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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151197/impact-of-the-dapivirine-vaginal-ring-on-sexual-experiences-and-intimate-partnerships-of-women-in-an-hiv-prevention-clinical-trial-managing-ring-detection-and-hot-sex
#1
Nicole D Laborde, Elizabeth Pleasants, Krishnaveni Reddy, Millicent Atujuna, Teopista Nakyanzi, Miria Chitukuta, Sarita Naidoo, Thesla Palanee-Phillips, Jared M Baeten, Elizabeth T Montgomery
Vaginally-inserted HIV prevention methods have been reported to impact the sexual experience for women and their partners, and hence impacts acceptability of and adherence to the method. We analyzed in-depth interviews and focus group discussions about participants' sexual experiences while wearing the ring, collected during the MTN-020/ASPIRE phase 3 safety and effectiveness trial of a dapivirine vaginal ring for HIV prevention in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Most women reported that partners did not feel the ring during sex, however, women felt they had to manage their partners' interaction with or reaction to the ring...
November 18, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150967/drug-delivery-strategies-for-chemoprevention-of-uvb%C3%A2-induced-skin-cancer-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Arvind Bagde, Arindam Mondal, Mandip Singh
Annually, more skin cancer cases are diagnosed than the collective incidence of the colon, lung, breast and prostate cancer. Persistent contact with sunlight is a primary cause for all the skin malignancies. UVB radiation induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the skin which eventually leads to DNA damage and mutation. Various delivery approaches for the skin cancer treatment/prevention have been evolving and are directed towards improvements in terms of delivery modes, therapeutic agents and site-specificity of therapeutics delivery...
November 18, 2017: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150867/near-infrared-diffuse-reflectance-signals-for-monitoring-spreading-depolarizations-and-progression-of-the-lesion-in-a-male-rat-focal-cerebral-ischemia-model
#3
Satoko Kawauchi, Izumi Nishidate, Hiroshi Nawashiro, Shunichi Sato
In ischemic stroke research, a better understanding of the pathophysiology and development of neuroprotection methods are crucial, for which in vivo imaging to monitor spreading depolarizations (SDs) and evolution of tissue damage is desired. Since these events are accompanied by cellular morphological changes, light-scattering signals, which are sensitive to cellular and subcellular morphology, can be used for monitoring them. In this study, we performed transcranial imaging of near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance at ∼800 nm, which sensitively reflects light-scattering change, and examined how NIR reflectance is correlated with simultaneously measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) for a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150709/simultaneous-detection-of-nadph-consumption-and-h2o2-production-using-the-ampliflu%C3%A2-red-assay-for-screening-of-p450-activities-and-uncoupling
#4
Lisa K Morlock, Dominique Böttcher, Uwe T Bornscheuer
Cytochrome P450s belong to a large and diverse group of heme-containing enzymes. These monooxygenases catalyze the incorporation of a single atom of molecular oxygen into their substrate. In contrast to most other enzymes, the activity of P450 enzymes is not only dependent on substrate and cofactor availability and reaction conditions, but also depends on the coupling efficiency of the catalytic cycle itself. Through the electron transfer from NAD(P)H to the heme-center of the P450, the enzyme becomes activated and binds oxygen...
November 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150623/effective-mechanical-properties-of-multilayer-nano-heterostructures
#5
T Mukhopadhyay, A Mahata, S Adhikari, M Asle Zaeem
Two-dimensional and quasi-two-dimensional materials are important nanostructures because of their exciting electronic, optical, thermal, chemical and mechanical properties. However, a single-layer nanomaterial may not possess a particular property adequately, or multiple desired properties simultaneously. Recently a new trend has emerged to develop nano-heterostructures by assembling multiple monolayers of different nanostructures to achieve various tunable desired properties simultaneously. For example, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2 show promising electronic and piezoelectric properties, but their low mechanical strength is a constraint for practical applications...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150594/mating-design-and-genetic-structure-of-a-multi-parent-advanced-generation-inter-cross-magic-population-of-sorghum-sorghum-bicolor-l-moench
#6
Patrick O Ongom, Gebisa Ejeta
MAGIC populations are powerful next generation mapping resources. We describe here the mating design and structure of the first MAGIC population in sorghum and test its utility for mapping. The population was developed by intercrossing 19 diverse founder lines, through a series of paired crosses with a genetic male sterile source, followed by 10 generations of random mating. At the final stage of random mating, one thousand random fertile plants in the population were identified and subjected to six generations of selfing to produce 1000 immortal MAGIC inbred lines...
November 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150186/articular-scaling-and-body-mass-estimation-in-platyrrhines-and-catarrhines-modern-variation-and-application-to-fossil-anthropoids
#7
Jonathan M G Perry, Siobhán B Cooke, Jacqueline A Runestad Connour, M Loring Burgess, Christopher B Ruff
Body mass is an important component of any paleobiological reconstruction. Reliable skeletal dimensions for making estimates are desirable but extant primate reference samples with known body masses are rare. We estimated body mass in a sample of extinct platyrrhines and Fayum anthropoids based on four measurements of the articular surfaces of the humerus and femur. Estimates were based on a large extant reference sample of wild-collected individuals with associated body masses, including previously published and new data from extant platyrrhines, cercopithecoids, and hominoids...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149946/organ-donation-a-comparison-of-donating-and-nondonating-families-in-turkey
#8
F Can, S Hovardaoglu
Based on public opinion surveys, although 75% of people state that they would donate the organs of one of their relatives, in reality, the rate of the people who donate the organs of their relatives is 24%. To decrease the organ shortage, the key point is to understand the difference between intention and real behavior. For this reason, in this study, analyses of variables related to the potential organ donor families' decisions of approval or refusal for organ harvesting were analyzed. The interviews were conducted with 101 families who made a decision about organ donation between 2010 and 2014...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149902/metabolism-of-aromatics-by-trichosporon-oleaginosus-while-remaining-oleaginous
#9
Allison Yaguchi, Alana Robinson, Erin Mihealsick, Mark Blenner
BACKGROUND: The oleaginous yeast, Trichosporon oleaginosus, has been extensively studied for its ability to metabolize non-conventional feedstocks. These include phenol-containing waste streams, such as distillery wastewater, or streams consisting of non-conventional sugars, such as hydrolyzed biomass and various bagasse. An initial BLAST search suggests this yeast has putative aromatic metabolizing genes. Given the desirability to valorize underutilized feedstocks such as lignin, we investigated the ability of T...
November 17, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149892/monitoring-of-long-lasting-insecticidal-nets-llins-coverage-versus-utilization-a-community-based-survey-in-malaria-endemic-villages-of-central-india
#10
Kamaraju Raghavendra, Mehul Kumar Chourasia, Dipak Kumar Swain, Rajendra M Bhatt, Sreehari Uragayala, G D P Dutta, Immo Kleinschmidt
BACKGROUND: Despite the known effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in providing protection against malaria, high level of ownership and use are very difficult to achieve and maintain. Nearly 40,000 LLINs were distributed in 2014 as an intervention tool against malaria transmission in 80 villages of Keshkal sub-district in Chhattisgarh, India. This study assessed LLIN coverage, access, utilization pattern, and key determinants for the net use 1 year after mass distribution...
November 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149765/sorption-desorption-of-antimony-species-onto-calcined-hydrotalcite-surface-structure-and-control-of-competitive-anions
#11
Leonel Vinicius Constantino, Juliana Nunes Quirino, Taufik Abrão, Paulo Sérgio Parreira, Alexandre Urbano, Maria Josefa Santos
Calcined hydrotalcite can be applied to remove anionic contaminants from aqueous systems such as antimony species due to its great anion exchange capacity and high surface area. Hence, this study evaluated antimonite and antimonate sorption-desorption processes onto calcined hydrotalcite in the presence of nitrate, sulfate and phosphate. Sorption and desorption experiments of antimonite and antimonate were carried out in batch equilibrium and the post-sorption solids were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149753/identifying-relapse-prevention-elements-during-psychological-treatment-of-depression-development-of-an-observer-based-rating-instrument
#12
Katja Machmutow, Martin Grosse Holtforth, Tobias Krieger, Birgit Watzke
BACKGROUND: Although observer-rated instruments assessing therapist's adherence to relapse-preventive treatments are available, they do not adequately cover specific relapse-preventive elements that focus on implementation of strategies after terminating treatment. This study describes the development of the KERI-D (Kodierbogen zur Erfassung Rückfallprophylaktischer Interventionen bei Depression/Coding System to Assess Interventions of Relapse Prevention in Depression). The KERI-D is a new observer-based rating tool for acute or continuation/maintenance-phase sessions and assesses relapse-prevention elements including implementation into patient's daily routines...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149605/bias-factor-and-therapeutic-window-correlate-to-predict-safer-opioid-analgesics
#13
Cullen L Schmid, Nicole M Kennedy, Nicolette C Ross, Kimberly M Lovell, Zhizhou Yue, Jenny Morgenweck, Michael D Cameron, Thomas D Bannister, Laura M Bohn
Biased agonism has been proposed as a means to separate desirable and adverse drug responses downstream of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) targets. Herein, we describe structural features of a series of mu-opioid-receptor (MOR)-selective agonists that preferentially activate receptors to couple to G proteins or to recruit βarrestin proteins. By comparing relative bias for MOR-mediated signaling in each pathway, we demonstrate a strong correlation between the respiratory suppression/antinociception therapeutic window in a series of compounds spanning a wide range of signaling bias...
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149587/%C3%A2-and-the-wisdom-to-know-the-difference-scholarly-success-from-a-wisdom-perspective
#14
Judith Glück
What makes a researcher wise? At least for the field of psychology, I argue that the two main characteristics of scholarly wisdom are a desire to understand, rather than to be right, and an orientation toward ethical values. These characteristics do not necessarily produce the highest levels of academic success. Because wisdom is partly context dependent, the actual wisdom of our scientific output could be increased by making some changes to our publication and evaluation culture-changes that might benefit our field and even the world around us...
November 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149571/imaging-and-spectroscopy-of-single-metal-nanostructure-absorption
#15
Anneli Joplin, Wei-Shun Chang, Stephan Link
The highly tunable optical properties of metal nanoparticles make them an ideal building block in any application that requires control over light, heat, or electrons on the nanoscale. Because of their size, metal nanoparticles both absorb and scatter light efficiently. Consequently, improving their performance often involves shifting the balance between absorption and scattering to promote desirable features of their optical properties. Scattering by single metal nanoparticles is commonly characterized using dark-field scattering spectroscopy, but routine methods to characterize pure absorption over a broad wavelength range are much more complex...
November 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149558/quantification-of-humic-substances-in-natural-water-using-nitrogen-doped-carbon-dots
#16
Yan-Fang Guan, Bao-Cheng Huang, Chen Qian, Han-Qing Yu
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is ubiquitous in aqueous environments and plays a significant role in pollutant mitigation, transformation and organic geochemical circulation. DOM is also capable of forming carcinogenic by-products in the disinfection treatment processes of drinking water. Thus, efficient methods for DOM quantification are highly desired. In this work, a novel sensor for rapid and selective detection of humic substances (HS), a key component of DOM, based on fluorescence quenching of nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots was developed...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149552/predicting-nano-bio-interactions-by-integrating-nanoparticle-libraries-and-quantitative-nanostructure-activity-relationship-modeling
#17
Wenyi Wang, Alexander Sedykh, Hainan Sun, Linlin Zhao, Daniel P Russo, Hongyu Zhou, Bing Yan, Hao Zhu
The discovery of biocompatible or bioactive nanoparticles for medicinal applications is an expensive and time-consuming process that may be significantly facilitated by incorporating more rational approaches combining both experimental and computational methods. However, it is currently hindered by two limitations: 1) the lack of high quality comprehensive data for computational modeling, and 2) the lack of an effective modeling method for the complex nanomaterial structures. In this study, we tackled both issues by first synthesizing a large library of nanoparticles and obtained comprehensive data on their characterizations and bioactivities...
November 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149540/controllable-synthesis-of-organic-microcrystals-with-tunable-emission-color-and-morphology-based-on-molecular-packing-mode
#18
Zhi-Zhou Li, Liang-Sheng Liao, Xue-Dong Wang
Organic microcrystals are of essential importance for high fluorescence efficiency, ordered molecular packing mode, minimized defects, and smooth shapes, which are extensively applied in organic optoelectronics. The molecular packing mode significantly influences the optical/electrical properties of organic microcrystals, which makes the controllable preparation of organic microcrystals with desired molecular packing mode extremely important. In the study, yellow-emissive α phase organic microcrystals with rectangular morphology and green-emissive β phase perylene microcrystals with rhombic morphology are separately prepared by simply controlling the solution concentration...
November 17, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149514/isolation-and-characterization-of-high-protein-and-phycocyanin-producing-mutants-of-arthrospira-platensis
#19
Geeta G Shirnalli, Manish S Kaushik, Ajay Kumar, Gerard Abraham, Pawan K Singh
Cyanobacteria are known to exhibit their efficiency in producing high concentrations of compounds of commercial value. Arthrospira is one such cyanobacterium which is considered as important source of protein (65%) and other nutrients. In present study, chemical mutagenesis using N-methyl-Ń-Nitro-nitrosoguanidine (NTG), a proven potent mutagen for cyanobacteria was used to bring stable and desirable alteration in Arthrospira platensis ARM 730. Three morphological mutants (G-1, G-2, and SF) were selected and characterized...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149462/a-multi-institutional-study-of-the-perceived-barriers-and-facilitators-to-implementing-evidence-based-practice
#20
Daphne C Duncombe
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The study aims were to examine perceived barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based practice among nurses working in psychiatric, geriatric, hospital and community settings in The Bahamas. BACKGROUND: It is evident from previous studies that a number of factors exist which either obstruct or promote the utilization of research evidence in nursing practice. Identifying these factors is vital to the successful uptake of evidence-based practice in nursing...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
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