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Nonmalignant hematology

Sophie C Ragbourne, Martin A Crook
Since its introduction more than 50 years ago, hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) has transformed from an inescapably fatal procedure to one where cure from malignant and other nonmalignant hematologic diseases is becoming increasingly common. Nevertheless, longevity is not entirely restored. New causes of mortality have emerged; of particular importance is that of increased cardiovascular disease (CVD), related to metabolic syndrome and its components. Controversy exists over whether the metabolic abnormalities induced are a direct effect of HSCT itself or a consequence of other therapies involved...
June 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
Andrew C Dietz, Sharon A Savage, Adrianna Vlachos, Parinda A Mehta, Dorine Bresters, Jakub Tolar, Carmem Bonfim, Jean Hugues Dalle, Josu de la Fuente, Roderick Skinner, Farid Boulad, Christine N Duncan, K Scott Baker, Michael A Pulsipher, Jeffrey M Lipton, John E Wagner, Blanche P Alter
Patients with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS), such as Fanconi anemia (FA), dyskeratosis congenita (DC), or Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA), can have hematologic manifestations cured through hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Subsequent late effects seen in these patients arise from a combination of the underlying disease, the pre-HCT therapy, and the HCT process. During the international consensus conference sponsored by the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium on late effects screening and recommendations following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for immune deficiency and nonmalignant hematologic diseases held in Minneapolis, Minnesota in May 2016, a half-day session was focused specifically on the unmet needs for these patients with IBMFS...
September 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Catherine E Foster, Morven S Edwards, Julienne Brackett, Deborah A Schady, C Mary Healy, Carol J Baker
Background.: Trichosporonosis is an emerging and often fatal opportunistic fungal infection in immunocompromised patients, particularly those with hematologic malignancy, but data in children are lacking. Methods.: We report here 3 cases of invasive infection caused by Trichosporon asahii in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at Texas Children's Hospital in Houston, Texas. We also conducted a literature review and identified 16 additional reports of pediatric patients with invasive T asahii infection and an underlying malignant or nonmalignant hematologic disorder...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
Waseem Iqbal, Abdulaziz Ajlan Alsalloom, Khalid Shehzad, Faisal Mughal, Zafar Rasheed
OBJECTIVES: Histiocytic hyperplasia with hemophagocytosis (HP) is relatively uncommon condition that has often been mistaken in the past for neoplastic disorders. This study was conducted to investigate the possible etiology of HP, its intensity in the bone marrow (BM), and also its effect on hematological parameters with the extent of disease activity. METHODS: Blood samples were collected and BM examination was performed in 250 patients with varied etiology showing HP...
January 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
B Sehgal, P George, M J John, C Samuel
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is a life-saving procedure for patients with several malignant and nonmalignant hematological disorders. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after HSCT. The aim of the study was to identify the incidence and outcomes of AKI associated with HSCT in our center. Sixty-six HSCT recipients from October 2008 to March 2014 at Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, were followed up till July 31, 2014. RIFLE criteria utilizing serum creatinine was used to diagnose and stage AKI...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Andrew C Dietz, Parinda A Mehta, Adrianna Vlachos, Sharon A Savage, Dorine Bresters, Jakub Tolar, Farid Boulad, Jean Hugues Dalle, Carmem Bonfim, Josu de la Fuente, Christine N Duncan, K Scott Baker, Michael A Pulsipher, Jeffrey M Lipton, John E Wagner, Blanche P Alter
Fanconi anemia (FA), dyskeratosis congenita (DC), and Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) are 3 of the most common inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS), in which the hematologic manifestations can be cured with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Later in life, these patients face a variety of medical conditions, which may be a manifestation of underlying disease or due to pre-HCT therapy, the HCT, or a combination of all these elements. Very limited long-term follow-up data exist in these populations, with FA the only IBMFS that has specific published data...
May 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Anurag K Singh, Joseph P McGuirk
The field of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) has made ground-breaking progress in the treatment of many malignant and nonmalignant conditions. It has also pioneered the concepts of stem cell therapy and immunotherapy as a tool against cancer. The success of transplant for hematologic malignancies derives both from the ability to treat patients with intensive chemoradiotherapy and from potent graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects mediated by donor immunity. Additionally, HSCT has been a curative therapy for several nonmalignant hematologic disorders through the provision of donor-derived hematopoiesis and immunity...
November 15, 2016: Cancer Research
Alberto Mussetti, Nancy A Kernan, Susan E Prockop, Andromachi Scaradavou, Rachel Lehrman, Julianne M Ruggiero, Kevin Curran, Rachel Kobos, Richard O'Reilly, Farid Boulad
Nonmalignant hematologic disorders (NMHD) of childhood comprise a variety of disorders, including acquired severe aplastic anemia and inherited marrow failure syndromes. Patients with high-risk NMHD without matched related donors fare poorly with allogeneic hematopoietic alternative donor stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and are at high risk for developing graft-versus-host disease following unmodified grafts. The authors retrospectively analyzed data on 18 patients affected by NMHD, lacking a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donor, who underwent an alternative donor allo-HSCT at their institution between April 2005 and May 2013...
September 2016: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
Geoffrey M Matthews, Ricardo de Matos Simoes, Eugen Dhimolea, Michal Sheffer, Sara Gandolfi, Olga Dashevsky, Jeffrey D Sorrell, Constantine S Mitsiades
The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factor family plays critical roles in the pathophysiology of hematologic neoplasias, including multiple myeloma. The current review examines the roles that this transcription factor system plays in multiple myeloma cells and the nonmalignant accessory cells of the local microenvironment; as well as the evidence indicating that a large proportion of myeloma patients harbor genomic lesions which perturb diverse genes regulating the activity of NF-κB. This article also discusses the therapeutic targeting of the NF-κB pathway using proteasome inhibitors, a pharmacological class that has become a cornerstone in the therapeutic management of myeloma; and reviews some of the future challenges and opportunities for NF-κB-related research in myeloma...
August 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Huy P Pham, Joseph Schwartz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Therapeutic apheresis can be used to treat many diseases. The American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) publishes Guidelines on the use of therapeutic apheresis every 3 years with the goal of providing the best available evidence for apheresis practice as well as clinical expertise. The 2016 (7th ed.) ASFA Guidelines contain 87 diseases (up from 78 in the 6th ed.) and 179 indications. This review outlines three new therapeutic apheresis indications for hematological disorders...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Hematology
Kevon Parmesar, Kavita Raj
Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a well-established treatment option for both hematological malignancies and nonmalignant conditions such as aplastic anemia and haemoglobinopathies. For those patients lacking a suitable matched sibling or matched unrelated donor, haploidentical donors are an alternative expedient donor pool. Historically, haploidentical transplantation led to high rates of graft rejection and GVHD. Strategies to circumvent these issues include T cell depletion and management of complications thereof or T replete transplants with GVHD prophylaxis...
2016: Advances in Hematology
Stevan A Gonzalez, Robert P Perrillo
Hepatitis B virus reactivation (HBVr) is an important complication of immunosuppressive drug therapy (ISDT). It can occur with active or resolved hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with a clinical spectrum that ranges from mild elevations in liver tests to fulminant hepatic failure. The risk of it occurring is determined by the interplay between HBV serological status, level of viremia, and the immunosuppressive potency of the drug(s) used. Reactivation is most common during treatment of hematologic malignancies but also occurs with chemotherapy for breast cancer and numerous other solid organ malignancies, organ transplant, and immune suppression for nonmalignant conditions...
June 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Mélanie Juilland, Margot Thome
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The CARMA1/BCL10/MALT1 (CBM) complex is a multimeric signaling complex controlling several important aspects of lymphocyte activation. Gain-of-function mutations in the genes encoding CBM proteins or their upstream regulators are associated with lymphoid malignancies, whereas loss-of-function mutations lead to immunodeficiency. This review reports on recent findings advancing our understanding of how CBM proteins contribute to malignant and nonmalignant hematological diseases in humans...
July 2016: Current Opinion in Hematology
Li Zhang, Ling Pan, Bing Xiang, Huanling Zhu, Yu Wu, Meng Chen, Pujun Guan, Xingli Zou, C Alexander Valencia, Biao Dong, Jianjun Li, Liping Xie, Hongbing Ma, Fangfang Wang, Tian Dong, Xiao Shuai, Ting Niu, Ting Liu
Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic neoplasms and an appropriate in vivo environment for myeloma cells has potential implications for initiation, progression, and metastasis of MM. Exosomes, entities carrying microRNAs (miRNAs) to target locations, participate in the cross-talk between myeloma cells and nonmalignant components of the in vivo environment. This study disclosed the emerging roles of circulating exosome-associated miRNAs in drug resistance (DR) of MM. To this end, the medical records of consecutively hospitalized MM patients, who received novel agents-based therapies, were analyzed...
May 24, 2016: Oncotarget
Sophie Servais, Yves Beguin, Loic Delens, Grégory Ehx, Gilles Fransolet, Muriel Hannon, Evelyne Willems, Stéphanie Humblet-Baron, Ludovic Belle, Frédéric Baron
INTRODUCTION: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) offers potential curative treatment for a wide range of malignant and nonmalignant hematological disorders. However, its success may be limited by post-transplant acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), a systemic syndrome in which donor's immune cells attack healthy tissues in the immunocompromised host. aGVHD is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality after alloHSCT. Despite standard GVHD prophylaxis regimens, aGVHD still develops in approximately 40-60% of alloHSCT recipients...
August 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Andrew D Boyd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Giuseppe Miscio, Andrea Fontana, Massimiliano Copetti, Massimo Francavilla, Alberto Bosi, Federico Perfetto, Alice Valoriani, Angelo De Cata, Michele Santodirocco, Angela Totaro, Rosa Rubino, Lazzaro di Mauro, Roberto Tarquini
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent mesenchymal cells useful for treatment in malignant/nonmalignant hematologic-immunologic diseases and regenerative medicine. Transplantation outcome is correlated with cord blood volume (CBV), number of total nucleated cells (TNC), CD34+ progenitor cells and colony forming units in UCB donations. Several studies have addressed the role of maternal/neonatal factors associated with the hematopoietic reconstruction potential of UCB, including: gestational age, maternal parity, newborn sex and birth weight, placental weight, labor duration and mode of delivery...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jacquelyn M Lykken, Mayuka Horikawa, Veronique Minard-Colin, Masahiro Kamata, Tomomitsu Miyagaki, Jonathan C Poe, Thomas F Tedder
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most commonly diagnosed hematologic cancer of adults in the United States, with the vast majority of NHLs deriving from malignant B lymphocytes that express cell surface CD20. CD20 immunotherapy (rituximab) is widely used to treat NHL, even though the initial effectiveness of rituximab varies widely among patients and typically wanes over time. The mechanisms through which lymphomas initially resist or gain resistance to immunotherapy are not well established. To address this, a preclinical mouse model system was developed to comprehensively identify lymphoma transcriptomic changes that confer resistance to CD20 immunotherapy...
April 14, 2016: Blood
Somy Yoon, Gwang Hyeon Eom
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are epigenetic regulators that regulate the histone tail, chromatin conformation, protein-DNA interaction, and even transcription. HDACs are also post-transcriptional modifiers that regulate the protein acetylation implicated in several pathophysiologic states. HDAC inhibitors have been highlighted as a novel category of anti-cancer drugs. To date, four HDAC inhibitors, Vorinostat, Romidepsin, Panobinostat, and Belinostat, have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration...
January 2016: Chonnam Medical Journal
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