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effect of angiotensin 2 on the kidneys

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317956/effect-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor-calcium-antagonist-combination-therapy-on-renal-function-in-hypertensive-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-chikushi-anti-hypertension-trial-benidipine-and-perindopril
#1
Tetsu Okuda, Keisuke Okamura, Kazuyuki Shirai, Hidenori Urata
Background: Appropriate blood pressure control suppresses progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). If an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor is ineffective, adding a calcium antagonist is recommended. We compared the long-term effect of two ACE inhibitor/calcium antagonist combinations on renal function in hypertensive patients with CKD. Methods: Patients who failed to achieve the target blood pressure (systolic/diastolic: < 130/80 mm Hg) with perindopril monotherapy were randomized to either combined therapy with perindopril and the L-type calcium antagonist amlodipine (group A) or perindopril and the T/L type calcium antagonist benidipine (group B)...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310811/effect-of-renin-angiotensin-system-inhibitors-on-survival-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Ya-Mei Jiang, Tu-Run Song, Yang Qiu, Jin-Peng Liu, Xian-Ding Wang, Zhong-Li Huang, Tao Lin
Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, specifically angiotensin II converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), have confirmed renoprotective benefits in patients with proteinuria and hypertension. However, it remains controversial whether these agents are beneficial to kidney recipients. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of ACEI/ARB treatment on patient and allograft survival after kidney transplant. The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched for eligible articles from before May 2016, and we included 24 articles (9 randomised controlled trials [RCTs] and 15 cohort studies with 54,096 patients), in which patient or graft survival was compared between an ACEI/ARB treatment arm and a control arm...
January 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305157/enhanced-angiotensin-ii-induced-sodium-appetite-in-renovascular-hypertensive-rats
#3
Camila F Roncari, Rafaela M Barbosa, Regina C Vendramini, Laurival A De Luca, José V Menani, Eduardo Colombari, Débora S A Colombari
Renovascular hypertensive 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) rats have an increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system and an initial transitory increase in daily water and NaCl intake. However, the dipsogenic and natriorexigenic responses to angiotensin II (ANG II) have not been tested yet in 2K1C rats. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated water and 0.3 M NaCl intake induced by water deprivation (WD)-partial rehydration (PR) or intracerebroventricular (icv) ANG II in 2K1C rats. In addition, the cardiovascular changes to these treatments were also evaluated...
January 2, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289466/angiotensin-ii-type-2-receptor-inhibits-expression-and-function-of-insulin-receptor-in-rat-renal-proximal-tubule-cells
#4
Yang Yang, Caiyu Chen, Chunjiang Fu, Zaicheng Xu, Cong Lan, Yongchun Zeng, Zhi Chen, Pedro A Jose, Ye Zhang, Chunyu Zeng
Both renin-angiotensin systems and insulin participate in kidney-involved blood pressure regulation. Activation of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) decreases sodium reabsorption in renal proximal tubule (RPT) cells, whereas insulin produces the opposite effect. We presume that AT2R has an inhibitory effect on insulin receptor expression in RPT cells, which may affect renal sodium transport and therefore be of physiological or pathological significance. Our present study found that activation of AT2R inhibited insulin receptor expression in a concentration and time-dependent manner in RPT cells from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats...
December 6, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284530/fimasartan-proteinuria-sustained-reduction-in-comparison-with-losartan-in-diabetic-chronic-kidney-disease-fantastic-study-protocol-for-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Jang-Young Kim, Jung-Woo Son, Sungha Park, Tea-Hyun Yoo, Yong-Jin Kim, Dong-Ryeol Ryu, Ho Jun Chin
BACKGROUND: Fimasartan is the ninth angiotensin receptor blocker to be developed. However, it has not yet been evaluated for reno-protective effects in hypertensive diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD). The target blood pressure (BP) for hypertensive diabetic CKD is also a controversial topic. This trial was designed to assess the reno-protective effects of fimasartan compared to those of losartan as a primary outcome. This study also compares the two drugs with regard to cardiovascular and renal outcomes in accordance with target systolic BP (SBP) (as secondary outcomes)...
December 29, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240784/effects-of-calcium-channel-blockers-comparing-to-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-and-angiotensin-receptor-blockers-in-patients-with-hypertension-and-chronic-kidney-disease-stage-3-to-5-and-dialysis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Yen-Chung Lin, Jheng-Wei Lin, Mai-Szu Wu, Kuan-Chou Chen, Chiung-Chi Peng, Yi-No Kang
BACKGROUND: Calcium channel blocker (CCB) or two renin angiotensin aldosterone system blockades (RAAS), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), are major potent and prevalently used as initial antihypertensive agents for mild to moderate hypertension, but no uniform agreement as to which antihypertensive drugs should be given for initial therapy, especially among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing CCBs and the two RAAS blockades for hypertensive patients with CKD stage 3 to 5D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227582/role-of-the-sodium-hydrogen-exchanger-in-mediating-the-renal-effects-of-drugs-commonly-used-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
Milton Packer
Diabetes is characterized by an increased activity of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger (NHE) in the glomerulus and renal tubules, which contributes importantly to the development of nephropathy. Despite the established role played by the exchanger in experimental studies, it has not been specifically targeted by those seeking to develop novel pharmacological treatments for diabetes. This review demonstrates that many existing drugs that are commonly prescribed to patients with diabetes act on the NHE1 and NHE3 isoforms in the kidney...
December 11, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226693/higher-pulse-pressure-and-risk-for-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-with-essential-hypertension-the-campania-salute-network
#8
Costantino Mancusi, Maria A Losi, Raffaele Izzo, Grazia Canciello, Maria V Carlino, Giovanni Albano, Nicola De Luca, Bruno Trimarco, Giovanni de Simone
Background Increased pulse pressure is associated with structural target organ damage, especially in elderly patients, increasing cardiovascular risk. Design In this analysis, we investigated whether high pulse pressure retains a prognostic effect also when common markers of target organ damage are taken into account. Methods We analysed an unselected cohort of treated hypertensive patients from the Campania Salute Network registry ( n = 7336). Participants with available cardiac and carotid ultrasound were required to be free of prevalent cardiovascular disease, with ejection fraction ≥50%, and no more than stage III Chronic Kidney Disease...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155873/short-term-anti-proteinuric-effect-of-tacrolimus-is-not-related-to-preservation-of-the-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-iga-nephropathy-a-5-year-follow-up-study
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mi-Yeon Yu, Yong-Chul Kim, Ho Suk Koo, Ho Jun Chin
BACKGROUND: The immunosuppressive drug tacrolimus has the short-term effect of reducing proteinuria in patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). Our study investigated the effects on proteinuria and kidney function after discontinuation of tacrolimus. METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven IgAN were included in the study and randomly divided into two treatment groups. There was a corresponding control group for each treatment group. The first group included patients treated with tacrolimus (Tac vs non-Tac group) and the second group included patients with a renin angiotensin system blocker (RASi vs non-RASi group)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145743/novel-avenues-for-drug-discovery-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#10
Matthew D Breyer, Matthias Kretzler
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) has emerged as major cause of morbidity and mortality. After progressing to renal failure, over 70% of DKD patients are dead with five years. New treatments to slow this progression are desperately needed. Areas covered: This review highlights the current treatment options for people with DKD with a particular focus on angiotensin pathway blockade and the potential use of sodium glucose linked transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. These treatments are associated with an initial decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albuminuria; there is also attention on renal hyperfiltration as therapeutic target...
November 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128399/nitric-oxide-production-by-glomerular-podocytes
#11
Oleg Palygin, Daria V Ilatovskaya, Vladislav Levchenko, Bradley T Endres, Aron M Geurts, Alexander Staruschenko
Nitric Oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator and vital signaling molecule, has been shown to contribute to the regulation of glomerular ultrafiltration. However, whether changes in NO occur in podocytes during the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension has not yet been thoroughly examined. We showed here that podocytes produce NO, and further hypothesized that hypertensive animals would exhibit reduced NO production in these cells in response to various paracrine factors, which might contribute to the damage of glomeruli filtration barrier and development of proteinuria...
November 8, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079468/addition-of-vitamin-d-reverses-the-decline-in-gfr-following-treatment-with-ace-inhibitors-angiotensin-receptor-blockers-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
Abel Esteves Soares, Michael Maes, Paula Godeny, Andressa Keiko Matsumoto, Décio Sabbatini Barbosa, Taysa Antonia F da Silva, Flávio Henrique M O Souza, Vinicius Daher Alvares Delfino
AIMS: Vitamin D has anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic effect, and may block the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system. Adequate vitamin D levels in conjunction with the use of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitors/Angiotensin Receptor Blockers may help to slow down chronic kidney disease progression. MAIN METHODS: To study a possible beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation in chronic kidney disease patients using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers on chronic kidney disease progression we performed a clinical study involving vitamin D supplementation in patients with deficiency of this vitamin...
December 15, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077618/urinary-oxygenation-as-a-surrogate-measure-of-medullary-oxygenation-during-angiotensin-ii-therapy-in-septic-acute-kidney-injury
#13
Yugeesh R Lankadeva, Junko Kosaka, Roger G Evans, Rinaldo Bellomo, Clive N May
OBJECTIVES: Angiotensin II is an emerging therapy for septic acute kidney injury, but it is unknown if its vasoconstrictor action induces renal hypoxia. We therefore examined the effects of angiotensin II on intrarenal PO2 in ovine sepsis. We also assessed the validity of urinary PO2 as a surrogate measure of medullary PO2. DESIGN: Interventional study. SETTING: Research Institute. SUBJECTS: Sixteen adult Merino ewes (n = 8/group)...
October 26, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072703/bcl6-attenuates-renal-inflammation-via-negative-regulation-of-nlrp3-transcription
#14
Dan Chen, Xiao-Qing Xiong, Ying-Hao Zang, Ying Tong, Bing Zhou, Qi Chen, Yue-Hua Li, Xing-Ya Gao, Yu-Ming Kang, Guo-Qing Zhu
Renal inflammation contributes to the pathogeneses of hypertension. This study was designed to determine whether B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) attenuates renal NLRP3 inflammasome activation and inflammation and its underlying mechanism. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were used in the present study. Angiotensin (Ang) II or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) was used to induce inflammation in HK-2 cells, a human renal tubular epithelial (RTE) cell line. NLRP3 inflammasome was activated and BCL6 was downregulated in the kidneys of SHR...
October 26, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070570/hypoxia-reoxygenation-enhances-murine-afferent-arteriolar-vasoconstriction-by-angiotensin-ii
#15
Tamara Margit Pahlitzsch, Zhi Zhao Liu, Amira Al-Masri, Diana Braun, Stefanie Dietze, Pontus B Persson, Wolf-Hagen Schunck, Maximilian Blum, Eckehardt Kupsch, Marion Ludwig, Andreas Patzak
We tested the hypothesis that hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) augments vasoreactivity to angiotensin II (Ang II). In particular, we compared an in situ live kidney slice model with isolated afferent arterioles (C57Bl6 mice) to assess the impact of tubules on microvessel response. H&E staining was used to estimate slice viability. Arterioles in the slices were located by DIC microscopy, and responses to vasoactive substances were assessed. Cytosolic calcium transients and NADPH oxidase mRNA expression were studied in isolated afferent arterioles...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070043/the-effect-of-renal-denervation-in-an-experimental-model-of-chronic-renal-insufficiency-the-remnant-kidney-denervation-in-pigs-study-redip-study
#16
Jean-Claude Lubanda, Miroslav Chochola, Mikuláš Mlček, Petr Neužil, Josef Marek, Štěpán Havránek, Sylvie Kuchynková, Zdeňka Fingrová, Kao-Hsuan Aimee Huang, Aleš Linhart
BACKGROUND: Renal denervation (RDN) is a promising therapeutic method in cardiology. Its currently most investigated indication is resistant hypertension. Other potential indications are atrial fibrillation, type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic renal insufficiency among others. Previous trials showed conflicting but promising results, but the real benefits of RDN are still under investigation. Patients with renal insufficiency and resistant hypertension are proposed to be a good target for this therapy due to excessive activation of renal sympathetic drive...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056916/inhibition-of-pro-renin-receptor-contributes-to-renoprotective-effects-of-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockade-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#17
Lin Zhang, Xiao-Fei An, Xin Ruan, Dong-Dong Huang, Li Zhou, Hong Xue, Li-Min Lu, Ming He
Aims: Renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a pivotal role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockade elevates (pro)renin, which may bind to (pro)renin receptor (PRR) and exert receptor-mediated, angiotensin-independent profibrotic effects. We therefore investigated whether PRR activation leads to the limited anti-fibrotic effects of AT1R blockade on DN, and whether PRR inhibition might ameliorate progression of DN. Methods: To address the issue, the expression of RAS components was tested in different stages of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats (6, 12, and 24 weeks) and 6-week AT1R blockade (losartan) treated diabetic rats...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053707/high-glucose-augments-angiotensinogen-in-human-renal-proximal-tubular-cells-through-hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-5
#18
Juan Wang, Yuki Shibayama, Hiroyuki Kobori, Ya Liu, Hideki Kobara, Tsutomu Masaki, Zhiyu Wang, Akira Nishiyama
High glucose has been demonstrated to induce angiotensinogen (AGT) synthesis in the renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) of rats, which may further activate the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and contribute to diabetic nephropathy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of high glucose on AGT in the RPTCs of human origin and identify the glucose-responsive transcriptional factor(s) that bind(s) to the DNA sequences of AGT promoter in human RPTCs. Human kidney (HK)-2 cells were treated with normal glucose (5...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049415/effect-of-diacerein-on-renal-function-and-inflammatory-cytokines-in-participants-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-chronic-kidney-disease-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Fabiana Piovesan, Glaucia S Tres, Leila B Moreira, Michael E Andrades, Hugo K Lisboa, Sandra C Fuchs
Diacerein seems to improve metabolic control and reduce inflammatory marker levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM), but for participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD) its effect is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of diacerein vs. placebo on urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and inflammatory cytokines in type 2 DM participants with CKD. Blood pressure (BP) and metabolic control were secondary outcomes. This randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel trial of adjuvant treatment of type 2 DM with diacerein enrolled seventy-two participants with CKD, aged 30-80 years, with glycated hemoglobin levels from 53-97 mmol/mol (7...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038209/activation-and-inhibition-of-sodium-hydrogen-exchanger-is-a-mechanism-that-links-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus-with-that-of-heart-failure
#20
REVIEW
Milton Packer
The mechanisms underlying the progression of diabetes mellitus and heart failure are closely intertwined, such that worsening of one condition is frequently accompanied by worsening of the other; the degree of clinical acceleration is marked when the 2 coexist. Activation of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger in the heart and vasculature (NHE1 isoform) and the kidneys (NHE3 isoform) may serve as a common mechanism that links both disorders and may underlie their interplay. Insulin insensitivity and adipokine abnormalities (the hallmarks of type 2 diabetes mellitus) are characteristic features of heart failure; conversely, neurohormonal systems activated in heart failure (norepinephrine, angiotensin II, aldosterone, and neprilysin) impair insulin sensitivity and contribute to microvascular disease in diabetes mellitus...
October 17, 2017: Circulation
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