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P. gingivalis

Magdalena Widziolek, Tomasz K Prajsnar, Simon Tazzyman, Graham P Stafford, Jan Potempa, Craig Murdoch
Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) is a keystone pathogen in the aetiology of chronic periodontitis. However, recent evidence suggests that the bacterium is also able to enter the bloodstream, interact with host cells and tissues, and ultimately contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here we established a novel zebrafish larvae systemic infection model showing that Pg rapidly adheres to and penetrates the zebrafish vascular endothelium causing a dose- and time-dependent mortality with associated development of pericardial oedemas and cardiac damage...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Pakchisa Khonsuphap, Prasit Pavasant, Rizky Aditya Irwandi, Chidchanok Leethanakul, Anjalee Vacharaksa
BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) accumulates in inflamed periodontal tissue and induces the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-RANK-osteoprotegerin (OPG) signaling associated with bone resorption. Although oral epithelial cells maintain tissue homeostasis, the role of these cells in RANKL regulation remains unknown. METHODS: To mimic inflamed condition, RANKL upregulation in human mandibular osteoblast-like cells (HMOBs) were stimulated with PGE2...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
Şivge Kurgan, Shevali Kansal, Daniel Nguyen, Danielle Stephens, Yannis Koroneos, Hatice Hasturk, Thomas E Van Dyke, Alpdogan Kantarci
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil function is critical for the initiation and progression of infecto-inflammatory diseases. Key quorum-sensing plaque bacteria such as Fusobacterium nucleatum act as bridging species between early and late colonizer pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis as the biofilm ages and periodontal inflammation increases. This study was designed to determine the impact of different F. nucleatum strains on neutrophil function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HL-60 cells were differentiated into neutrophil-like cells and cultured with F...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
Julia C Schmidt, Monika Astasov-Frauenhoffer, Tuomas Waltimo, Roland Weiger, Clemens Walter
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of four different side-to-side toothbrushes and the impact of various brushing parameters on noncontact biofilm removal in an adjustable interdental space model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A three-species biofilm, consisting of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Streptococcus sanguinis, was formed in vitro on protein-coated titanium disks using a flow chamber combined with a static biofilm growth model...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
Marika Rai, David Spratt, Paola R Gomez-Pereira, Jay Patel, Sean P Nair
Oral malodour is a common condition which affects a large proportion of the population, resulting in social, emotional and psychological stress. Certain oral bacteria form a coating called a biofilm on the tongue dorsum and degrade organic compounds releasing volatile sulfur compounds that are malodourous. Current chemical treatments for oral malodour such as mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine or essential oils, are not sufficiently effective at reducing the bacterial load on the tongue. One potential alternative to current chemical treatments for oral malodour is the use of light activated antimicrobial agents (LAAAs), which display no toxicity or antimicrobial activity in the dark, but when exposed to light of a specific wavelength produce reactive oxygen species which induce damage to target cells in a process known as photodynamic inactivation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
Frank Schwarz, Kathrin Becker, Sebastian Rahn, Andrea Hegewald, Klaus Pfeffer, Birgit Henrich
BACKGROUND: The potential role of fungal organisms and their co-aggregation with either periodontopathogens or opportunistic pathogens at peri-implantitis sites is unknown. The aim of the present study was to qualitatively/quantitatively analyze and correlate fungal organisms and bacterial species at peri-implantitis sites. METHODS: In a total of 29 patients, submucosal/subgingival plaque samples were collected at peri-implantitis and healthy implant sites as well as teeth with a history of periodontitis (controls)...
December 2015: Int J Implant Dent
Maryam Pourhajibagher, Nasim Chiniforush, Roghayeh Ghorbanzadeh, Abbas Bahador
BACKGROUND: Photo-activated disinfection (PAD) is a novel treatment approach, in which bacteria in the root canal system may be exposed to sub-lethal doses of PAD. Such exposure can affect bacterial survival and virulence features, such as biofilm formation ability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sub-lethal doses of PAD (sPAD) using indocyanine green (ICG) on load and biofilm formation ability of Porphyromonas gingivalis as an anaerobic bacterium associated with endodontic infection...
October 12, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Xiaozhou Fan, Alexander V Alekseyenko, Jing Wu, Brandilyn A Peters, Eric J Jacobs, Susan M Gapstur, Mark P Purdue, Christian C Abnet, Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon, George Miller, Jacques Ravel, Richard B Hayes, Jiyoung Ahn
OBJECTIVE: A history of periodontal disease and the presence of circulating antibodies to selected oral pathogens have been associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer; however, direct relationships of oral microbes with pancreatic cancer have not been evaluated in prospective studies. We examine the relationship of oral microbiota with subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer in a large nested case-control study. DESIGN: We selected 361 incident adenocarcinoma of pancreas and 371 matched controls from two prospective cohort studies, the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II and the National Cancer Institute Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial...
October 14, 2016: Gut
Camila Faria Carrada, Flávia Almeida Ribeiro Scalioni, Dionéia Evangelista Cesar, Karina Lopes Devito, Luiz Cláudio Ribeiro, Rosangela Almeida Ribeiro
OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare salivary periodontopathic bacteria between groups of Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome children and adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included a sample of 30 Down syndrome children and adolescents (G-DS) and 30 age- and sex-matched non-Down syndrome subjects (G-ND). Clinical examination determined the gingival bleeding index (GBI) and plaque index. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from all participants...
2016: PloS One
Simone Stauffacher, Adrian Lussi, Sandor Nietzsche, Klaus W Neuhaus, Sigrun Eick
OBJECTIVES: We wanted to investigate differences in invasiveness into radicular dentinal tubules by monocultured and co-cultured bacteria frequently found in infected root canals. METHODS: Fifty-one human roots were incubated for 8 weeks with monocultured Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558, Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556, and with five capnophiles/anaerobes as well as with capnophiles/anaerobes co-cultured with a streptococcal species. Thereafter, bacterial samples were cultured from the inner, middle, and outer third of the root dentine of longitudinally broken teeth (n = 5)...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
G V Padmalatha, Radhika M Bavle, Gadavalli Vera Venkata Satyakiran, K Paremala, M Sudhakara, Soumya Makarla
INTRODUCTION: Periodontal diseases, if left untreated, can lead to tooth loss and affect at least one tooth in 80% of adults worldwide, with the main cause being a bacterial plaque. Among subgingival plaque bacterial species, Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as a major etiological agent causing tooth loss. Diabetics and smokers are two patient groups at high risk for periodontal disease. The increase in the number of this organism with the coexistence of other pathogenic microbes leads to rapid destruction of the periodontium, premature loss of teeth and also because of its virulence has implications in systemic pathology...
September 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Ji-Young Joo, Gil Sun Cha, Jin Chung, Ju-Youn Lee, Sung-Jo Kim, Jeomil Choi
BACKGROUND: Although periodontal pathogens show a strong association with the development of atherosclerosis, little is known about how a microorganism contributes to disease onset and progression. Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a major risk factor of atherogenesis. The principal objective of our study was to evaluate the ability of peptide 19 (Pep19) of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) heat shock protein (HSP) as a potent inducer of LDL oxidation, and as a secondary objective, to compare this ability with that of Pep19 from different bacteria...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
Tim Stobernack, Corinna Glasner, Sabryna Junker, Giorgio Gabarrini, Menke de Smit, Anne de Jong, Andreas Otto, Dörte Becher, Arie Jan van Winkelhoff, Jan Maarten van Dijl
Porphyromonas gingivalis is an oral pathogen associated with the inflammatory disease periodontitis. Periodontitis and P. gingivalis¬ have been associated with rheumatoid arthritis. One of the hallmarks of rheumatoid arthritis is the loss of tolerance against citrullinated proteins. Citrullination is a post-translational modification of arginine residues, leading to a change in structure and function of the respective protein. This modification, which is catalysed by peptidylarginine deiminases (PAD), plays a role in several physiological processes in the human body...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Jacqueline E Heath, Christine A Seers, Paul D Veith, Catherine A Butler, Nor A Nor Muhammad, Yu-Yen Chen, Nada Slakeski, Benjamin Peng, Lianyi Zhang, Stuart G Dashper, Keith J Cross, Steven M Cleal, Caroline Moore, Eric C Reynolds
Porphyromonas gingivalis utilises the Bacteroidetes-specific type IX secretion system (T9SS) to export proteins across the outer membrane (OM), including virulence factors such as the gingipains. The secreted proteins have a conserved carboxy-terminal domain essential for type IX secretion that is cleaved upon export. In P. gingivalis the T9SS substrates undergo glycosylation with anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) and are attached to the OM. In this study, comparative analyses of 24 Bacteroidetes genomes identified ten putative novel components of the T9SS in P...
2016: PloS One
Fabian A Crespo, Christopher K Klaes, Andrew E Switala, Sharon N DeWitte
: It is possible that during long lasting chronic infections such as tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy individuals who generate a stronger immune response will produce a chronic shift in the systemic levels of inflammatory proteins. Consequently, the systemic immunological shift could affect inflammatory responses against other persistent pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis associated with periodontal disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: To determine if in vitro exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Lin Wang, Xianju Xie, Michael D Weir, Ashraf F Fouad, Liang Zhao, Hockin H K Xu
The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a new bioactive dental bonding agent with nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate for tooth root caries restorations and endodontic applications, and (2) investigate biofilm inhibition by the bioactive bonding agent against eight species of periodontal and endodontic pathogens for the first time. Bonding agent was formulated with 5 % of dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate. Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate at 30 wt% was mixed into adhesive...
November 2016: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Kenneth Barth, Caroline Attardo Genco
The NFκB and MAPK signaling pathways are critical components of innate immunity that orchestrate appropriate immune responses to control and eradicate pathogens. Their activation results in the induction of proinflammatory mediators, such as TNFα a potent bioactive molecule commonly secreted by recruited inflammatory cells, allowing for paracrine signaling at the site of an infection. In this study we identified a novel mechanism by which the opportunistic pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis dampens innate immune responses by disruption of kinase signaling and degradation of inflammatory mediators...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hye-Kyoung Jun, Young-Jung Jung, Bong-Kyu Choi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze whether periodontopathogens induced inflammatory cell death and the release of diverse endogenous danger molecules in THP-1-derived macrophages. METHODS: The macrophages were treated with Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Activation of caspase-1 and caspase-4 was detected by Western blotting. Cell death of bacteria-stimulated macrophages was examined using a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and propidium iodide (PI)/annexin V (AV) staining...
September 26, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Fen Liu, Yi Wang, Jing Xu, Fangqiang Liu, Rongdang Hu, Hui Deng
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases are positively correlated with periodontal disease. However, the molecular mechanisms linking atherosclerosis and periodontal infection are not clear. This study aimed to determine whether Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS) altered the expression of genes regulating cholesterol metabolism in macrophages in the presence of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: THP-1-derived macrophages were exposed to different concentrations (0...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Keumjin Baek, Yun Sik Choi, Cheol Keun Kang, Youngnim Choi
BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, has inter-strain variability in virulence. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of the cell invasion ability and proteolytic activity of P. gingivalis to its virulence in a murine model of periodontitis. METHODS: Three clinical isolates, including KUMC-P1 (P1: low cell invasion ability and low proteolytic activity), KUMC-P4 (P4: low cell invasion ability and high proteolytic activity), and KUMC-P8 (P8: high cell invasion ability and low proteolytic activity), were orally administered into mice...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
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