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P. gingivalis

Asghar Z Naqvi, Lin Mu, Hatice Hasturk, Thomas E Van Dyke, Kenneth J Mukamal, J Max Goodson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with low-dose aspirin therapy on periodontal bacterial profile in patients with periodontitis. BACKGROUND: We recently showed that oral DHA + aspirin therapy reduces periodontal pocket depth and local inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) among patients with untreated chronic periodontal disease. Whether or not DHA + aspirin therapy influences specific bacterial burden in this setting is unknown...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
Junjun Liu, Siyu Lu, Qiuling Tang, Kai Zhang, Weixian Yu, Hongchen Sun, Bai Yang
Carbon dots (CDs) with high quantum yield (QY), low toxicity and good biocompatibility are the major quests of biomedical research. In this paper, we develop a green, simple hydrothermal approach to synthesize water-soluble, nontoxic, highly photoluminescent carbon nanodots (CNDs) from Metronidazole, which possess selective antibacterial activity against obligate anaerobes for the first time. Metronidazole was used as a sole precursor to prepare CNDs at 250 °C (CNDs-250) for 8 h. After the CNDs-250 with an average size of 2...
May 17, 2017: Nanoscale
N T Hashim, G J Linden, L Winning, M E Ibrahim, B G Gismalla, F T Lundy, I A El Karim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There has been limited study of the bacterial species associated with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) in high-risk populations in Africa. The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify the presence of four putative periodontal pathogens in the subgingival plaque of Sudanese subjects with AgP. A secondary aim was to investigate the effect of varying the detection threshold on the reported prevalence of the bacterial species investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subgingival plaque samples were collected from AgP cases (n=73) and healthy controls (n=71)...
April 27, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
Sabrina G de Aquino, Jhimmy Talbot, Fabiane Sônego, Walter M Turato, Renata Grespan, Mario J Avila-Campos, Fernando Q Cunha, Joni A Cirelli
AIM: To evaluate whether Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced periodontitis aggravates the antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) model, and whether this effect is dependent on the Th17/IL-17 signalling pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antigen-induced arthritis was triggered by local injection of methylated bovine serum albumin into the knee joint of previously immunized C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA)-knockout mice. Periodontal disease in naïve or arthritic mice was induced by oral infection with P...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Izabela Glowczyk, Alicia Wong, Barbara Potempa, Olena Babyak, Maciej Lech, Richard J Lamont, Jan Potempa, Joanna Koziel
Gingipain cysteine proteases are considered key virulence factors of Porphyromonas gingivalis. They significantly influence antibacterial and homeostatic functions of macrophages, neutrophils, the complement system, and cytokine networks. Recent data indicate the role of P. gingivalis in T cell differentiation; however, the involvement of gingipains in this process remains elusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of danger signals triggered by the gingipains on the generation of Th17 cells, which play a key role in protection against bacterial diseases but may cause chronic inflammation and bone resorption...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Kartheyaene Jayaprakash, Isak Demirel, Sezin Gunaltay, Hazem Khalaf, Torbjörn Bengtsson
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen in periodontitis and is gaining importance in cardiovascular pathogenesis. Protease-activated receptors (PARs), toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) on monocytes recognize the structural components on P. gingivalis, inducing inflammatory intermediates. Here, we elucidate the modulation of PARs, TLRs, NODs, and the role of MAPK and NF-κB in IL-1β and CXCL8 release. THP1 cells were stimulated with P. gingivalis wild-type W50 and its isogenic gingipain mutants: Rgp mutant E8 and Kgp mutant K1A...
May 11, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Reham Albabtain, Muhammad Azeem, Zenebech Wondimu, Tulay Lindberg, Anna Karin Borg-Karlson, Anders Gustafsson
Salvadora persica is commonly used chewing sticks in many parts of the world as an oral hygiene tool. This study measured the amount of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) released into the mouth and assessed its retention time in saliva. The study also tested if the released amount of BITC could potentially be antibacterial or cytotoxic. Twelve subjects brushed their teeth with fresh Miswak once, twice, and four times. The amount of BITC in the saliva and in the used brushes was quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Brian A Klein, Louis P Cornacchione, Marisha Collins, Michael H Malamy, Margaret J Duncan, Linden T Hu
Cellular pigmentation is an important virulence factor of the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis Pigmentation has been associated with many bacterial functions including but not limited to: colonization, maintaining a local anaerobic environment by binding oxygen molecules, and defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by immune cells. Pigmentation-associated loci identified to date have involved lipopolysaccharide, fimbriae and haem acquisition and processing. We utilized a transposon mutant library of P...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
F Yang, M Y Chen, Y Y Hu, C N Wang
Objective: To illuminate the effect of NALP3 inflammasome on regulating the expression of cytokines of macrophages in periodontitis. Methods: RAW264.7 cells were cultured and divided into three groups. The first group stayed normal as control, the second group was stimulated by 1 mg/L Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the third group was pretreated with AC-YVAD-CMK (caspase-1 inhibitor) before stimulated with 1 mg/L Pg LPS. RAW264.7 cells pretreated with various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200 μmol/L) of AC-YVAD-CMK for 2 h, and stimulated by 1 mg/L Pg LPS for 24 h in the third group...
May 9, 2017: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
Evelien Gerits, Natalie Verstraeten, Jan Michiels
In nature, bacteria predominantly reside in structured, surface-attached communities embedded in a self-produced, extracellular matrix. These so-called biofilms play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of many infections, as they are difficult to eradicate due to their resistance to antimicrobials and host defense mechanisms. This review focusses on the biofilm-forming periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Current knowledge on the virulence mechanisms underlying P. gingivalis biofilm formation is presented...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Louise A Belfield, Jon H Bennett, Wondwossen Abate, Simon K Jackson
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of concurrent LPS and cytokine priming, reflective of the in vivo milieu, on macrophage production of key periodontitis associated cytokines TNF, IL-1β and IL-6. DESIGN: THP-1 cells were pre-treated with combinations of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), concurrently with polarising cytokines IFNγ and IL-4, or PMA as a non-polarised control. Production of key periodontitis associated cytokines in response to subsequent LPS challenge were measured by enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
Meng-Hsuan Ho, Richard J Lamont, Hua Xie
Dental plaque is a complex multispecies biofilm, and is a direct precursor of periodontal disease. The virulence of periodontal pathogens, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, is expressed in the context of this polymicrobial community. Previously, we reported an antagonistic relationship between Streptococcus cristatus and P. gingivalis, and identified arginine deiminase (ArcA) of S. cristatus as the signaling molecule to which P. gingivalis responds by repressing the expression and production of FimA protein...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Maribasappa Karched, Radhika G Bhardwaj, Eunice M Pauline, Swapna George, Sirkka Asikainen
Saliva is an attractive source for oral microbial detection and quantification since sampling is non-invasive and rapid. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether different saliva preparation methods or preservation time periods affect DNA stability. METHODS: Saliva samples from 4 healthy adult volunteers were processed to obtain 3 different preparations: whole saliva, and after centrifugation pellet and supernatant. Purified DNA (MasterPure™) from each sample was divided into 4 aliquots, one for immediate analysis and 3 (stored at -80°C) for later analyses after 1 week and 2 and 6 months...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
Masayuki Taniguchi, Kengo Saito, Takafumi Nomoto, Toshiki Namae, Akihito Ochiai, Eiichi Saitoh, Takaaki Tanaka
In the present study, we identified and chemically synthesized three cationic and amphipathic peptides (Glycinin-17, BCAS-16, and BCBS-11) from soybean proteins. These peptides had high isoelectric points, high positive net charges, and included multiple hydrophobic amino acids. Subsequently, we identified multiple functions of these peptides, including antimicrobial, lipopolysaccharide-neutralizing, and angiogenic activities, and examined their cytotoxic activities against mammalian red blood cells. Glycinin-17, BCAS-16, and BCBS-11 exhibited antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Candida albicans whereas Glycinin-17 did not possess antimicrobial effects on Propionibacterium acnes and Streptococcus mutans...
April 29, 2017: Biopolymers
Yoshiaki Nomura, Hiroaki Takeuchi, Masaaki Okamoto, Kaoru Sogabe, Ayako Okada, Nobuhiro Hanada
BACKGROUND: Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens is one of the well-known pathogens causing periodontal diseases, and the red florescence excited by the visible blue light caused by the protoporphyrin IX in the bacterial cells could be useful for the chair-side detection. The aim of this study was to evaluated levels of periodontal pathogen, especially P. intermedia in clinical samples of red fluorescent dental plaque. METHODS: Thirty two supra gingival plaque samples from six individuals were measured its fluorescence at 640nm wavelength excited by 409nm...
April 27, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Alice Harding, Sarita Robinson, StJohn Crean, Sim K Singhrao
A risk factor relationship exists between periodontal disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD) via tooth loss, and improved memory following dental intervention. This links the microbial contribution from indigenous oral periodontal pathogens to the manifestation of chronic conditions, such as AD. Here, we use Porphyromonas gingivalis infection to illustrate its effect on mental health. P. gingivalis infection, in its primary sub-gingival niche, can cause polymicrobial synergy and dysbiosis. Dysbiosis describes the residency of select commensals from the oral cavity following co-aggregation around the dominant keystone pathogen, such as P...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Rinat Tzach-Nahman, Gabriel Mizraji, Lior Shapira, Gabriel Nussbaum, Asaf Wilensky
AIM: Peri-implantitis is a major health concern, with unclear pathogenesis, and with no accessible animal models. Our aim was to establish a mouse model for peri-implantitis, and to investigate mediators of inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were divided into implanted versus non-implanted groups. Implants were inserted immediately following the extraction of the upper first molar. Four weeks following implantation, implanted and non-implanted mice were challenged with either Porphyromonas gingivalis or vehicle (eight mice in each sub-group, thirty-two mice in total)...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Carolyn D Kramer, Alexandra M Simas, Xianbao He, Robin R Ingalls, Ellen O Weinberg, Caroline Attardo Genco
Mounting evidence in humans supports an etiological role for the microbiota in inflammatory atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease characterized by accumulation of inflammatory cells and lipids in vascular tissue. While retention of lipoprotein into the sub-endothelial vascular layer is believed to be the initiating stimulus leading to the development of atherosclerosis, activation of multiple pathways related to vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction sustain the process by stimulating recruitment of leukocytes and immune cells into the sub-endothelial layer...
April 23, 2017: Anaerobe
Esteban Rodriguez Herrero, Nico Boon, Martine Pauwels, Kristel Bernaerts, Vera Slomka, Marc Quirynen, Wim Teughels
The oral use of antimicrobial agents embedded in toothpastes and mouth rinses results in an oral microbial massacre with high amounts of dead bacteria in close proximity to few surviving bacteria. It was hypothesized that this provides the surviving pathogenic bacteria a large amount of dead microbial biomass as a nutritional source for growth (necrotrophy). This study demonstrated the necrotrophic growth of periodontal pathogens in the presence of different dead oral species. In addition, the presence of dead bacteria resulted in an outgrowth of several periodontal pathogens in complex multi-species biofilms...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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