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parasites and asthma

Leonardo Nascimento Santos, Luis Gustavo Carvalho Pacheco, Carina Silva Pinheiro, Neuza Maria Alcantara-Neves
The inverse relationship between helminth infections and the development of immune-mediated diseases is a cornerstone of the hygiene hypothesis and studies were carried out to elucidate the mechanisms by which helminth-derived molecules can suppress immunological disorders. These studies have fostered the idea that parasitic worms may be used as a promising therapeutic alternative for prevention and treatment of immune-mediated diseases. We discuss the current approaches for identification of helminth proteins with potential immunoregulatory properties, including the strategies based on high-throughput technologies...
November 18, 2016: Acta Tropica
Carina R Magbojos, Shereen O Chua, Charlene R Alegria, Faustina C Macalalad, Anne Camille R Malayba, Alyssa Andrea D Mandigma, Oliver Shane R Dumaoal
Several studies have explored the cross-reactivity between geohelminthiasis and allergy which share the same immune response in humans by triggering the increase in serum IgE level. Yet, the role of soil-transmitted intestinal parasitism as a protective or contributing factor for allergy remains inconclusive. In this study, the association of geohelminthiasis with allergic sensitization was investigated in a cohort of 50 children aged 5 to 12 years old residing in the areas of Batangas, Philippines where parasitism is prevalent...
June 30, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
Severine Navarro, Darren A Pickering, Ivana B Ferreira, Linda Jones, Stephanie Ryan, Sally Troy, Andrew Leech, Peter J Hotez, Bin Zhan, Thewarach Laha, Roger Prentice, Tim Sparwasser, John Croese, Christian R Engwerda, John W Upham, Valerie Julia, Paul R Giacomin, Alex Loukas
In the developed world, declining prevalence of some parasitic infections correlates with increased incidence of allergic and autoimmune disorders. Moreover, experimental human infection with some parasitic worms confers protection against inflammatory diseases in phase 2 clinical trials. Parasitic worms manipulate the immune system by secreting immunoregulatory molecules that offer promise as a novel therapeutic modality for inflammatory diseases. We identify a protein secreted by hookworms, anti-inflammatory protein-2 (AIP-2), that suppressed airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma, reduced expression of costimulatory markers on human dendritic cells (DCs), and suppressed proliferation ex vivo of T cells from human subjects with house dust mite allergy...
October 26, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
F Niyonsaba, C Kiatsurayanon, H Ogawa
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also referred to as host defence peptides (HDPs), comprise a large family of small molecules broadly distributed throughout the animal and plant kingdom, historically serving as natural antibiotics. In mammals, there are two major families of AMPs/HDPs, the defensins and the cathelicidins. These peptides have evolved to protect against a wide range of infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi and some parasites. However, in addition to their broad-spectrum killing activities, AMPs/HDPs also possess various biological functions...
December 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Amanda K Huber, David A Giles, Benjamin M Segal, David N Irani
Eotaxins are C-C motif chemokines first identified as potent eosinophil chemoattractants. They facilitate eosinophil recruitment to sites of inflammation in response to parasitic infections as well as allergic and autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. The eotaxin family currently includes three members: eotaxin-1 (CCL11), eotaxin-2 (CCL24), and eotaxin-3 (CCL26). Despite having only ~30% sequence homology to one another, each was identified based on its ability to bind the chemokine receptor, CCR3...
September 21, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Neima Briggs, Jill Weatherhead, K Jagannadha Sastry, Peter J Hotez
Current iterations of the hygiene hypothesis suggest an adaptive role for helminth parasites in shaping the proper maturation of the immune system. However, aspects of this hypothesis are based on assumptions that may not fully account for realities about human helminth infections. Such realities include evidence of causal associations between helminth infections and asthma or inflammatory bowel disease as well as the fact that helminth infections remain widespread in the United States, especially among populations at greatest risk for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Lahari Rampur, Sunit P Jariwala, Golda Hudes, David L Rosenstreich, Gabriele de Vos
BACKGROUND: The immunomodulatory effects of helminths have been well described. However, there is a relative lack of literature regarding the link between parasites and allergic diseases. A number of patients with allergic symptoms have positive serologic test results for Strongyloides stercoralis. OBJECTIVE: To identify patients with allergy-type symptoms and coexisting Strongyloides infection and to analyze the effect of Strongyloides eradication therapy with ivermectin on these symptoms...
October 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Everett K Henry, Chandler B Sy, Juan M Inclan-Rico, Vanessa Espinosa, Saleena S Ghanny, Daniel F Dwyer, Patricia Soteropoulos, Amariliz Rivera, Mark C Siracusa
Type 2 cytokine responses are necessary for the development of protective immunity to helminth parasites but also cause the inflammation associated with allergies and asthma. Recent studies have found that peripheral hematopoietic progenitor cells contribute to type 2 cytokine-mediated inflammation through their enhanced ability to develop into mast cells. In this study, we show that carbonic anhydrase (Car) enzymes are up-regulated in type 2-associated progenitor cells and demonstrate that Car enzyme inhibition is sufficient to prevent mouse mast cell responses and inflammation after Trichinella spiralis infection or the induction of food allergy-like disease...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Alexandra F Freeman, Kenneth N Olivier
Elevated serum IgE has many etiologies including parasitic infection, allergy and asthma, malignancy, and immune dysregulation. The hyper-IgE syndromes caused by mutations in STAT3, DOCK8, and PGM3 are monogenic primary immunodeficiencies associated with high IgE, eczema, and recurrent infections. These primary immunodeficiencies are associated with recurrent pneumonias leading to bronchiectasis; however, each has unique features and genetic diagnosis is essential in guiding therapy, discussing family planning, and defining prognosis...
September 2016: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Hossein Yousofi Darani, Morteza Yousefi, Marzieh Safari, Rasool Jafari
Immunotherapy is a sort of therapy in which antibody or antigen administrates to the patient in order to treat or reduce the severity of complications of disease. This kind of treatment practiced in a wide variety of diseases including infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, cancers and allergy. Successful and unsuccessful immunotherapeutic strategies have been practiced in variety of parasitic infections. On the other hand parasites or parasite antigens have also been considered for immunotherapy against other diseases such as cancer, asthma and multiple sclerosis...
June 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Maciej Gonciarz, Dawid Szkudłapski, Aldona Mularczyk, Justyna Smagacz
Over three last decades, it has been noticed that morbidity of immunology-dependent illnesses, like asthma, inflammatory bowel disease or atopic dermatitis, apparently increased. That is the reason to focus on searching and exploring new ideas which could explain etiopathology of those diseases. In etiopathology the role of environmental factors is particularly emphasized. Research indicated the inverse relationship between the frequency of infectious and/ or parasites and autoimmune diseases. It was a leading subject of many studies what allowed to create a hypothesis which explains the phenomenon...
June 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Neonila Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Beata Świątkowska, Urszula Wilczyńska
BACKGROUND: The study's objective is to present epidemiological situation concerning the incidence of occupational diseases among farmers in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All 3438 cases of occupational diseases diagnosed among farmers and obligatorily reported to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases (covering all the national territory and all the cases of occupational diseases diagnosed in Poland after 1970) over the years 2000-2014 were subjected to analysis...
2016: Medycyna Pracy
Laurence Fardet, Irene Petersen, Irwin Nazareth
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relative risk of common bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections in the general population of individuals exposed to systemic glucocorticoids, or about the impact of glucocorticoid exposure duration and predisposing factors on this risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The hazard ratios of various common infections were assessed in 275,072 adults prescribed glucocorticoids orally for ≥15 d (women: 57.8%, median age: 63 [interquartile range 48-73] y) in comparison to those not prescribed glucocorticoids...
May 2016: PLoS Medicine
Eline Palm Hansen, Helene Kringel, Stig Milan Thamsborg, Aaron Jex, Peter Nejsum
microRNAs (miRNAs) are recently discovered as key regulators of gene translation and are becoming increasingly recognized for their involvement in various diseases. This study investigates the miRNA profile in pig serum during the course of an infection with the gastrointestinal parasite, Trichuris suis. Of this panel, the expression of selected miRNAs in serum from T. suis infected and uninfected pigs were determined by quantitative real time PCR using Exiqon Human Panel assays at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks post first infection (wpi)...
June 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Haru Yamamoto, David A Khan
A 45-year-old man who presented with dyspnea and chest tightness was found to have obstructive lung disease and eosinophilia of 10,300 eosinophils/μL. The differential diagnosis encompassed causes of primary eosinophilia and secondary eosinophilia associated with pulmonary disease, including asthma, environmental allergic reaction, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, parasitic infections, tuberculosis, fungal infection, sarcoidosis, mastocytosis, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, lymphoproliferative hypereosinophilic syndrome, and myeloproliferative hypereosinophilic syndrome...
May 2016: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
K Amin, C Janson, J Bystrom
Eosinophil granulocytes are intriguing members of the innate immunity system that have been considered important defenders during parasitic diseases as well as culprits during allergy-associated inflammatory diseases. Novel studies have, however, found new homoeostasis-maintaining roles for the cell. Recent clinical trials blocking different Th2 cytokines have uncovered that asthma is heterogeneous entity and forms different characteristic endotypes. Although eosinophils are present in allergic asthma with early onset, the cells may not be essential for the pathology...
August 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
William Varnado, Angela Johnson, Catherine O'Neal, Anthony Harton, Fred A Lopez
Hypereosinophillia is a rare clinical entity. It is associated with a wide differential diagnosis including neoplasm, infection, and allergic etiologies. Clinicians should have a well defined approach to hypereosinophilia in order to find treatable causes. We present a case of hypereosinophillia caused by parasitic infection with Toxocara canis. We also review epidemiology, transmission, microbiology, and management of Toxocara canis.
May 2015: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
Kelli W Williams, JeanAnne Ware, Annalise Abiodun, Nicole C Holland-Thomas, Paneez Khoury, Amy D Klion
BACKGROUND: The differential diagnosis of hypereosinophilia is broad and includes asthma, atopic disease, drug hypersensitivity, parasitic infection, connective tissue disorders, malignancy, and rare hypereosinophilic disorders. Hypereosinophilia in children has not been well characterized to date. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the common causes of marked eosinophilia in children and to characterize and compare the clinical symptoms at presentation, laboratory findings, final diagnosis, and therapeutic responses between children and adults with hypereosinophilic syndromes...
September 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
L Janicova, J Rzepecka, D T Rodgers, J Doonan, K S Bell, F E Lumb, C J Suckling, M M Harnett, W Harnett
ES-62 is a glycoprotein secreted by the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae that protects against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway hyper-responsiveness in mice by virtue of covalently attached anti-inflammatory phosphorylcholine (PC) residues. We have recently generated a library of small molecule analogues (SMAs) of ES-62 based around its active PC moiety as a starting point in novel drug development for asthma and identified two compounds - termed 11a and 12b - that mirror ES-62's protective effects...
June 2016: Parasite Immunology
Pamela Y Chan, Eugenio A Carrera Silva, Dimitri De Kouchkovsky, Leonel D Joannas, Liming Hao, Donglei Hu, Scott Huntsman, Celeste Eng, Paula Licona-Limón, Jason S Weinstein, De'Broski R Herbert, Joseph E Craft, Richard A Flavell, Silvia Repetto, Jorge Correale, Esteban G Burchard, Dara G Torgerson, Sourav Ghosh, Carla V Rothlin
Host responses against metazoan parasites or an array of environmental substances elicit type 2 immunity. Despite its protective function, type 2 immunity also drives allergic diseases. The mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of the type 2 response remain largely unknown. Here, we show that genetic ablation of a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded byTyro3in mice or the functional neutralization of its ortholog in human dendritic cells resulted in enhanced type 2 immunity. Furthermore, the TYRO3 agonist PROS1 was induced in T cells by the quintessential type 2 cytokine, interleukin-4...
April 1, 2016: Science
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