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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812530/feline-herpesvirus-pneumonia-investigations-into-the-pathogenesis
#1
Josep Maria Monne Rodriguez, Gail Leeming, Kernt Köhler, Anja Kipar
Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FeHV-1) is one of the etiological agents of feline respiratory disease. FeHV-1 is an epitheliotropic and cytopathic virus that mainly causes rhinitis and conjunctivitis, although pneumonia is also occasionally seen. In this study, the authors investigated the pathogenesis of FeHV-1-associated pneumonia, comparing natural cases with viral infection of tracheal ring and cell cultures in vitro, using histology, immunohistology, double immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy as investigative tools...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760848/comprehensive-arrayed-transposon-mutant-library-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-outbreak-strain-kpnih1
#2
Beth Ramage, Roxanne Erolin, Kiara Held, Joe Gasper, Eli Weiss, Mitch Brittnacher, Larry Gallagher, Colin Manoil
Klebsiella pneumoniae and other carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a major cause of hospital-acquired infections, yet the basis of their success as nosocomial pathogens is poorly understood. To help provide a foundation for genetic analysis of K. pneumoniae, we created an arrayed, sequence-defined transposon mutant library of an isolate from the 2011 outbreak of infections at the U.S. National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. The library is made up of 12,000 individually arrayed mutants of a carbapenemase deletion parent strain and provides coverage of 85% of predicted genes...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705759/implementation-of-an-electronic-checklist-in-the-icu-association-with-improved-outcome
#3
Gary Duclos, Sophie Medam, François Antonini, Djamel Mokart, Véronique Paone, Marie Hélène Po, Coralie Vigne, Emmanuelle Hammad, Frédéric Potié, Claude Martin, Laurent Zieleskiewicz, Marc Leone
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of an electronic checklist during the morning rounds on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in the intensive care unit (ICU). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, before/after study in a single ICU of a university hospital. A systematic electronic checklist focusing on guidelines adherence was introduced in January 2012. From January 2008 to June 2014, we screened patients with ICU stay durations of at least 48hours...
July 10, 2017: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702310/development-of-pcrseqtyping-a-novel-molecular-assay-for-typing-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#4
Geetha Nagaraj, Feroze Ganaie, Vandana Govindan, Kadahalli Lingegowda Ravikumar
BACKGROUND: Precise serotyping of pneumococci is essential for vaccine development, to better understand the pathogenicity and trends of drug resistance. Currently used conventional and molecular methods of serotyping are expensive and time-consuming, with limited coverage of serotypes. An accurate and rapid serotyping method with complete coverage of serotypes is an urgent necessity. This study describes the development and application of a novel technology that addresses this need. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed, targeting 1061 bp cpsB region, and the amplicon was subjected to sequencing...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491442/respiratory-distress-associated-with-lungworm-infection-in-a-kitten
#5
Melissa M Hawley, Lynelle R Johnson, Donato Traversa, Dan Bucy, Karen M Vernau, William Vernau
CASE SUMMARY: A 5-month-old feral kitten developed worsening respiratory signs, including tachypnea, coughing and wheezing after standard anthelmintic treatment with fenbendazole at a local shelter. The kitten was referred to the University of California, Davis, William R Pritchard Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital for further evaluation. Thoracic radiographs revealed a severe diffuse bronchointerstitial pattern with bronchial cuffing, ill-defined nodules and lymphadenomegaly. Differentials included infectious etiologies such as toxoplasmosis, feline infectious peritonitis and cryptococcosis...
July 2016: JFMS open reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480294/high-prevalence-of-humoral-and-cellular-immunity-to-influenza-viruses-in-preschool-children-living-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#6
Jennifer L Dembinski, Adane Mihret, Solomon A Yimer, Bamlak Tessema, Mai-Chi Trieu, Azeb Tarekegn, Nahom Getachew, Rebecca J Cox, Fredrik Oftung, Bjørn Haneberg, Abraham Aseffa, Siri Mjaaland
BACKGROUND: Influenza in children who reside in tropical and subtropical regions has until recently been regarded as insignificant. However, new evidence suggests that it significantly impacts hospitalization and promotes secondary bacterial coinfections. Ethiopia is situated in a subtropical area where influenza viruses are likely to circulate year round. METHODS: Clinical data were recorded in a cohort of 103 healthy preschool children recruited in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448318/two-state-collaborative-study-of-a-multifaceted-intervention-to-decrease-ventilator-associated-events
#7
MULTICENTER STUDY
Nishi Rawat, Ting Yang, Kisha J Ali, Mary Catanzaro, Mariah D Cohen, Donna O Farley, Lisa H Lubomski, David A Thompson, Bradford D Winters, Sara E Cosgrove, Michael Klompas, Kathleen A Speck, Sean M Berenholtz
OBJECTIVES: Ventilator-associated events are associated with increased mortality, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and longer ICU stay. Given strong national interest in improving ventilated patient care, the National Institute of Health and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality funded a two-state collaborative to reduce ventilator-associated events. We describe the collaborative's impact on ventilator-associated event rates in 56 ICUs. DESIGN: Longitudinal quasi-experimental study...
July 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441828/-clinical-analysis-of-seven-cases-of-pulmonary-malignant-tumors-in-children
#8
D Xu, Z M Chen, W Z Gu, Y S Wang, M X Huang, L F Tang, Y Y Zhang, Y Jiang
Objective: To understand the clinical manifestation, imaging characteristics and outcomes of pulmonary malignant tumors in children. Method: We retrospectively collected information about seven cases of pulmonary malignant tumors in children in our hospital from Jan 2010 to Dec 2016. The information included clinical manifestation, imaging characteristics, pathologic results, and treatment. Result: (1) All the seven patients firstly visited pediatric internal medicine departments. Symptoms included cough (n=6), dyspnea (n=4), fever (n=2), anorexia (n=2), chest tightness (n=1), chest pain (n=1), lameness (n=1), abdominal distension and constipation (n=1)...
April 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413497/antibiotic-de-escalation-principle-in-elderly-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-complicated-with-severe-pneumonia
#9
Baohong Xiao, Mei Wang, Xiaoling Hu, Jinfeng Li, Fangfang Wang, Jiaxing Sun
The present study investigated the clinical effect of antibiotic de-escalation therapy in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) complicated with severe pneumonia. According to the parity method of hospitalization number, 86 cases were selected and divided into the observation and control group with 43 cases each. Based on empirical antibiotic application, levofloxacin and cephalosporin antibiotics were used in the control group. After treatment for 3 days, the regimen was adjusted to antibiotics active against Gram-positive (G+) and Gram-negative (G-) bacteria such as the third or fourth generation cephalosporin antibiotics, combined with aminoglycoside, or macrolide antibiotics according to their effects...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397171/pediatric-antibiotic-stewardship-successful-interventions-to-reduce-broad-spectrum-antibiotic-use-on-general-pediatric-wards
#10
Katharina Kreitmeyr, Ulrich von Both, Alenka Pecar, Johannes P Borde, Rafael Mikolajczyk, Johannes Huebner
PURPOSE: Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASP) optimize antibiotic usage and combat antibiotic resistance of bacteria. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of specific ASP interventions on antibiotic consumption in general pediatric wards. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study to compare a pre-intervention (Sept.-Dec. 2014) and post-intervention (Sept.-Dec. 2015) period. An ASP bundle was established including (1) infectious diseases (ID) ward rounds (prospective-audit-with-feedback), (2) ID consultation service, (3) internal guidelines on empiric antibiotic therapy...
August 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325766/staphylococcal-%C3%AE-toxin-modulates-human-aortic-endothelial-cell-and-platelet-function-through-sphingomyelinase-and-biofilm-ligase-activities
#11
Alfa Herrera, Katarina Kulhankova, Vijay K Sonkar, Sanjana Dayal, Aloysius J Klingelhutz, Wilmara Salgado-Pabón, Patrick M Schlievert
Staphylococcus aureus causes many infections, such as skin and soft tissue, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis (IE). IE is an endovascular infection of native and prosthetic valves and the lining of the heart; it is characterized by the formation of cauliflower-like "vegetations" composed of fibrin, platelets, other host factors, bacteria, and bacterial products. β-Toxin is an S. aureus virulence factor that contributes to the microorganism's ability to cause IE. This cytolysin has two enzymatic activities: sphingomyelinase (SMase) and biofilm ligase...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317139/mortality-after-inpatient-treatment-for-severe-pneumonia-in-children-a-cohort-study
#12
Moses M Ngari, Greg Fegan, Martha K Mwangome, Mwanajuma J Ngama, Neema Mturi, John Anthony Gerard Scott, Evasius Bauni, David James Nokes, James A Berkley
BACKGROUND: Although pneumonia is a leading cause of inpatient mortality, deaths may also occur after discharge from hospital. However, prior studies have been small, in selected groups or did not fully evaluate risk factors, particularly malnutrition and HIV. We determined 1-year post-discharge mortality and risk factors among children diagnosed with severe pneumonia. METHODS: A cohort study of children aged 1-59 months admitted to Kilifi County Hospital with severe pneumonia (2007-12)...
May 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295964/respiratory-virus-infection-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-in-a-tropical-center-predictive-value-of-the-immunodeficiency-scoring-index
#13
Lin Wang, John Allen, Colin Diong, Yeow-Tee Goh, Sathish Gopalakrishnan, Aloysius Ho, William Hwang, Francesca Lim, Lynette Oon, Thuan-Tong Tan, Yeh-Ching Linn, Ban Hock Tan
BACKGROUND: Respiratory virus infection (RVI) is a prevalent infection in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Ability to assess the potential severity of RVI is important in the management of such patients. METHODS: We reviewed the cases of RVI in allo-HSCT recipients and explored the predictive value of the immunodeficiency scoring index (ISI) established for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and its applicability for RVI caused by other respiratory viruses...
June 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292304/design-and-implementation-of-electronic-health-record-integrated-clinical-prediction-rules-icpr-a-randomized-trial-in-diverse-primary-care-settings
#14
David A Feldstein, Rachel Hess, Thomas McGinn, Rebecca G Mishuris, Lauren McCullagh, Paul D Smith, Michael Flynn, Joseph Palmisano, Gheorghe Doros, Devin Mann
BACKGROUND: Clinical prediction rules (CPRs) represent a method of determining individual patient risk to help providers make more accurate decisions at the point of care. Well-validated CPRs are underutilized but may decrease antibiotic overuse for acute respiratory infections. The integrated clinical prediction rules (iCPR) study builds on a previous single clinic study to integrate two CPRs into the electronic health record and assess their impact on practice. This article discusses study design and implementation of a multicenter cluster randomized control trial of the iCPR clinical decision support system, including the tool adaptation, usability testing, staff training, and implementation study to disseminate iCPR at multiple clinical sites across two health care systems...
March 14, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290951/pneumonia-at-marine-corps-recruit-depots-current-trends-in-ambulatory-encounters-and-inpatient-discharges
#15
Kristen Rossi, Gosia Nowak, Asha Jindal Riegodedios
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections are recognized as a significant source of morbidity for military populations, particularly for recruits. This analysis aims to describe the pneumonia burden at Marine Corps Recruit Depots (MCRD) in Parris Island and San Diego during 2007-2014, as these two depots maintain noteworthy comparisons in vaccine and prophylaxis policies. First, both depots reinstated the adenovirus vaccine in October 2011. Second, San Diego provides the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine to all recruits within the first 2 days of arrival, although Parris Island does not routinely vaccinate for Streptococcus pneumoniae...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272554/broadly-reactive-aptamers-targeting-bacteria-belonging-to-different-genera-using-a-sequential-toggle-cell-selex
#16
Min Young Song, Dung Nguyen, Seok Won Hong, Byoung Chan Kim
Conventional cell-SELEX aims to isolate aptamers to a single unique target bacteria species. We propose a method to isolate single-stranded DNA aptamers that have broad reactivity to multiple bacterial targets belonging to different genera. The key of the proposed method is that targets of interest are changed sequentially at each SELEX round. The general scheme was examined using six bacteria from different genera, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis (four gram-negative and two gram-positive bacteria)...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247300/impact-of-random-safety-analyses-on-structure-process-and-outcome-indicators-multicentre-study
#17
María Bodí, Iban Oliva, Maria Cruz Martín, Maria Carmen Gilavert, Carlos Muñoz, Montserrat Olona, Gonzalo Sirgo
BACKGROUND: To assess the impact of a real-time random safety tool on structure, process and outcome indicators. METHODS: Prospective study conducted over a period of 12 months in two adult patient intensive care units. Safety rounds were conducted three days a week ascertaining 37 safety measures (grouped into 10 blocks). In each round, 50% of the patients and 50% of the measures were randomized. The impact of this safety tool was analysed on indicators of structure (safety culture, healthcare protocols), process (improvement proportion related to tool application, IPR) and outcome (mortality, average stay, rate of catheter-related bacteraemias and rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia, VAP)...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137940/antimicrobial-resistance-in-uropathogens-and-appropriateness-of-empirical-treatment-a-population-based-surveillance-study-in-indonesia
#18
Adhi Kristianto Sugianli, Franciscus Ginting, R Lia Kusumawati, Emmy Hermiyati Pranggono, Ayodhia Pitaloka Pasaribu, Firza Gronthoud, Suzanne Geerlings, Ida Parwati, Menno D De Jong, Frank Van Leth, Constance Schultsz
Objectives: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common reason for empirical treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics worldwide. However, population-based antimicrobial resistance (AMR) prevalence data to inform empirical treatment choice are lacking in many regions, because of limited surveillance capacity. We aimed to assess the prevalence of AMR to commonly used antimicrobial drugs in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from patients with community- or healthcare-associated UTIs on two islands of Indonesia...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092107/rsv-associated-hospitalizations-in-children-in-karachi-pakistan-implications-for-vaccine-prevention-strategies
#19
Asad Ali, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Rabbia Waris, Fatima Jafri, Fatima Aziz, Imran Naeem Abbasi, Anita Zaidi
Major progress is being made in vaccines against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), with multiple vaccine candidates currently in the clinical phase of development. Making an investment case for public sector financing of RSV vaccine will require estimation of burden, cost-effectiveness, and impact. The aim of this study is to determine the proportion, age distribution and clinical spectrum of RSV associated hospitalizations in children in Karachi, Pakistan. A three years prospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital in Karachi, a city of 20 million in south Pakistan, from August 2009 to June 2012...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076428/does-measles-vaccination-reduce-the-risk-of-acute-respiratory-infection-ari-and-diarrhea-in-children-a-multi-country-study
#20
Rahul Bawankule, Abhishek Singh, Kaushalendra Kumar, Sadanand Shetye
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia and diarrhea occur either as complications or secondary infections in measles affected children. So, the integrated Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) by WHO and UNICEF includes measles vaccination as preventive measure in children. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of measles vaccination on Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) and diarrhea in children in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan. METHODS: We analyzed data from the most recent rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in the selected countries...
2017: PloS One
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