#6
Raida Zouari, Khaled Hamden, Abdelfattah El Feki, Khansa Chaabouni, Fatma Makni-Ayadi, Fahima Sallemi, Semia Ellouze-Chaabouni, Dhouha Ghribi-Aydi
This study investigated the protective and the curative effects of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 crude lipopeptide biosurfactant in alleviating induced obesity complications in rats fed on high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD). Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups with the following treatment schedule: normal diet-fed rats (CD), HFFD-fed rats, HFFD-fed rats supplemented with SPB1 biosurfactant from the first day of the experiment (HFFD + Bios1), rats fed on HFFD receiving standard drug (HFFD + Torva), or SPB1 biosurfactant (HFFD + Bios2) during the last 4 weeks of the study...
December 25, 2016: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011230/sglt-2-inhibitors-their-pleiotropic-properties
#7
REVIEW
Natalia G Vallianou, Eleni Geladari, Christos E Kazazis
Type 2 diabetes mellitus has become a global pandemic. Nowadays, it is estimated that approximately 415 million people all over the world have diabetes. The sodium glucose co-transporters 2 inhibitors are a new class of glucose-lowering agents, which act through a novel mechanism by producing a decline in glucose re-absorption in the kidney, thereby increasing glycosuria and decreasing serum glucose levels. Data suggest that apart from lowering HbA1c, they produce a small but significant weight loss and a small decrease in blood pressure...
December 9, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003191/calcineurin-inhibitor-cyclosporine-a-activates-renal-na-k-cl-cotransporters-via-local-and-systemic-mechanisms
#8
Katharina Ilse Blankenstein, Aljona Borschewski, Robert Labes, Alexander Paliege, Christin Boldt, James A McCormick, David H Ellison, Michael Bader, Sebastian Bachmann, Kerim Mutig
Calcineurin dephosphorylates NFAT transcription factors, thereby facilitating T-cell mediated immune responses. Calcineurin inhibitors are instrumental for immunosuppression after organ transplantation, but may cause side effects including hypertension and electrolyte disorders. Kidneys were recently shown to display activation of the furosemide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) of the thick ascending limb and the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) of the distal convoluted tubule upon calcineurin inhibition using cyclosporin A (CsA)...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942913/genomic-and-rapid-effects-of-aldosterone-what-we-know-and-do-not-know-thus-far
#9
Milla Marques Hermidorff, Leonardo Vinícius Monteiro de Assis, Mauro César Isoldi
Aldosterone is the most known mineralocorticoid hormone synthesized by the adrenal cortex. The genomic pathway displayed by aldosterone is attributed to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) signaling. Even though the rapid effects displayed by aldosterone are long known, our knowledge regarding the receptor responsible for such event is still poor. It is intense that the debate whether the MR or another receptor-the "unknown receptor"-is the receptor responsible for the rapid effects of aldosterone. Recently, G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1) was elegantly shown to mediate some aldosterone-induced rapid effects in several tissues, a fact that strongly places GPER-1 as the unknown receptor...
December 12, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925507/haematopoietic-effects-of-angelica-sinensis-root-cap-polysaccharides-against-lisinopril-induced-anaemia-in-albino-rats
#10
Fryal Younas, Bilal Aslam, Faqir Muhammad, Mashkoor Mohsin, Ahmad Raza, Muhammad Naeem Faisal, Shamshud-Ul- Hassan, Wafa Majeed
CONTEXT: Angelica sinensis L. (Umbelliferae) has medicinal properties. OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluates the haematopoietic effects of A. sinensis polysaccharides (ASP) against lisinopril-induced anaemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty healthy adult male albino rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 6). Group I was control group. Group II was treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI, 20 mg/kg/day) to induce anaemia...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916702/chronic-kidney-disease-accelerates-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-through-angiotensin-ii
#11
Takashi Nakagawa, Yu Hasegawa, Ken Uekawa, Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
Epidemiological studies suggest that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant risk factor in the development of cognitive decline. However, the exact role of CKD in cognitive impairment or dementia is unclear. This work was performed to examine the potential impact of CKD on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD), focusing on angiotensin II. (1) CKD was induced in 5XFAD mice, an AD model mouse, and wild-type mice by feeding an adenine-containing diet and the effect on cognitive function was compared between both strains...
January 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913661/effects-of-exendin-4-on-the-intrarenal-renin-angiotensin-system-and-interstitial-fibrosis-in-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction-mice-exendin-4-and-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction
#12
Ying Le, Zongji Zheng, Junyu Xue, Mengling Cheng, Meiping Guan, Yaoming Xue
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to investigate the renoprotecive effects of exendin-4 in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and explore the putative mechanisms. METHODS: Male Balbc mice underwent sham operation or UUO surgery, and then received intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or exendin-4, respectively. After 14 days, mice were sacrificed and the left kidneys were collected and analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, Western blot, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885332/2-3-5-4-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-o-%C3%AE-d-glucoside-promotes-expression-of-the-longevity-gene-klotho
#13
Shuang Ling, Ju Duan, Rongzhen Ni, Jin-Wen Xu
The longevity gene klotho has numerous physiological functions, such as regulating calcium and phosphorus levels, delaying senescence, improving cognition, reducing oxidative stress, and protecting vascular endothelial cells. This study tested whether 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG), a small molecule with antiaging effects, regulates the expression and physiological effects of klotho. Our results showed that THSG dose-dependently increased the luciferase reporter activity of the klotho gene, reversed the decrease in mRNA and protein expression of klotho which was induced by angiotensin II in NRK-52E renal tubular epithelial cells, and increased klotho mRNA expression in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, testis, and kidney medulla of spontaneously hypertensive rats...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830348/steroidal-and-novel-non-steroidal-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonists-in-heart-failure-and-cardiorenal-diseases-comparison-at-bench-and-bedside
#14
Peter Kolkhof, Frederic Jaisser, So-Young Kim, Gerasimos Filippatos, Christina Nowack, Bertram Pitt
Characterization of mice with cell-specific deletion or overexpression of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) shed a new light on its role in health and disease. Pathophysiological MR activation contributes to a plethora of deleterious molecular mechanisms in the development of cardiorenal diseases like chronic kidney disease (CKD) and heart failure (HF). Accordingly, the available steroidal MR antagonists (MRAs) spironolactone (first generation MRA) and eplerenone (second generation MRA) have been shown to be effective in reducing cardiovascular (CV) mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic HF and a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF)...
November 10, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826732/renin-angiotensin-ii-aldosterone-system-blockers-and-time-to-renal-replacement-therapy-in-children-with-ckd
#15
Alison G Abraham, Aisha Betoko, Jeffrey J Fadrowski, Christopher Pierce, Susan L Furth, Bradley A Warady, Alvaro Muñoz
BACKGROUND: Clinical care decisions to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a growing child must often be made without the benefit of evidence from clinical trials. We used observational data from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort to estimate the effectiveness of renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone system blockade (RAAS) to delay renal replacement therapy (RRT) in children with CKD. METHODS: A total of 851 participants (median age: 11 years, median glomerular filtration rate [GFR]: 52 ml/min/1...
November 8, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822054/impact-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-on-blood-pressure
#16
REVIEW
James W Reed
SGLT2 inhibitors are glucose-lowering agents used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These agents target the kidney to promote urinary glucose excretion, resulting in improved blood glucose control. SGLT2-inhibitor therapy is also associated with weight loss and blood pressure (BP) lowering. Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with T2DM, and is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes data on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors marketed in the US (namely canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin) on BP in patients with T2DM...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804233/quality-of-life-development-during-initial-hemodialysis-therapy-and-association-with-loss-of-residual-renal-function
#17
Christina G Poulsen, Krista D Kjaergaard, Christian D Peters, Bente Jespersen, Jens D Jensen
Introduction Health related quality of life (HRQOL) is markedly reduced in hemodialysis patients compared to the general population. We investigated the course of self-reported HRQOL over time and the association with selected factors, focusing on changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Methods Eighty-two newly started hemodialysis patients from the SAFIR cohort filled out the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form Version 1.3 (KDQOL-SF(TM) ) questionnaire at baseline, 6 and 12 months. The SAFIR study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind intervention study, examining the effects of the angiotensin II receptor blocker irbesartan...
November 1, 2016: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802313/effect-of-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitor-dapagliflozin-on-renal-renin-angiotensin-system-in-an-animal-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#18
Seok Joon Shin, Sungjin Chung, Soo Jung Kim, Eun-Mi Lee, Young-Hye Yoo, Ji-Won Kim, Yu-Bae Ahn, Eun-Sook Kim, Sung-Dae Moon, Myung-Jun Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko
BACKGROUND: Renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation is one of the important pathogenic mechanisms in the development of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, dapagliflozin, on renal RAS in an animal model with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Dapagliflozin (1.0 mg/kg, OL-DA) or voglibose (0.6 mg/kg, OL-VO, diabetic control) (n = 10 each) was administered to Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats for 12 weeks...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798196/klotho-suppresses-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-adriamycin-nephropathy
#19
Tsuneo Takenaka, Tsutomu Inoue, Takashi Miyazaki, Hiroyuki Kobori, Akira Nishiyama, Naohito Ishii, Matsuhiko Hayashi, Hiromichi Suzuki
BACKGROUNDS: Klotho protein interacts with the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor and Wnt, which contribute to the progression of renal disease, inhibiting their signals. Renal and circulating klotho levels are diminished in chronic kidney disease. METHODS: Experiments were performed to assess whether supplementation of klotho protein could have protective effects on the kidney. Rats were injected with adriamycin (5 mg/kg) and divided into three groups: those treated with vehicle, those treated with klotho protein and those treated with klotho plus 4-benzyl-2-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione (TDZD)...
October 17, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779758/trpv4-participates-in-pressure-induced-inhibition-of-renin-secretion-by-juxtaglomerular-cells
#20
François Seghers, Xavier Yerna, Nadège Zanou, Olivier Devuyst, Rudi Vennekens, Bernd Nilius, Philippe Gailly
KEY POINTS: Increase in blood pressure in the renal afferent arteriole is known to induce an increase in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ) of juxtaglomerular (JG) cells and to result in a decreased secretion of renin. Mechanical stimulation of As4.1 JG cells induces an increase in [Ca(2+) ]i that is inhibited by HC067047 and RN1734, two inhibitors of TRPV4, or by siRNA-mediated repression of TRPV4. Inhibition of TRPV4 impairs pressure-induced decrease in renin secretion. Compared to wild-type mice, Trpv4(-/-) mice present increased resting plasma levels of renin and aldosterone and present a significantly altered pressure-renin relationship...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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