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parasites and asthma

Dimity H Ball, Lamyaa Al-Riyami, William Harnett, Margaret M Harnett
ES-62 is a secreted parasitic worm-derived immunomodulator that exhibits therapeutic potential in allergy by downregulating aberrant MyD88 signalling to normalise the inflammatory phenotype and mast cell responses. IL-33 plays an important role in driving mast cell responses and promoting type-2 allergic inflammation, particularly with respect to asthma, via MyD88-integrated crosstalk amongst the IL-33 receptor (ST2), TLR4 and FcεRI. We have now investigated whether ES-62 targets this pathogenic network by subverting ST2-signalling, specifically by characterising how the functional outcomes of crosstalk amongst ST2, TLR4 and FcεRI are modulated by the worm product in wild type and ST2-deficient mast cells...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Akane Tanaka, Venkata Sita Rama Raju Allam, Jennifer Simpson, Natalia Tiberti, Jenna Shiels, Joyce To, Maria Lund, Valery Combes, Sinead Weldon, Cliff Taggart, John P Dalton, Simon Phipps, Maria B Sukkar, Sheila Donnelly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Magdalena Sadyś, Joanna Kaczmarek, Agnieszka Grinn-Gofron, Victoria Rodinkova, Alex Prikhodko, Elena Bilous, Agnieszka Strzelczak, Robert J Herbert, Malgorzata Jedryczka
The genus Leptosphaeria contains numerous fungi that cause the symptoms of asthma and also parasitize wild and crop plants. In search of a robust and universal forecast model, the ascospore concentration in air was measured and weather data recorded from 1 March to 31 October between 2006 and 2012. The experiment was conducted in three European countries of the temperate climate, i.e., Ukraine, Poland, and the UK. Out of over 150 forecast models produced using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and multivariate regression trees (MRTs), we selected the best model for each site, as well as for joint two-site combinations...
January 27, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Everett K Henry, Juan M Inclan-Rico, Mark C Siracusa
Purpose of Review: It is well established that T helper type 2 (TH 2) immune responses are necessary to provide protection against helminth parasites but also to promote the detrimental inflammation associated with allergies and asthma. Given the importance of type 2 immunity and inflammation, many studies have focused on better understanding the factors that regulate TH 2 cell development and activation. As a result, significant progress has been made in understanding the signaling pathways and molecular events necessary to promote TH 2 cell polarization...
December 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
Christian Schwartz, Emily Hams, Padraic G Fallon
Parasitic helminths must establish chronic infections to complete their life cycle and therefore are potent modulators of multiple facets of host physiology. Parasitic helminths have coevolved with humans to become arguably master selectors of our immune system, whereby they have impacted on the selection of genes with beneficial mutations for both host and parasite. While helminth infections of humans are a significant health burden, studies have shown that helminths or helminth products can alter susceptibility to unrelated infectious or inflammatory diseases...
January 12, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Zhenyu Wu, Lifu Wang, Yanlai Tang, Xi Sun
The morbidity associated with atopic diseases and immune dysregulation disorders such as asthma, food allergies, multiple sclerosis, atopic dermatitis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease has been increasing all around the world over the past few decades. Although the roles of non-biological environmental factors and genetic factors in the etiopathology have been particularly emphasized, they do not fully explain the increase; for example, genetic factors in a population change very gradually...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rinkesh Kumar Gupta, Kriti Gupta, Premendra D Dwivedi
Allergic diseases are among common clinical conditions, affecting millions of children and adults throughout the world. Food allergies, skin allergies (atopic dermatitis), and respiratory allergies (allergic rhinitis and asthma) are the common types of allergies. Recently discovered cytokines IL-17 and IL-33 have been found to play an important role in the pathogenicity of various hypersensitive disorders. After exposure to allergens or infection with parasites or viruses, IL-17 and IL-33 producing cells, such as Th17 and specialized epithelial cells respectively, become activated and trigger the pathogenic immune responses in different susceptible conditions...
December 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Felix Reyes, Navneet Singh, Nigar Anjuman-Khurram, Jihae Lee, Lillian Chow
Citrobacter koseri is a gram-negative bacillius that belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is an uncommon pathogen that typically causes meningitis and brain abscesses in children, however central nervous system (CNS) infections are rarely found in adults. We present a case of C. koseri meningitis in an immunocompetent adult secondary to intestinal micro-perforation caused by Strongyloides A 76-year-old man admitted for asthma exacerbation developed septic shock. A lumbar puncture revealed bacterial meningitis...
2017: IDCases
Philip J Cooper, Martha E Chico, Maritza G Vaca, Carlos A Sandoval, Sofia Loor, Leila Amorim, Laura C Rodrigues, Mauricio L Barreto, David P Strachan
RATIONALE: Exposures to geohelminths during gestation or early childhood may reduce risk of wheezing illness/asthma and atopy during childhood in tropical regions. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of maternal and early childhood geohelminths on development of wheeze/asthma and atopy during the first 5 years of life. METHODS: Cohort of 2,404 neonates followed to 5 years of age in rural District in coastal Ecuador. Data on wheeze collected by questionnaire and atopy measured by allergen skin prick test reactivity to 9 allergens at 5 years...
September 28, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
E Toniato, I Frydas, I Robuffo, G Ronconi, Al Caraffa, S K Kritas, P Conti
Adaptive immune response plays an important role against bacteria and parasites, a reaction that also involves mast cell (MC) activation which participates in innate and adaptive immunity. In allergic reactions there is a TH2 immune response with generation of allergen-specific IgE antibodies. In MCs, IgE cross-link FcRI high affinity receptor and activate tyrosine kinase proteins, leading to stimulation of NF-κB and AP-1 resulting in the release of a number of cytokines/chemokines and other compounds. Through their proteolytic pathways, MCs may process the antigen for presentation to CD4+ cells which release TH2 cytokines and growth factors, which play an important role in asthma, allergy, anaphylaxis and inflammation...
July 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Sophie Laffont, Eve Blanquart, Jean-Charles Guéry
Infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, and also allergy differentially affect women and men. In general, women develop strongest immune responses and thus the proportion of infected individuals and the severity of many viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections are increased in men. However, heightened immunity in women makes them more susceptible than men to autoimmunity and allergy. While sex differences in immunity are well documented, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these immunological differences, particularly in allergic asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
C M Finlay, A M Stefanska, M M Coleman, H Jahns, J P Cassidy, R M McLoughlin, K H G Mills
There is evidence from epidemiology studies of a negative association between infection with helminth parasites and the development of allergy and asthma. Here, we demonstrate that the excretory/secretory products of the helminth Fasciola hepatica (FHES) protected mice against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma when administered at time of allergen sensitization. FHES reduced the accumulation of mucus, eosinophils and lymphocytes into the airways of allergen-challenged mice. Furthermore, FHES treatment suppressed Th2 responses in the airways...
August 16, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Glaucia A Thompson-Souza, Isabella Gropillo, Josiane S Neves
Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs), LTC4, and its extracellular metabolites, LTD4 and LTE4, have varied and multiple roles in mediating eosinophilic disorders including host defense against parasitic helminthes and allergic inflammation, especially in the lung and in asthma. CysLTs are known to act through at least 2 receptors termed cysLT1 receptor (CysLT1R) and cysLT2 receptor (CysLT2R). Eosinophils contain a dominant population of cytoplasmic crystalloid granules that store various preformed proteins. Human eosinophils are sources of cysLTs and are known to express the two known cysLTs receptors (CysLTRs)...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
Thavy Long, Liliana Rojo-Arreola, Da Shi, Nelly El-Sakkary, Kurt Jarnagin, Fernando Rock, Maliwan Meewan, Alberto A Rascón, Lin Lin, Katherine A Cunningham, George A Lemieux, Larissa Podust, Ruben Abagyan, Kaveh Ashrafi, James H McKerrow, Conor R Caffrey
BACKGROUND: Reliance on just one drug to treat the prevalent tropical disease, schistosomiasis, spurs the search for new drugs and drug targets. Inhibitors of human cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (huPDEs), including PDE4, are under development as novel drugs to treat a range of chronic indications including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and Alzheimer's disease. One class of huPDE4 inhibitors that has yielded marketed drugs is the benzoxaboroles (Anacor Pharmaceuticals)...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Lin Wuhao, Chen Ran, He Xujin, Wu Zhongdao, Paron Dekumyoy, Lv Zhiyue
Nowadays, many studies have found low morbidity of asthma in epidemic areas of parasitic diseases, as shown by the hygiene hypothesis. It is obvious that some parasite infections can prevent asthma and studies have been carried out to clarify the mechanism of the preventive effect and search for the future asthmatic therapies. Previous findings have indicated that this mechanism may be related to the immune response switching from Th1 to Th2 and important cells induced by parasites, including the regulatory T cells, regulatory B cells, dendrite cells, and alternatively activated macrophages...
July 8, 2017: Parasitology Research
Sugan Qiu, Xiaolin Fan, Yingying Yang, Panpan Dong, Wei Zhou, Yongliang Xu, Yonghua Zhou, Fukun Guo, Yi Zheng, Jun-Qi Yang
The "hygiene hypothesis" is a theory try to explain the dramatic increases in the prevalence of autoimmune and allergic diseases over the past two to three decades in developed countries. According to this theory, reduced exposure to parasites and microorganisms in childhood is the main cause for the increased incidences of both T helper 1 (Th1)-mediated autoimmunity and Th2-mediated allergy. In this study, we investigated the impact of Schistosoma japonicum infection on the allergic airway inflammation induced by repeated intracheal inoculations of house dust mites (HDM), which is a Th17 and neutrophils dominant murine asthma model, mimicking severe asthma...
2017: PloS One
Nicola L Diny, Noel R Rose, Daniela Čiháková
Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases, neuromyelitis optica, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune myocarditis, primary biliary cirrhosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and other autoimmune diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Wilmer Gerardo Rojas-Zuleta, Elizabeth Sanchez
IL-9 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced in different amounts by a wide variety of cells including mast cells, NKT cells, Th2, Th17, Treg, ILC2, and Th9 cells. Th9 cells are considered to be the main CD4+ T cells that produce IL-9. IL-9 exerts its effects on multiple types of cells and different tissues. To date, its main role has been found in the immune responses against parasites and pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity. Additionally, it induces the proliferation of hematologic neoplasias, including Hodgkin's lymphoma in humans...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Nopporn Apiwattanakul, Maneesha Palipane, Amali Eashani Samarasinghe
Parasite infections in the developing world have been considered to promote resistance to immune-mediated diseases such as asthma. Mouse studies have shown that helminths and their products reduce the development of allergic asthma. Since epidemiologic studies that show similar protection are in relation to geohelminth infections that occur in early life, we hypothesized that the parasite-mediated protection against asthma may differ by age. Mice infected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus at 3-weeks of age had similar asthma phenotype compared to mice infected at 28-weeks of age wherein airway eosinophilia was unaltered but tissue inflammation and GC metaplasia were reduced...
July 2017: Cellular Immunology
A A Al-Khami, M A Ghonim, L Del Valle, S V Ibba, L Zheng, K Pyakurel, S C Okpechi, J Garay, D Wyczechowska, M D Sanchez-Pino, P C Rodriguez, A H Boulares, A C Ochoa
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence has shown the close link between energy metabolism and the differentiation, function, and longevity of immune cells. Chronic inflammatory conditions such as parasitic infections and cancer trigger a metabolic reprogramming from the preferential use of glucose to the up-regulation of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in myeloid cells, including macrophages and granulocytic and monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition where macrophages, eosinophils, and polymorphonuclear cells play an important role in its pathophysiology...
September 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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