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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231506/plant-chromium-uptake-and-transport-physiological-effects-and-recent-advances-in-molecular-investigations
#1
REVIEW
Maria Angélica da Conceição Gomes, Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis, Marina Satika Suzuki, Angela Pierre Vitória
Increasingly, anthropogenic perturbations of the biosphere manifest in a broad array of global phenomena, causing widespread contamination of most ecosystems, with high dispersion rates of many contaminants throughout different environmental compartments, including metals. Chromium (Cr) contamination in particular, is, increasingly, posing a serious threat to the environment, emerging as a major health hazard to the biota. However, although the molecular and physiological mechanisms of plant responses to many heavy metals, especially lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), have been focused upon in recent years, chromium has attracted significantly less attention...
February 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225026/blood-based-omic-profiling-supports-female-susceptibility-to-tobacco-smoke-induced-cardiovascular-diseases
#2
Aristotelis Chatziioannou, Panagiotis Georgiadis, Dennie G Hebels, Irene Liampa, Ioannis Valavanis, Ingvar A Bergdahl, Anders Johansson, Domenico Palli, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Alexandros P Siskos, Hector Keun, Maria Botsivali, Theo M C M de Kok, Almudena Espín Pérez, Jos C S Kleinjans, Paolo Vineis, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos
We recently reported that differential gene expression and DNA methylation profiles in blood leukocytes of apparently healthy smokers predicts with remarkable efficiency diseases and conditions known to be causally associated with smoking, suggesting that blood-based omic profiling of human populations may be useful for linking environmental exposures to potential health effects. Here we report on the sex-specific effects of tobacco smoking on transcriptomic and epigenetic features derived from genome-wide profiling in white blood cells, identifying 26 expression probes and 92 CpG sites, almost all of which are affected only in female smokers...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224900/chemical-oxygen-demand-historical-perspectives-and-future-challenges
#3
REVIEW
René Bernard Geerdink, Ricardo Sebastiaan van den Hurk, Onno Jacob Epema
Determining the chemical oxygen demand (COD) is challenging because of the chemicals that are used in the current methods. There is an urgent need to determine the pollution in surface waters from (heavy) industry via a simple, reliable and fast method. However, the current procedures use hazardous chemicals, such as mercury, to suppress chloride interferences. This challenge has not been resolved. The introduction of modern detection techniques, such as chemiluminescence and oxidation procedures, e.g., microwave and ultrasound dissolution, has not resulted in a breakthrough...
April 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224339/wastewater-treatment-and-public-health-in-nunavut-a-microbial-risk-assessment-framework-for-the-canadian-arctic
#4
Kiley Daley, Rob Jamieson, Daniel Rainham, Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen
Wastewater management in Canadian Arctic communities is influenced by several geographical factors including climate, remoteness, population size, and local food-harvesting practices. Most communities use trucked collection services and basic treatment systems, which are capable of only low-level pathogen removal. These systems are typically reliant solely on natural environmental processes for treatment and make use of existing lagoons, wetlands, and bays. They are operated in a manner such that partially treated wastewater still containing potentially hazardous microorganisms is released into the terrestrial and aquatic environment at random times...
February 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222979/from-macro-to-microplastics-analysis-of-eu-regulation-along-the-life-cycle-of-plastic-bags
#5
REVIEW
Ida M Steensgaard, Kristian Syberg, Sinja Rist, Nanna B Hartmann, Alessio Boldrin, Steffen Foss Hansen
Plastic pollution and its environmental effects has received global attention the recent years. However, limited attention has so far been directed towards how plastics are regulated in a life cycle perspective and how regulatory gaps can be addressed in order to limit and prevent environmental exposure and hazards of macro- and microplastics. In this paper, we map European regulation taking outset in the life cycle perspective of plastic carrier bags: from plastic bag production to when it enters the environment...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222351/the-land-morphology-approach-to-flood-risk-mapping-an-application-to-portugal
#6
N S Cunha, M R Magalhães, T Domingos, M M Abreu, C Küpfer
In the last decades, the increasing vulnerability of floodplains is linked to societal changes such as population density growth, land use changes, water use patterns, among other factors. Land morphology directly influences surface water flow, transport of sediments, soil genesis, local climate and vegetation distribution. Therefore, the land morphology, the land used and management directly influences flood risks genesis. However, attention is not always given to the underlying geomorphological and ecological processes that influence the dynamic of rivers and their floodplains...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221966/annual-effective-dose-of-gamma-emitters-in-adults-and-children-for-some-types-of-rice-consumed-in-iraq
#7
Ali Abid Abojassim, Dahir Mohammad Dahir, Azhar S Alaboodi, Abbas H Abonasria
This work studies the activity concentration of natural radioactivity in 20 different types of rice, including imported rice and that produced locally. The rice samples were collected from markets and farms in Iraq, and then a natural radioactivity investigation was done in the environmental laboratory of the Kufa University, using gamma-ray spectrometer systems. The research focused on measuring the activity concentration of natural radioactivity ((238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K) to determine the level of the radium equivalent activity, internal hazard indices, and annual effective dose...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221872/analysis-of-food-safety-and-security-challenges-in-emerging-african-food-producing-areas-through-a-one-health-lens-the-dairy-chains-in-mali
#8
Rachel Cheng, Alberto Mantovani, Chiara Frazzoli
Challenges posed by changes in livestock production in emerging food producing areas and demographic development and climate change require new approaches and responsibilities in the management of food chains. The increasingly recognized role of primary food producers requires the support of the scientific community to instruct effective approaches based on scientific data, tools, and expertise. Mali is an emerging food producing area, and this review covers (i) the dairy farming scenario and its environment, (ii) the role of dairy production in food security, including the greatly different animal rearing systems in the Sahel and tropical regions, (iii) risk management pillars as modern infrastructures, effective farmer organizations, and institutional systems to guarantee animal health and safety of products, and (iv) feasible interventions based on good practices and risk assessment at the farm level (e...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220904/recent-advances-in-occupational-and-environmental-health-hazards-of-workers-exposed-to-gasoline-compounds
#9
REVIEW
Christopher E Ekpenyong, Asuquo E Asuquo
The impact of health and environmental hazards, associated with the constituents of gasoline, on occupationally exposed workers has been recorded over the past few decades. However, the scientific literature on their pathogenic potential remains incomplete, which could affect the current understanding of the associated health risks. This review provides current information based on recently improved research techniques to evaluate gasoline toxicity profiles for humans. Our current knowledge provides insight into the intricate mechanism of gasoline-induced adverse effects, including the formation of reactive metabolites via bio-activation and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, which are involved in multiple mechanisms that are central to the aetiology of gasoline-induced toxicity...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219320/microorganism-and-agricultural-based-biosorbents-towards-removal-of-cadmium-from-waste-water-an-overview
#10
Souvik Pal, Subhankar Mukherjee, Nabarun Bhattacharyya
BACKGROUND: Non-degradable and persistent nature of Cadmium (Cd) poses high toxicity to human, plants and animals. Several industrial processes generated wastes are the main anthropogenic pathway through which Cd enters into the environment. Although, World Health Organization (WHO) has set the limit of Cd in drinking water is 0.005 mg L-1, the industrial activities release much higher concentrations of metal ions to the water stream than the prescribed limits, which leads to the increasing health hazards and environmental pollution...
February 20, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217606/a-mixed-toxidrome-presenting-with-bilateral-ptosis-with-normal-pupils-the-first-case-in-the-literature
#11
Sanket Mahajan, Janki Shah
Snakebite is an environmental hazard associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Two main types of toxicity occur due to snakebite, namely vasculotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Neurotoxic snakebites present mainly with bilateral ptosis with dilated pupils and/or difficulty in breathing. Jatropha curcas belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae and is commonly referred to as "Ratanjyot" in Gujarati. It has got many medicinal uses such as anticancerous properties and bio-oil. There are very few cases of its toxicity in adults...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217008/toxicogenomics-to-evaluate-endocrine-disrupting-effects-of-environmental-chemicals-using-the-zebrafish-model
#12
Karina Caballero-Gallardo, Jesus Olivero-Verbel, Jennifer L Freeman
The extent of our knowledge on the number of chemical compounds related to anthropogenic activities that can cause damage to the environment and to organisms is increasing. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are one group of potentially hazardous substances that include natural and synthetic chemicals and have the ability to mimic endogenous hormones, interfering with their biosynthesis, metabolism, and normal functions. Adverse effects associated with EDC exposure have been documented in aquatic biota and there is widespread interest in the characterization and understanding of their modes of action...
December 2016: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216654/performance-kinetic-and-biodegradation-pathway-evaluation-of-anaerobic-fixed-film-fixed-bed-reactor-in-removing-phthalic-acid-esters-from-wastewater
#13
Ehsan Ahmadi, Samira Yousefzadeh, Mohsen Ansari, Hamid Reza Ghaffari, Ali Azari, Mohammad Miri, Alireza Mesdaghinia, Ramin Nabizadeh, Babak Kakavandi, Peyman Ahmadi, Mojtaba Yegane Badi, Mitra Gholami, Kiomars Sharafi, Mostafa Karimaei, Mahboobeh Ghoochani, Masoud Binesh Brahmand, Seyed Mohsen Mohseni, Maryam Sarkhosh, Soheila Rezaei, Hosseinali Asgharnia, Emad Dehghanifard, Behdad Jafari, Alireza Mortezapour, Vahid Kazemi Moghaddam, Mohammad Molla Mahmoudi, Nader Taghipour
Emerging and hazardous environmental pollutants like phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the recent concerns worldwide. PAEs are considered to have diverse endocrine disrupting effects on human health. Industrial wastewater has been reported as an important environment with high concentrations of PAEs. In the present study, four short-chain PAEs including diallyl phthalate (DAP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and phthalic acid (PA) were selected as a substrate for anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AnFFFBR)...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215055/occupational-hazards-for-home-care-nurses-across-the-rural-to-urban-gradient-in-ontario-canada
#14
Matthew Wong, Margaret Saari, Erin Patterson, Martine Puts, Ann E Tourangeau
The purpose of this paper was to describe occupational hazards for nurses working in home care (HC) and explore how they differ across the rural-to-urban gradient. Responses (n = 823) from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2012 of HC nurses registered to practise nursing in the Province of Ontario, Canada were used. Using chi-square analysis and posthoc pairwise tests with a Bonferroni correction, 14 occupational hazards were individually tested for differences between four geographical settings (rural, town, suburban or urban areas)...
February 19, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212109/sustainable-exposure-prevention-through-innovative-detection-and-remediation-technologies-from-the-niehs-superfund-research-program
#15
Heather F Henry, William A Suk
Innovative devices and tools for exposure assessment and remediation play an integral role in preventing exposure to hazardous substances. New solutions for detecting and remediating organic, inorganic, and mixtures of contaminants can improve public health as a means of primary prevention. Using a public health prevention model, detection and remediation technologies contribute to primary prevention as tools to identify areas of high risk (e.g. contamination hotspots), to recognize hazards (bioassay tests), and to prevent exposure through contaminant cleanups...
February 17, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209408/household-air-pollution-from-various-types-of-rural-kitchens-and-its-exposure-assessment
#16
Maninder Kaur Sidhu, Khaiwal Ravindra, Suman Mor, Siby John
Exposure to household air pollutants has become a leading environmental health risk in developing countries. Considering this, real-time temporal variation in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were measured in various types of rural household kitchens. Observed average concentrations of PM2.5, CO, percent relative humidity (%RH) and temperature (T) in five different kitchen types were 549.6μg/m(3), 4.2ppm, 70.2% and 20°C respectively. Highest CO and PM2.5 concentration were found in household performing cooking in indoor kitchens (CO: 9...
February 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207926/alcohol-mixed-with-energy-drinks-daily-context-of-use
#17
Ashley N Linden-Carmichael, Cathy Lau-Barraco
The link between use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) and alcohol-related harms is well established, but limited research has examined the context in which AmEDs are consumed. Identifying the social and environmental characteristics of use may illuminate whether AmEDs are used in settings that could increase the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors or experiencing harms. The present study used a two-week daily diary assessment to compare days in which AmEDs were consumed ("AmED days") and days where other types of alcohol were used ("non-AmED days") on where, when, and with whom drinking occurred METHODS: Participants were 122 (90 women) heavy drinking college students who reported mixing caffeine with alcohol at least once in the past week...
February 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202383/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-screening-risk-modification-and-physical-therapy-to-prevent-falls-among-the-elderly-recently-discharged-from-the-emergency-department-to-the-community-the-steps-to-avoid-falls-in-the-elderly-study
#18
David B Matchar, Pamela W Duncan, Christopher T C Lien, Marcus Eng Hock Ong, Mina Lee, Fei Gao, Rita Sim, Kirsten Eom
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial, tailored program of physical therapy to reduce the occurrence of falls among a heterogeneous group of high-risk elderly Singaporeans recently discharged from the Emergency Department (ED). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Communities in Central and East regions in Singapore. PARTICIPANTS: 354 adults aged at least 65 years who were seen at ED for a fall or fall-related injuries and discharged home...
February 12, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202269/trace-elements-in-fragments-of-fishing-net-and-other-filamentous-plastic-litter-from-two-beaches-in-sw-england
#19
Andrew Turner
Filamentous plastic litter collected from two beaches in south west England has been characterized by FTIR and XRF. The majority of samples were constructed of polyethylene and consisted of twisted or braided strands of a variety of colours that appeared to be derived from commercial fishing nets. A number of different elements were detected among the samples but, from an environmental perspective, the regular occurrence of Cr and Pb and the occasional or isolated occurrence of Br, Cd and Se were of greatest concern...
February 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199938/assessment-of-multiple-exposure-to-chemical-elements-and-health-risks-among-residents-near-huodehong-lead-zinc-mining-area-in-yunnan-southwest-china
#20
Yirun Wang, Ruming Wang, Liyun Fan, Tiantian Chen, Yahong Bai, Qianru Yu, Ying Liu
The contents of chemical elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) in 11 kinds of crop/vegetables and soils around the Huodehong lead-zinc mining area in Yunnan, Southwest China were determined by using inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results showed that element contents in soils decreased in the order of Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd. The high geo-accumulation indexes (Igeo) showed that cultivated soils near mine were practically polluted by Cd, Pb and Zn. The contents of Cd, Cr and Pb in crop/vegetables samples were significantly higher than the maximum permissible standard set by China...
January 12, 2017: Chemosphere
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