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Yanan Xing, Huan Li, Liubin Huang, Huihui Wu, Hengqing Shen, Zhongming Chen
Methacrolein (MACR) is an abundant multifunctional carbonyl compound with high reactivity in the atmosphere. In this study, we investigated the hydroxyl radical initiated oxidation of MACR at various NO/MACR ratios (0 to 4.04) and relative humidities (<3% to 80%) using a flow tube. Meanwhile, a box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism was performed to test our current understanding of the mechanism. In contrast to the reasonable predictions for hydroxyacetone production, the modeled yields of formaldehyde (HCHO) were twice higher than the experimental results...
April 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Zhongfei Ren, Xing Xu, Baoyu Gao, Yanwei Li, Jian Kong, Yanan Shang, Wen Song, Qingzhu Zhang
A magnetic amine-crosslinked reed (MACR) was synthesized by an insitu precipitation method and used for perchlorate uptake. The morphological properties of clean MACR, perchlorate-saturated MACR and bio-regenerated MACR samples were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zeta potential measurements. The adsorption capacities of perchlorate by clean and bio-regenerated MACRs were determined. The density functional theory (DFT) method was employed to evaluate the binding free energies between various anions and ammonium/hydroxy groups...
October 2017: Chemosphere
Yangang Ren, Benoit Grosselin, Véronique Daële, Abdelwahid Mellouki
The rate constants for the ozonolysis of isoprene (ISO), methacrolein (MACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) have been measured using the newly built large volume atmospheric simulation chamber at CNRS-Orleans (France), HELIOS (Chambre de simulation atmosphérique à irradiation naturelle d'Orléans). The OH radical yields from the ozonolysis of isoprene, MACR and MVK have also been determined, as well as the gas phase stable products and their yields. The secondary organic aerosol yield for the ozonolysis of isoprene has been tentatively measured in the presence and absence of an OH radical scavenger...
August 24, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Amélie Saunier, Elena Ormeño, Henri Wortham, Brice Temime-Roussel, Caroline Lecareux, Christophe Boissard, Catherine Fernandez
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emitted by plants can originate from both anabolism (metabolite production through anabolic processes) and catabolism (metabolite degradation by oxidative reactions). Drought can favor leaf oxidation by increasing the oxidative pressure in plant cells. Thus, under the precipitation decline predicted for the Mediterranean region, it can be expected both strong oxidation of anabolic BVOC within leaves and, as a result, enhanced catabolic BVOC emissions. Using an experimental rain exclusion device in a natural forest, we compared the seasonal course of the emissions of the main anabolic BVOC released by Q...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Luigi Garziano, Vincenzo Macrì, Roberto Stassi, Omar Di Stefano, Franco Nori, Salvatore Savasta
We consider two separate atoms interacting with a single-mode optical or microwave resonator. When the frequency of the resonator field is twice the atomic transition frequency, we show that there exists a resonant coupling between one photon and two atoms, via intermediate virtual states connected by counterrotating processes. If the resonator is prepared in its one-photon state, the photon can be jointly absorbed by the two atoms in their ground state which will both reach their excited state with a probability close to one...
July 22, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Francesco Macrì, Simona Di Pietro, Luigi Liotta, Angela Palumbo Piccionello, Michela Pugliese, Massimo De Majo
OBJECTIVE To determine effects of the size and location of regions of interest (ROIs) in the renal cortex of unsedated dogs on renal perfusion variables determined by use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). ANIMALS 12 client-owned adult (1.5 to 2 years old) Labrador Retrievers (8 males and 4 females; mean ± SD body weight, 27 ± 1.6 kg). PROCEDURES Each dog received 2 bolus injections of sulfur hexafluoride during CEUS. Three small oval ROIs (area of each ROI, 0.11 cm(2)) located in a row with a distance of 1 mm between adjacent ROIs and 1 large oval ROI (area, 1 cm(2)) that encompassed the 3 smaller ROIs were manually drawn in the renal cortex...
August 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Carmen Huckel Schneider, Andrew J Milat, Gabriel Moore
Our research sought to identify the barriers and facilitators experienced by policymakers and evaluation researchers in the critical early stages of establishing an evaluation of a policy or program. We sought to determine the immediate barriers experienced at the point of initiating or commissioning evaluations and how these relate to broader system factors previously identified in the literature. We undertook 17 semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of senior policymakers (n=9) and senior evaluation researchers (n=8) in Australia...
October 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
Giovanni Pallio, Alessandra Bitto, Gabriele Pizzino, Federica Galfo, Natasha Irrera, Letteria Minutoli, Vincenzo Arcoraci, Giovanni Squadrito, Antonio Macrì, Francesco Squadrito, Domenica Altavilla
Cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) play an important role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). We investigated the effects of flavocoxid, a dual COX/LOX inhibitor, in experimental colitis induced with either dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS) or dextrane sulphate sodium (DSS) In the first model, colitis was induced in rats by a single intra-colonic instillation (25mg in 0.8ml 50% ethanol) of DNBS; after 24h animals were randomized to receive orally twice a day, flavocoxid (10mg/kg), zileuton (50mg/kg), or celecoxib (5mg/kg)...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Chiara Spinello, Giovanni Laviola, Simone Macrì
Accumulating evidence suggests that Tourette's Syndrome (TS) - a multifactorial pediatric disorder characterized by the recurrent exhibition of motor tics and/or vocal utterances - can partly depend on immune dysregulation provoked by early repeated streptococcal infections. The natural and adaptive antibody-mediated reaction to streptococcus has been proposed to potentially turn into a pathological autoimmune response in vulnerable individuals. Specifically, in conditions of increased permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB), streptococcus-induced antibodies have been proposed to: (i) reach neuronal targets located in brain areas responsible for motion control; and (ii) contribute to the exhibition of symptoms...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Francesco Fleres, Edoardo Saladino, Rosaria Catanoso, Vincenzo Arcoraci, Tommaso Mandolfino, Eugenio Cucinotta, Antonio Macrì
Introduction Peritoneal surface malignancies have long been regarded as incurable, however, they can be treated with cytoreductive surgery in addition to hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This approach is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality, unless hyperhydration is provided in a timely manner. Methods Cisplatin (CDDP) is the most widely used chemotherapeutic agent. Plasma levels of cisplatin (CDDP), a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, were measured before, during, and after the procedure...
February 2016: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Huimin Deng, Zhengchao Li, Yafang Tan, Zhaobiao Guo, Yangyang Liu, Ye Wang, Yuan Yuan, Ruifu Yang, Yujing Bi, Yang Bai, Fachao Zhi
Commensal Bacteroides fragilis possesses immune-regulatory characteristics. Consequently, it has been proposed as a potential novel probiotic because of its therapeutic effects on immune imbalance, mental disorders and inflammatory diseases. Macrophages play a central role in the immune response, developing either a classical-M1 or an alternative-M2 phenotype after stimulation with various signals. The interactions between macrophages and B. fragilis, however, remain to be defined. Here, a new isolate of B...
2016: Scientific Reports
M Scarpulla, G Barlozzari, A Marcario, L Salvato, V Blanda, C De Liberato, C D'Agostini, A Torina, G Macrì
The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks from Central Italy. A total of 113 ticks hailed from Latium and Tuscany regions were identified and tested by PCR to detect gltA, ompA, ompB genes of Rickettsia. Positive amplicons were sequenced and identified at species level. Ticks were analyzed individually or in pools. The percentage of positivity for SFG rickettsiae was 12.4%, expressed as minimum infection rate (MIR) assuming that one tick was positive in each positive pool...
July 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Simona Magi, Pasqualina Castaldo, Maria Loredana Macrì, Marta Maiolino, Alessandra Matteucci, Guendalina Bastioli, Santo Gratteri, Salvatore Amoroso, Vincenzo Lariccia
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive neuronal loss. AD is associated with aberrant processing of the amyloid precursor protein, which leads to the deposition of amyloid-β plaques within the brain. Together with plaques deposition, the hyperphosphorylation of the microtubules associated protein tau and the formation of intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles are a typical neuropathological feature in AD brains. Cellular dysfunctions involving specific subcellular compartments, such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), are emerging as crucial players in the pathogenesis of AD, as well as increased oxidative stress and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis...
2016: BioMed Research International
Angelo Macrì, Aldo Vagge, Annalisa Salis, Carmen Fucile, Valeria Marini, Antonietta Martelli, Sebastiano Giuffrida, Michele Iester, Gianluca Damonte, Francesca Mattioli
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the aqueous humor concentrations of bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.09 % in patients undergoing phacoemulsification. Patients requiring cataract extraction received one drop (50 µL) of bromfenac 0.09 % solution in the eye to be operated, before bedtime the day before surgery or the morning of the surgery. The last administration was recorded. At the time of paracentesis, an aqueous humor sample was collected with a 30-gauge needle attached to a TB syringe and was later analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for drug concentration...
April 2017: International Ophthalmology
Manas R Dikhit, Bidyut Purkait, Ruby Singh, Bikash Ranjan Sahoo, Ashish Kumar, Rajiv K Kar, Md Yousuf Ansari, Savita Saini, Kumar Abhishek, Ganesh C Sahoo, Sushmita Das, Pradeep Das
New treatments for visceral leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania donovani, are needed to overcome sustained toxicity, cost, and drug resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of 2-nitro-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)benzenesulfonamide (2NB) against promastigote and amastigote forms of L. donovani and examine its effect in combination with amphotericin B (AmB) against AmB-resistant clinical isolates. Effects were assessed against extracellular promastigotes in vitro and intracellular amastigotes in L...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Henning Labuhn, Daniel Barredo, Sylvain Ravets, Sylvain de Léséleuc, Tommaso Macrì, Thierry Lahaye, Antoine Browaeys
Spin models are the prime example of simplified many-body Hamiltonians used to model complex, strongly correlated real-world materials. However, despite the simplified character of such models, their dynamics often cannot be simulated exactly on classical computers when the number of particles exceeds a few tens. For this reason, quantum simulation of spin Hamiltonians using the tools of atomic and molecular physics has become a very active field over the past years, using ultracold atoms or molecules in optical lattices, or trapped ions...
June 30, 2016: Nature
Rui Wang, Xin Wang, Bo Ni, Chang-Chao Huan, Jia-Qiang Wu, Li-Bin Wen, Ying Liao, Guang-Zhi Tong, Chan Ding, Hong-Jie Fan, Xiang Mao
The causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is the PRRS virus (PRRSV), an enveloped, single-stranded and positive-sense RNA virus. The host factors and mechanisms that are involved in PRRSV entry are still largely unknown. In our present studies, we found that syndecan-4, one of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans, plays a critical role in PRRSV entry, especially in PRRSV attachment. Moreover, EGFR interacts with syndecan-4 in MACR-145 cells and disruption of their interaction impaired PRRSV entry...
June 24, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yingjun Liu, Joel Brito, Matthew R Dorris, Jean C Rivera-Rios, Roger Seco, Kelvin H Bates, Paulo Artaxo, Sergio Duvoisin, Frank N Keutsch, Saewung Kim, Allen H Goldstein, Alex B Guenther, Antonio O Manzi, Rodrigo A F Souza, Stephen R Springston, Thomas B Watson, Karena A McKinney, Scot T Martin
Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible...
May 31, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Leslie R Harrold, George W Reed, Robert Magner, Ashwini Shewade, Ani John, Jeffrey D Greenberg, Joel M Kremer
INTRODUCTION: Patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite anti-tumor necrosis factor(anti-TNF)agent treatment can switch to either a subsequent anti-TNF agent or a biologic with an alternative mechanism of action, such as rituximab; however, there are limited data available to help physicians decide between these 2 strategies. The objective of this analysis was to examine the effectiveness and safety of rituximab versus a subsequent anti-TNF agent in anti-TNF-experienced patients with RA using clinical practice data from the Corrona registry...
September 18, 2015: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Rebecca H Schwantes, Alexander P Teng, Tran B Nguyen, Matthew M Coggon, John D Crounse, Jason M St Clair, Xuan Zhang, Katherine A Schilling, John H Seinfeld, Paul O Wennberg
We describe the products of the reaction of the hydroperoxy radical (HO(2)) with the alkylperoxy radical formed following addition of the nitrate radical (NO(3)) and O(2) to isoprene. NO(3) adds preferentially to the C(1) position of isoprene (>6 times more favorably than addition to C(4)), followed by the addition of O(2) to produce a suite of nitrooxy alkylperoxy radicals (RO(2)). At an RO(2) lifetime of ∼30 s, δ-nitrooxy and β-nitrooxy alkylperoxy radicals are present in similar amounts. Gas-phase product yields from the RO(2) + HO(2) pathway are identified as 0...
October 8, 2015: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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