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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor AND multiple sclerosis

Veit Rothhammer, Davis M Borucki, Emily C Tjon, Maisa C Takenaka, Chun-Cheih Chao, Alberto Ardura-Fabregat, Kalil Alves de Lima, Cristina Gutiérrez-Vázquez, Patrick Hewson, Ori Staszewski, Manon Blain, Luke Healy, Tradite Neziraj, Matilde Borio, Michael Wheeler, Loic Lionel Dragin, David A Laplaud, Jack Antel, Jorge Ivan Alvarez, Marco Prinz, Francisco J Quintana
Microglia and astrocytes modulate inflammation and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system (CNS)1-3 . Microglia modulate pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic activities in astrocytes, but the mechanisms involved are not completely understood4,5 . Here we report that TGFα and VEGF-B produced by microglia regulate the pathogenic activities of astrocytes in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Microglia-derived TGFα acts via the ErbB1 receptor in astrocytes to limit their pathogenic activities and EAE development...
May 16, 2018: Nature
Veit Rothhammer, Davis M Borucki, Jessica E Kenison, Patrick Hewson, Zhongyan Wang, Rohit Bakshi, David H Sherr, Francisco J Quintana
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor with important functions in the immune response and cancer. AHR agonists are provided by the environment, the commensal flora and the metabolism. Considering AHR physiological functions, AHR agonists may have important effects on health and disease. Thus, the quantification of AHR agonists in biological samples is of scientific and clinical relevance. We compared different reporter systems for the detection of AHR agonists in serum samples of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients, and assessed the influence of transfection methods and cell lines in a reporter-based in vitro assay...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael A Wheeler, Francisco J Quintana
Astrocytes play complex roles in health and disease. Here, we review recent findings on molecular pathways that control astrocyte function in multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as new tools for their investigation. In particular, we describe positive and negative regulators of astrocyte-mediated pathogenesis in MS, such as sphingolipid metabolism and aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, respectively. In addition, we also discuss the issue of astrocyte heterogeneity and its relevance for the contribution of astrocytes to MS pathogenesis...
January 22, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Agnieszka Wnuk, Małgorzata Kajta
Apoptosis and autophagy are involved in neural development and in the response of the nervous system to a variety of insults. Apoptosis is responsible for cell elimination, whereas autophagy can eliminate the cells or keep them alive, even in conditions lacking trophic factors. Therefore, both processes may function synergistically or antagonistically. Steroid and xenobiotic receptors are regulators of apoptosis and autophagy; however, their actions in various pathologies are complex. In general, the estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors mediate anti-apoptotic signalling, whereas the androgen (AR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors participate in pro-apoptotic pathways...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Igor Selmaj, Maria Cichalewska, Magdalena Namiecinska, Grazyna Galazka, Wojciech Horzelski, Krzysztof W Selmaj, Marcin P Mycko
OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence supports a role for exosomes in immune regulation. In this study, we investigated the total circulating exosome transcriptome in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Next generation sequencing (NGS) was used to define the global RNA profile of serum exosomes in 19 RRMS patients (9 in relapse, 10 in remission) and 10 HC. We analyzed 5 million reads and >50,000 transcripts per sample, including a detailed analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs) differentially expressed in RRMS...
May 2017: Annals of Neurology
Joel Kaye, Victor Piryatinsky, Tal Birnberg, Tal Hingaly, Emanuel Raymond, Rina Kashi, Einat Amit-Romach, Ignacio S Caballero, Fadi Towfic, Mark A Ator, Efrat Rubinstein, Daphna Laifenfeld, Aric Orbach, Doron Shinar, Yael Marantz, Iris Grossman, Volker Knappertz, Michael R Hayden, Ralph Laufer
Laquinimod is an oral drug currently being evaluated for the treatment of relapsing, remitting, and primary progressive multiple sclerosis and Huntington's disease. Laquinimod exerts beneficial activities on both the peripheral immune system and the CNS with distinctive changes in CNS resident cell populations, especially astrocytes and microglia. Analysis of genome-wide expression data revealed activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway in laquinimod-treated mice. The AhR pathway modulates the differentiation and function of several cell populations, many of which play an important role in neuroinflammation...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Maria Aggelakopoulou, Evangelia Kourepini, Nikolaos Paschalidis, Davina C M Simoes, Dimitra Kalavrizioti, Nikolaos Dimisianos, Panagiotis Papathanasopoulos, Athanasia Mouzaki, Vily Panoutsakopoulou
Multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the CNS, is mediated by autoreactive Th cells. A previous study showed that the neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), when administered preclinically, could suppress progression of relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the effects of DHEA on human or murine pathogenic immune cells, such as Th17, were unknown. In addition, effects of this neurosteroid on symptomatic disease, as well as the receptors involved, had not been investigated...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Atsushi Kadowaki, Sachiko Miyake, Ryoko Saga, Asako Chiba, Hideki Mochizuki, Takashi Yamamura
The gut environment has been found to significantly influence autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis; however, immune cell mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that the gut epithelium of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein(35-55)-specific T-cell receptor transgenic mice contains environmental stimuli-induced intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) that inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis on transfer. These cells express surface markers phenotypical of 'induced' IELs, have a TH17-like profile and infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 20, 2016: Nature Communications
Maria Aggelakopoulou, Evangelia Kourepini, Nikolaos Paschalidis, Vily Panoutsakopoulou
The development of therapies for multiple sclerosis targeting pathogenic T cell responses remains imperative. Previous studies have shown that estrogen receptor (ER) β ligands could inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. However, the effects of ERβ-specific ligands on human or murine pathogenic immune cells, such as Th17, were not investigated. In this article, we show that the synthetic ERβ-specific ligand 4-(2-phenyl-5,7-bis[trifluoromethyl]pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl)phenol (PHTPP) reversed established paralysis and CNS inflammation, characterized by a dramatic suppression of pathogenic Th responses as well as induction of IL-10-producing regulatory CD4(+) T cell subsets in vivo...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Veit Rothhammer, Ivan D Mascanfroni, Lukas Bunse, Maisa C Takenaka, Jessica E Kenison, Lior Mayo, Chun-Cheih Chao, Bonny Patel, Raymond Yan, Manon Blain, Jorge I Alvarez, Hania Kébir, Niroshana Anandasabapathy, Guillermo Izquierdo, Steffen Jung, Nikolaus Obholzer, Nathalie Pochet, Clary B Clish, Marco Prinz, Alexandre Prat, Jack Antel, Francisco J Quintana
Astrocytes have important roles in the central nervous system (CNS) during health and disease. Through genome-wide analyses we detected a transcriptional response to type I interferons (IFN-Is) in astrocytes during experimental CNS autoimmunity and also in CNS lesions from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). IFN-I signaling in astrocytes reduces inflammation and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) disease scores via the ligand-activated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2)...
June 2016: Nature Medicine
Eun-Ju Yang, John V Stokes, Evangel Kummari, Jeffrey Eells, Barbara L F Kaplan
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by demyelination of neurons in the central nervous system. To investigate the pathogenicity of various T cell types in MS, especially IFN-γ- or IL-17-producing CD4(+ )cells (TH1 or TH17 cells, respectively), the mouse model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), is commonly used. One method by which EAE is induced is immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide (MOG35-55) followed by subsequent injections of pertussis toxin (PTX) as an adjuvant...
May 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Yazhong Tao, Xin Zhang, Robert Zivadinov, Michael G Dwyer, Cheryl Kennedy, Niels Bergsland, Deepa Ramasamy, Jacqueline Durfee, David Hojnacki, Brooke Hayward, Fernando Dangond, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Silva Markovic-Plese
OBJECTIVES: To assess potential roles of effector cells and immunologic markers in demyelinating CNS lesion formation, and their modulation by interferon β-1a (IFN-β-1a). METHODS: Twenty-three patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) received IFN-β-1a for 6 months. Immunologic marker results were correlated with brain MRI lesion volumes, and volumes of normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT) with decreasing or increasing voxel-wise magnetization transfer ratio (VW-MTR), suggestive of demyelination and remyelination, respectively...
December 2015: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Chiara Redaelli, Ece Cazibe Gaffarogullari, Maik Brune, Caroline Pilz, Simon Becker, Jana Sonner, Andres Jäschke, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Wolfgang Wick, Michael Platten, Tobias Volker Lanz
The intracellular transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is bound and activated by xenobiotics, thereby promoting their catabolism by inducing expression of cytochrome P450 oxidase (CYP) genes through binding xenobiotic response elements (XRE) in their promoter region. In addition, it is involved in several cellular pathways like cell proliferation, differentiation, regeneration, tumor invasiveness and immune responses. Several pharmaceutical compounds like benzimidazoles activate the AHR and induce their own metabolic degradation...
December 1, 2015: Biochemical Pharmacology
Mariko Takami, Kotaro Fujimaki, Michael I Nishimura, Makio Iwashima
The immunoregulatory functions of vitamin D have been well documented in various immunological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, arthritis, and asthma. IL-10 is considered a chief effector molecule that promotes the vitamin D-induced immunosuppressive states of T cells and accessory cells. In this article, we demonstrate that the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), has a profound inhibitory effect on the development of human Th9, a CD4 T cell subset that is highly associated with asthma, in an IL-10-independent manner...
September 15, 2015: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Zsuzsanna Bohár, József Toldi, Ferenc Fülöp, László Vécsei
Kynurenines are the products of tryptophan metabolism. Among them, kynurenine and kynurenic acid are generally thought to have neuroprotective properties, while 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and quinolinic acid are considered neurotoxic. They participate in immunoregulation and inflammation and possess pro- or anti-excitotoxic properties, and their involvement in oxidative stress has also been suggested. Consequently, it is not surprising that kynurenines have been closely related to neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis...
April 29, 2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nathalie Muls, Hong Anh Dang, Christian J M Sindic, Vincent van Pesch
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) likely results from an imbalance between regulatory and inflammatory immune processes. CD39 is an ectoenzyme that cleaves ATP to AMP and has been suggested as a novel regulatory T cells (Treg) marker. As ATP has numerous proinflammatory effects, its degradation by CD39 has anti-inflammatory influence. The purpose of this study was to explore regulatory and inflammatory mechanisms activated in fingolimod treated MS patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from relapsing-remitting MS patients before starting fingolimod and three months after therapy start...
2014: PloS One
Taisuke Nakahama, Hamza Hanieh, Nam Trung Nguyen, Ichino Chinen, Barry Ripley, David Millrine, Soyoung Lee, Kishan Kumar Nyati, Praveen Kumar Dubey, Kamal Chowdhury, Yukio Kawahara, Tadamitsu Kishimoto
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays critical roles in various autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis by controlling interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing T-helper (TH17) and regulatory T cells. Although various transcription factors and cytokines have been identified as key participants in TH17 generation, the role of microRNAs in this process is poorly understood. In this study, we found that expression of the microRNA (miR)-132/212 cluster is up-regulated by AHR activation under TH17-inducing, but not regulatory T-inducing conditions...
July 16, 2013: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rosella Mechelli, Renato Umeton, Claudia Policano, Viviana Annibali, Giulia Coarelli, Vito A G Ricigliano, Danila Vittori, Arianna Fornasiero, Maria Chiara Buscarinu, Silvia Romano, Marco Salvetti, Giovanni Ristori
Though difficult, the study of gene-environment interactions in multifactorial diseases is crucial for interpreting the relevance of non-heritable factors and prevents from overlooking genetic associations with small but measurable effects. We propose a "candidate interactome" (i.e. a group of genes whose products are known to physically interact with environmental factors that may be relevant for disease pathogenesis) analysis of genome-wide association data in multiple sclerosis. We looked for statistical enrichment of associations among interactomes that, at the current state of knowledge, may be representative of gene-environment interactions of potential, uncertain or unlikely relevance for multiple sclerosis pathogenesis: Epstein-Barr virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, cytomegalovirus, HHV8-Kaposi sarcoma, H1N1-influenza, JC virus, human innate immunity interactome for type I interferon, autoimmune regulator, vitamin D receptor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor and a panel of proteins targeted by 70 innate immune-modulating viral open reading frames from 30 viral species...
2013: PloS One
Michael Rouse, Narendra P Singh, Prakash S Nagarkatti, Mitzi Nagarkatti
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dietary indole derivatives, indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and diindolylmethane (DIM), possess anti-cancer properties and exhibit the characteristics of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands. Because AhR activation has recently been shown to regulate T cell differentiation, we tested the hypothesis that I3C and DIM may mediate anti-inflammatory properties by promoting regulatory T cell (T-regs) differentiation while inhibiting Th17 cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of I3C and DIM against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS)...
July 2013: British Journal of Pharmacology
A Khanna, M Guo, M Mehra, W Royal
Exposure to cigarette smoke has been associated with an increased risk of neurological diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. In these studies, serum and brain sections from Lewis rats or those exposed to cigarette smoke and control rats were examined for evidence of increased inflammation and oxidative stress. Immunocytochemical staining of brain sections from CS-exposed rats showed increased expression of class II MHC and, in ELISA, levels of IFN-gamma and TNF-α were higher than for non-exposed rats...
January 15, 2013: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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