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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494471/one-photon-can-simultaneously-excite-two-or-more-atoms
#1
Luigi Garziano, Vincenzo Macrì, Roberto Stassi, Omar Di Stefano, Franco Nori, Salvatore Savasta
We consider two separate atoms interacting with a single-mode optical or microwave resonator. When the frequency of the resonator field is twice the atomic transition frequency, we show that there exists a resonant coupling between one photon and two atoms, via intermediate virtual states connected by counterrotating processes. If the resonator is prepared in its one-photon state, the photon can be jointly absorbed by the two atoms in their ground state which will both reach their excited state with a probability close to one...
July 22, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463550/effects-of-size-and-location-of-regions-of-interest-examined-by-use-of-contrast-enhanced-ultrasonography-on-renal-perfusion-variables-of-dogs
#2
Francesco Macrì, Simona Di Pietro, Luigi Liotta, Angela Palumbo Piccionello, Michela Pugliese, Massimo De Majo
OBJECTIVE To determine effects of the size and location of regions of interest (ROIs) in the renal cortex of unsedated dogs on renal perfusion variables determined by use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). ANIMALS 12 client-owned adult (1.5 to 2 years old) Labrador Retrievers (8 males and 4 females; mean ± SD body weight, 27 ± 1.6 kg). PROCEDURES Each dog received 2 bolus injections of sulfur hexafluoride during CEUS. Three small oval ROIs (area of each ROI, 0.11 cm(2)) located in a row with a distance of 1 mm between adjacent ROIs and 1 large oval ROI (area, 1 cm(2)) that encompassed the 3 smaller ROIs were manually drawn in the renal cortex...
August 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461992/barriers-and-facilitators-to-evaluation-of-health-policies-and-programs-policymaker-and-researcher-perspectives
#3
Carmen Huckel Schneider, Andrew J Milat, Gabriel Moore
Our research sought to identify the barriers and facilitators experienced by policymakers and evaluation researchers in the critical early stages of establishing an evaluation of a policy or program. We sought to determine the immediate barriers experienced at the point of initiating or commissioning evaluations and how these relate to broader system factors previously identified in the literature. We undertook 17 semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of senior policymakers (n=9) and senior evaluation researchers (n=8) in Australia...
October 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450484/use-of-a-balanced-dual-cyclooxygenase-1-2-and-5-lypoxygenase-inhibitor-in-experimental-colitis
#4
Giovanni Pallio, Alessandra Bitto, Gabriele Pizzino, Federica Galfo, Natasha Irrera, Letteria Minutoli, Vincenzo Arcoraci, Giovanni Squadrito, Antonio Macrì, Francesco Squadrito, Domenica Altavilla
Cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) play an important role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). We investigated the effects of flavocoxid, a dual COX/LOX inhibitor, in experimental colitis induced with either dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS) or dextrane sulphate sodium (DSS) In the first model, colitis was induced in rats by a single intra-colonic instillation (25mg in 0.8ml 50% ethanol) of DNBS; after 24h animals were randomized to receive orally twice a day, flavocoxid (10mg/kg), zileuton (50mg/kg), or celecoxib (5mg/kg)...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445678/pediatric-autoimmune-disorders-associated-with-streptococcal-infections-and-tourette-s-syndrome-in-preclinical-studies
#5
REVIEW
Chiara Spinello, Giovanni Laviola, Simone Macrì
Accumulating evidence suggests that Tourette's Syndrome (TS) - a multifactorial pediatric disorder characterized by the recurrent exhibition of motor tics and/or vocal utterances - can partly depend on immune dysregulation provoked by early repeated streptococcal infections. The natural and adaptive antibody-mediated reaction to streptococcus has been proposed to potentially turn into a pathological autoimmune response in vulnerable individuals. Specifically, in conditions of increased permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB), streptococcus-induced antibodies have been proposed to: (i) reach neuronal targets located in brain areas responsible for motion control; and (ii) contribute to the exhibition of symptoms...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385136/evaluation-of-cisplatin-plasma-levels-in-patients-undergoing-cytoreductive-surgery-and-hyperthermic-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy
#6
Francesco Fleres, Edoardo Saladino, Rosaria Catanoso, Vincenzo Arcoraci, Tommaso Mandolfino, Eugenio Cucinotta, Antonio Macrì
Introduction Peritoneal surface malignancies have long been regarded as incurable, however, they can be treated with cytoreductive surgery in addition to hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This approach is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality, unless hyperhydration is provided in a timely manner. Methods Cisplatin (CDDP) is the most widely used chemotherapeutic agent. Plasma levels of cisplatin (CDDP), a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, were measured before, during, and after the procedure...
February 2016: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381366/a-novel-strain-of-bacteroides-fragilis-enhances-phagocytosis-and-polarises-m1-macrophages
#7
Huimin Deng, Zhengchao Li, Yafang Tan, Zhaobiao Guo, Yangyang Liu, Ye Wang, Yuan Yuan, Ruifu Yang, Yujing Bi, Yang Bai, Fachao Zhi
Commensal Bacteroides fragilis possesses immune-regulatory characteristics. Consequently, it has been proposed as a potential novel probiotic because of its therapeutic effects on immune imbalance, mental disorders and inflammatory diseases. Macrophages play a central role in the immune response, developing either a classical-M1 or an alternative-M2 phenotype after stimulation with various signals. The interactions between macrophages and B. fragilis, however, remain to be defined. Here, a new isolate of B...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365155/molecular-detection-and-characterization-of-spotted-fever-group-rickettsiae-in-ticks-from-central-italy
#8
M Scarpulla, G Barlozzari, A Marcario, L Salvato, V Blanda, C De Liberato, C D'Agostini, A Torina, G Macrì
The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks from Central Italy. A total of 113 ticks hailed from Latium and Tuscany regions were identified and tested by PCR to detect gltA, ompA, ompB genes of Rickettsia. Positive amplicons were sequenced and identified at species level. Ticks were analyzed individually or in pools. The percentage of positivity for SFG rickettsiae was 12.4%, expressed as minimum infection rate (MIR) assuming that one tick was positive in each positive pool...
July 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340665/intracellular-calcium-dysregulation-implications-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Simona Magi, Pasqualina Castaldo, Maria Loredana Macrì, Marta Maiolino, Alessandra Matteucci, Guendalina Bastioli, Santo Gratteri, Salvatore Amoroso, Vincenzo Lariccia
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive neuronal loss. AD is associated with aberrant processing of the amyloid precursor protein, which leads to the deposition of amyloid-β plaques within the brain. Together with plaques deposition, the hyperphosphorylation of the microtubules associated protein tau and the formation of intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles are a typical neuropathological feature in AD brains. Cellular dysfunctions involving specific subcellular compartments, such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), are emerging as crucial players in the pathogenesis of AD, as well as increased oxidative stress and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324371/bromfenac-ophthalmic-solution-0-09%C3%A2-human-aqueous-humor-concentration-detected-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#10
Angelo Macrì, Aldo Vagge, Annalisa Salis, Carmen Fucile, Valeria Marini, Antonietta Martelli, Sebastiano Giuffrida, Michele Iester, Gianluca Damonte, Francesca Mattioli
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the aqueous humor concentrations of bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.09 % in patients undergoing phacoemulsification. Patients requiring cataract extraction received one drop (50 µL) of bromfenac 0.09 % solution in the eye to be operated, before bedtime the day before surgery or the morning of the surgery. The last administration was recorded. At the time of paracentesis, an aqueous humor sample was collected with a 30-gauge needle attached to a TB syringe and was later analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for drug concentration...
June 20, 2016: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307706/activity-of-a-novel-sulfonamide-compound-2-nitro-n-pyridin-2-ylmethyl-benzenesulfonamide-against-leishmania-donovani
#11
Manas R Dikhit, Bidyut Purkait, Ruby Singh, Bikash Ranjan Sahoo, Ashish Kumar, Rajiv K Kar, Md Yousuf Ansari, Savita Saini, Kumar Abhishek, Ganesh C Sahoo, Sushmita Das, Pradeep Das
New treatments for visceral leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania donovani, are needed to overcome sustained toxicity, cost, and drug resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of 2-nitro-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)benzenesulfonamide (2NB) against promastigote and amastigote forms of L. donovani and examine its effect in combination with amphotericin B (AmB) against AmB-resistant clinical isolates. Effects were assessed against extracellular promastigotes in vitro and intracellular amastigotes in L...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281203/tunable-two-dimensional-arrays-of-single-rydberg-atoms-for-realizing-quantum-ising-models
#12
Henning Labuhn, Daniel Barredo, Sylvain Ravets, Sylvain de Léséleuc, Tommaso Macrì, Thierry Lahaye, Antoine Browaeys
Spin models are the prime example of simplified many-body Hamiltonians used to model complex, strongly correlated real-world materials. However, despite the simplified character of such models, their dynamics often cannot be simulated exactly on classical computers when the number of particles exceeds a few tens. For this reason, quantum simulation of spin Hamiltonians using the tools of atomic and molecular physics has become a very active field over the past years, using ultracold atoms or molecules in optical lattices, or trapped ions...
June 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27208778/syndecan-4-a-prrsv-attachment-factor-mediates-prrsv-entry-through-its-interaction-with-egfr
#13
Rui Wang, Xin Wang, Bo Ni, Chang-Chao Huan, Jia-Qiang Wu, Li-Bin Wen, Ying Liao, Guang-Zhi Tong, Chan Ding, Hong-Jie Fan, Xiang Mao
The causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is the PRRS virus (PRRSV), an enveloped, single-stranded and positive-sense RNA virus. The host factors and mechanisms that are involved in PRRSV entry are still largely unknown. In our present studies, we found that syndecan-4, one of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans, plays a critical role in PRRSV entry, especially in PRRSV attachment. Moreover, EGFR interacts with syndecan-4 in MACR-145 cells and disruption of their interaction impaired PRRSV entry...
June 24, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27185928/isoprene-photochemistry-over-the-amazon-rainforest
#14
Yingjun Liu, Joel Brito, Matthew R Dorris, Jean C Rivera-Rios, Roger Seco, Kelvin H Bates, Paulo Artaxo, Sergio Duvoisin, Frank N Keutsch, Saewung Kim, Allen H Goldstein, Alex B Guenther, Antonio O Manzi, Rodrigo A F Souza, Stephen R Springston, Thomas B Watson, Karena A McKinney, Scot T Martin
Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible...
May 31, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26382589/comparative-effectiveness-and-safety-of-rituximab-versus-subsequent-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-therapy-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-with-prior-exposure-to-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-therapies-in-the-united-states-corrona-registry
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Leslie R Harrold, George W Reed, Robert Magner, Ashwini Shewade, Ani John, Jeffrey D Greenberg, Joel M Kremer
INTRODUCTION: Patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite anti-tumor necrosis factor(anti-TNF)agent treatment can switch to either a subsequent anti-TNF agent or a biologic with an alternative mechanism of action, such as rituximab; however, there are limited data available to help physicians decide between these 2 strategies. The objective of this analysis was to examine the effectiveness and safety of rituximab versus a subsequent anti-TNF agent in anti-TNF-experienced patients with RA using clinical practice data from the Corrona registry...
2015: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26335780/isoprene-no3-oxidation-products-from-the-ro2-ho2-pathway
#16
Rebecca H Schwantes, Alexander P Teng, Tran B Nguyen, Matthew M Coggon, John D Crounse, Jason M St Clair, Xuan Zhang, Katherine A Schilling, John H Seinfeld, Paul O Wennberg
We describe the products of the reaction of the hydroperoxy radical (HO(2)) with the alkylperoxy radical formed following addition of the nitrate radical (NO(3)) and O(2) to isoprene. NO(3) adds preferentially to the C(1) position of isoprene (>6 times more favorably than addition to C(4)), followed by the addition of O(2) to produce a suite of nitrooxy alkylperoxy radicals (RO(2)). At an RO(2) lifetime of ∼30 s, δ-nitrooxy and β-nitrooxy alkylperoxy radicals are present in similar amounts. Gas-phase product yields from the RO(2) + HO(2) pathway are identified as 0...
October 8, 2015: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26205770/elevated-endomyocardial-biopsy-macrophage-related-markers-in-intractable-myocardial-diseases
#17
Yuka Hayashi, Haruo Hanawa, Shuang Jiao, Go Hasegawa, Yukako Ohno, Kaori Yoshida, Tomoyasu Suzuki, Takeshi Kashimura, Hiroaki Obata, Komei Tanaka, Tohru Watanabe, Tohru Minamino
Tissue macrophages can be activated by endogenous danger signals released from cells that are stressed or injured, leading to infiltration of inflammatory macrophages and neutrophils. We postulated that macrophage-related markers might be closely associated with the existence of endogenous danger signals, reflecting ongoing tissue injury in the absence of foreign substances. This study was designed to assess the ability of macrophage-related markers in endomyocardial biopsies to predict ongoing cardiac injury in non-inflammatory myocardial diseases...
December 2015: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26169680/glutathionylation-and-reduction-of-methacrolein-in-tomato-plants-account-for-its-absorption-from-the-vapor-phase
#18
Shoko Muramoto, Yayoi Matsubara, Cynthia Mugo Mwenda, Takao Koeduka, Takuya Sakami, Akira Tani, Kenji Matsui
A large portion of the volatile organic compounds emitted by plants are oxygenated to yield reactive carbonyl species, which have a big impact on atmospheric chemistry. Deposition to vegetation driven by the absorption of reactive carbonyl species into plants plays a major role in cleansing the atmosphere, but the mechanisms supporting this absorption have been little examined. Here, we performed model experiments using methacrolein (MACR), one of the major reactive carbonyl species formed from isoprene, and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants...
November 2015: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25758267/decrease-of-glomerular-filtration-rate-may-be-attributed-to-the-microcirculation-damage-in-renal-artery-stenosis
#19
Hao-Jian Dong, Cheng Huang, De-Mou Luo, Jing-Guang Ye, Jun-Qing Yang, Guang Li, Jian-Fang Luo, Ying-Ling Zhou
BACKGROUND: The decrease of glomerular filtration rate has been theoretically supposed to be the result of low perfusion in renal artery stenosis (RAS). But the gap between artery stenosis and the glomerular filtration ability is still unclear. METHODS: Patients with selective renal artery angiogram were divided by the degree of renal artery narrowing, level of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), respectively. The different levels of eGFR, renal microcirculation markers, and RAS severity were compared with each other, to determine the relationships among them...
March 20, 2015: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25600141/cellular-rna-is-chemically-modified-by-exposure-to-air-pollution-mixtures
#20
Kevin C Baldridge, Jose Zavala, Jason Surratt, Kenneth G Sexton, Lydia M Contreras
RNAs are more susceptible to modifications than DNA, and chemical modifications in RNA have an effect on their structure and function. This study aimed to characterize chemical effects on total RNA in human A549 lung cells after exposure to elevated levels of major secondary air pollutants commonly found in urban locations, including ozone (O3), acrolein (ACR) and methacrolein (MACR). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to measure levels of interleukin (IL)-8 in the growth media and 8-oxoguanine (8OG) levels in total cellular RNA, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the growth media was measured by a coupled enzymatic assay...
January 2015: Inhalation Toxicology
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