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parasites and asthma

Amanda K Huber, David A Giles, Benjamin M Segal, David N Irani
Eotaxins are C-C motif chemokines first identified as potent eosinophil chemoattractants. They facilitate eosinophil recruitment to sites of inflammation in response to parasitic infections as well as allergic and autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. The eotaxin family currently includes three members: eotaxin-1 (CCL11), eotaxin-2 (CCL24), and eotaxin-3 (CCL26). Despite having only ~30% sequence homology to one another, each was identified based on its ability to bind the chemokine receptor, CCR3...
September 21, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Neima Briggs, Jill Weatherhead, K Jagannadha Sastry, Peter J Hotez
Current iterations of the hygiene hypothesis suggest an adaptive role for helminth parasites in shaping the proper maturation of the immune system. However, aspects of this hypothesis are based on assumptions that may not fully account for realities about human helminth infections. Such realities include evidence of causal associations between helminth infections and asthma or inflammatory bowel disease as well as the fact that helminth infections remain widespread in the United States, especially among populations at greatest risk for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Lahari Rampur, Sunit P Jariwala, Golda Hudes, David L Rosenstreich, Gabriele de Vos
BACKGROUND: The immunomodulatory effects of helminths have been well described. However, there is a relative lack of literature regarding the link between parasites and allergic diseases. A number of patients with allergic symptoms have positive serologic test results for Strongyloides stercoralis. OBJECTIVE: To identify patients with allergy-type symptoms and coexisting Strongyloides infection and to analyze the effect of Strongyloides eradication therapy with ivermectin on these symptoms...
October 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Everett K Henry, Chandler B Sy, Juan M Inclan-Rico, Vanessa Espinosa, Saleena S Ghanny, Daniel F Dwyer, Patricia Soteropoulos, Amariliz Rivera, Mark C Siracusa
Type 2 cytokine responses are necessary for the development of protective immunity to helminth parasites but also cause the inflammation associated with allergies and asthma. Recent studies have found that peripheral hematopoietic progenitor cells contribute to type 2 cytokine-mediated inflammation through their enhanced ability to develop into mast cells. In this study, we show that carbonic anhydrase (Car) enzymes are up-regulated in type 2-associated progenitor cells and demonstrate that Car enzyme inhibition is sufficient to prevent mouse mast cell responses and inflammation after Trichinella spiralis infection or the induction of food allergy-like disease...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Alexandra F Freeman, Kenneth N Olivier
Elevated serum IgE has many etiologies including parasitic infection, allergy and asthma, malignancy, and immune dysregulation. The hyper-IgE syndromes caused by mutations in STAT3, DOCK8, and PGM3 are monogenic primary immunodeficiencies associated with high IgE, eczema, and recurrent infections. These primary immunodeficiencies are associated with recurrent pneumonias leading to bronchiectasis; however, each has unique features and genetic diagnosis is essential in guiding therapy, discussing family planning, and defining prognosis...
September 2016: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Hossein Yousofi Darani, Morteza Yousefi, Marzieh Safari, Rasool Jafari
Immunotherapy is a sort of therapy in which antibody or antigen administrates to the patient in order to treat or reduce the severity of complications of disease. This kind of treatment practiced in a wide variety of diseases including infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, cancers and allergy. Successful and unsuccessful immunotherapeutic strategies have been practiced in variety of parasitic infections. On the other hand parasites or parasite antigens have also been considered for immunotherapy against other diseases such as cancer, asthma and multiple sclerosis...
June 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Maciej Gonciarz, Dawid Szkudłapski, Aldona Mularczyk, Justyna Smagacz
Over three last decades, it has been noticed that morbidity of immunology-dependent illnesses, like asthma, inflammatory bowel disease or atopic dermatitis, apparently increased. That is the reason to focus on searching and exploring new ideas which could explain etiopathology of those diseases. In etiopathology the role of environmental factors is particularly emphasized. Research indicated the inverse relationship between the frequency of infectious and/ or parasites and autoimmune diseases. It was a leading subject of many studies what allowed to create a hypothesis which explains the phenomenon...
June 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Neonila Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Beata Świątkowska, Urszula Wilczyńska
BACKGROUND: The study's objective is to present epidemiological situation concerning the incidence of occupational diseases among farmers in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All 3438 cases of occupational diseases diagnosed among farmers and obligatorily reported to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases (covering all the national territory and all the cases of occupational diseases diagnosed in Poland after 1970) over the years 2000-2014 were subjected to analysis...
2016: Medycyna Pracy
Laurence Fardet, Irene Petersen, Irwin Nazareth
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relative risk of common bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections in the general population of individuals exposed to systemic glucocorticoids, or about the impact of glucocorticoid exposure duration and predisposing factors on this risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The hazard ratios of various common infections were assessed in 275,072 adults prescribed glucocorticoids orally for ≥15 d (women: 57.8%, median age: 63 [interquartile range 48-73] y) in comparison to those not prescribed glucocorticoids...
May 2016: PLoS Medicine
Eline Palm Hansen, Helene Kringel, Stig Milan Thamsborg, Aaron Jex, Peter Nejsum
microRNAs (miRNAs) are recently discovered as key regulators of gene translation and are becoming increasingly recognized for their involvement in various diseases. This study investigates the miRNA profile in pig serum during the course of an infection with the gastrointestinal parasite, Trichuris suis. Of this panel, the expression of selected miRNAs in serum from T. suis infected and uninfected pigs were determined by quantitative real time PCR using Exiqon Human Panel assays at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks post first infection (wpi)...
June 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Haru Yamamoto, David A Khan
A 45-year-old man who presented with dyspnea and chest tightness was found to have obstructive lung disease and eosinophilia of 10,300 eosinophils/μL. The differential diagnosis encompassed causes of primary eosinophilia and secondary eosinophilia associated with pulmonary disease, including asthma, environmental allergic reaction, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, parasitic infections, tuberculosis, fungal infection, sarcoidosis, mastocytosis, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, lymphoproliferative hypereosinophilic syndrome, and myeloproliferative hypereosinophilic syndrome...
May 2016: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
K Amin, C Janson, J Bystrom
Eosinophil granulocytes are intriguing members of the innate immunity system that have been considered important defenders during parasitic diseases as well as culprits during allergy-associated inflammatory diseases. Novel studies have, however, found new homoeostasis-maintaining roles for the cell. Recent clinical trials blocking different Th2 cytokines have uncovered that asthma is heterogeneous entity and forms different characteristic endotypes. Although eosinophils are present in allergic asthma with early onset, the cells may not be essential for the pathology...
August 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
William Varnado, Angela Johnson, Catherine O'Neal, Anthony Harton, Fred A Lopez
Hypereosinophillia is a rare clinical entity. It is associated with a wide differential diagnosis including neoplasm, infection, and allergic etiologies. Clinicians should have a well defined approach to hypereosinophilia in order to find treatable causes. We present a case of hypereosinophillia caused by parasitic infection with Toxocara canis. We also review epidemiology, transmission, microbiology, and management of Toxocara canis.
May 2015: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
Kelli W Williams, JeanAnne Ware, Annalise Abiodun, Nicole C Holland-Thomas, Paneez Khoury, Amy D Klion
BACKGROUND: The differential diagnosis of hypereosinophilia is broad and includes asthma, atopic disease, drug hypersensitivity, parasitic infection, connective tissue disorders, malignancy, and rare hypereosinophilic disorders. Hypereosinophilia in children has not been well characterized to date. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the common causes of marked eosinophilia in children and to characterize and compare the clinical symptoms at presentation, laboratory findings, final diagnosis, and therapeutic responses between children and adults with hypereosinophilic syndromes...
September 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
L Janicova, J Rzepecka, D T Rodgers, J Doonan, K S Bell, F E Lumb, C J Suckling, M M Harnett, W Harnett
ES-62 is a glycoprotein secreted by the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae that protects against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway hyper-responsiveness in mice by virtue of covalently attached anti-inflammatory phosphorylcholine (PC) residues. We have recently generated a library of small molecule analogues (SMAs) of ES-62 based around its active PC moiety as a starting point in novel drug development for asthma and identified two compounds - termed 11a and 12b - that mirror ES-62's protective effects...
June 2016: Parasite Immunology
Pamela Y Chan, Eugenio A Carrera Silva, Dimitri De Kouchkovsky, Leonel D Joannas, Liming Hao, Donglei Hu, Scott Huntsman, Celeste Eng, Paula Licona-Limón, Jason S Weinstein, De'Broski R Herbert, Joseph E Craft, Richard A Flavell, Silvia Repetto, Jorge Correale, Esteban G Burchard, Dara G Torgerson, Sourav Ghosh, Carla V Rothlin
Host responses against metazoan parasites or an array of environmental substances elicit type 2 immunity. Despite its protective function, type 2 immunity also drives allergic diseases. The mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of the type 2 response remain largely unknown. Here, we show that genetic ablation of a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded byTyro3in mice or the functional neutralization of its ortholog in human dendritic cells resulted in enhanced type 2 immunity. Furthermore, the TYRO3 agonist PROS1 was induced in T cells by the quintessential type 2 cytokine, interleukin-4...
April 1, 2016: Science
Marco Siderius, Anitha Shanmugham, Paul England, Tiffany van der Meer, Jan Paul Bebelman, Antoni R Blaazer, Iwan J P de Esch, Rob Leurs
In the past decade, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor-based technology has been exploited more and more to characterize the interaction between drug targets and small-molecule modulators. Here, we report the successful application of SPR methodology for the analysis of small-molecule binding to two therapeutically relevant cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs), Trypanosoma brucei PDEB1 which is implicated in African sleeping sickness and human PDE4D which is implicated in a plethora of disease conditions including inflammatory pulmonary disorders such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and central nervous system (CNS) disorders...
June 15, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
Naglaa M Shalaby, Nehad M Shalaby
Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and ascariasis symptoms. Stool samples were examined using formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Sera of 60 A. lumbricoides-infected children and 20 controls were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Melissa H Bloodworth, Dawn C Newcomb, Daniel E Dulek, Matthew T Stier, Jacqueline Y Cephus, Jian Zhang, Kasia Goleniewska, Jay K Kolls, R Stokes Peebles
γδ T cells are prevalent at mucosal and epithelial surfaces and are a critical first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. γδ17 cells are a subset of γδ T cells which, in the presence of IL-23 and IL-1β, produce large quantities of interleukin-17A (IL-17A), a cytokine crucial to these cells' antibacterial and antifungal function. STAT6, an important transcription factor in Th2 differentiation and inhibition of Th1 differentiation, is expressed at high levels in the T cells of people with parasitic infections and asthma...
May 2016: Infection and Immunity
Hermelijn H Smits, Pieter S Hiemstra, Clarissa Prazeres da Costa, Markus Ege, Michael Edwards, Holger Garn, Peter H Howarth, Tuomas Jartti, Esther C de Jong, Rick M Maizels, Ben J Marsland, Henry J McSorley, Anne Müller, Petra I Pfefferle, Huub Savelkoul, Jürgen Schwarze, Wendy W J Unger, Erika von Mutius, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Christian Taube
The worldwide incidence and prevalence of asthma continues to increase. Asthma is now understood as an umbrella term for different phenotypes or endotypes, which arise through different pathophysiologic pathways. Understanding the many factors contributing to development of the disease is important for the identification of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of certain asthma phenotypes. The hygiene hypothesis has been formulated to explain the increasing prevalence of allergic disease, including asthma...
March 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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