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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917393/reduction-in-depressive-symptoms-in-primary-prevention-icd-scheduled-patients-one-year-prospective-study
#1
Revital Amiaz, Elad Asher, Guy Rozen, Efrat Czerniak, Linda Levi, Mark Weiser, Michael Glikson
OBJECTIVE: Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICDs), have previously been associated with the onset of depression and anxiety. The aim of this one-year prospective study was to evaluate the rate of new onset psychopathological symptoms after elective ICD implantation. METHODS: A total of 158 consecutive outpatients who were scheduled for an elective ICD implantation were diagnosed and screened based on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)...
September 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911240/understanding-the-prevalence-and-correlates-of-implicit-theories-of-weight-in-the-united-states-insights-from-a-nationally-representative-sample
#2
Lisa A Auster-Gussman, Alexander J Rothman
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this research is to understand how mindsets about weight controllability in the United States relate to population health. We examined the distribution of people's implicit theories of weight, from an incremental (controllable) to an entity (not controllable) mindset, in a nationally representative sample, as well as their relation to: sociodemographic factors, beliefs about behaviour and genetics as causes of obesity and engagement in weight management-relevant behaviours...
September 15, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905371/the-origins-of-children-s-growth-and-fixed-mindsets-new-research-and-a-new-proposal
#3
Kyla Haimovitz, Carol S Dweck
Children's mindsets about intelligence (as a quality they can grow vs. a trait they cannot change) robustly influence their motivation and achievement. How do adults foster "growth mindsets" in children? One might assume that adults act in ways that communicate their own mindsets to children. However, new research shows that many parents and teachers with growth mindsets are not passing them on. This article presents a new perspective on why this is the case, and reviews research on adult practices that do instill growth mindsets, concluding that a sustained focus on the process of learning is critical...
September 14, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904648/metacognition-modules-a-scaffolded-series-of-online-assignments-designed-to-improve-students-study-skills
#4
Jean A Cardinale, Bethany C Johnson
Many first-year biology students begin college with high aspirations but limited skills in terms of those needed for their success. Teachers are increasingly focused on students' lack of metacognitive awareness combined with students' inability to self-regulate learning behaviors. To address this need, we have designed a series of out-of-class assignments to provide explicit instruction on memory and learning. Our metacognition modules consist of six video assignments with reflective journaling prompts, allowing students to explore the relationship between the learning cycle, neuroplasticity, memory function, expert and novice thinking, and effective study strategies...
2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904325/new-medical-education-reform-in-china-towards-healthy-china-2030
#5
Peipei Song, Chunlin Jin, Wei Tang
On July 11, 2017, the State Council of China issued a bold plan to revolutionize medical education and promote collaboration between medical education and practice. The cornerstone of the plan is training more qualified medical professionals to improve public healthcare on the path to Healthy China 2030. According to this plan, a "5+3" training system will be instituted to train medical professionals in China, and top medical colleges will be encouraged to recruit more students. However, given the less-than-ideal professional status of Chinese doctors, the frequent incidents of violence against them, long working hours and a heavy workload, and an unsatisfactory income, attracting personnel to work in medicine and health care has become a challenge...
2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901645/measuring-achievement-goal-motivation-mindsets-and-cognitive-load-validation-of-three-instruments-scores
#6
David A Cook, Richmond M Castillo, Becca Gas, Anthony R Artino
OBJECTIVE: Measurement of motivation and cognitive load has potential value in health professions education. Our objective was to evaluate the validity of scores from Dweck's Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale (ITIS), Elliot's Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) and Leppink's cognitive load index (CLI). METHODS: This was a validity study evaluating internal structure using reliability and factor analysis, and relationships with other variables using the multitrait-multimethod matrix...
October 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890583/compassionate-goals-and-affect-in-social-situations
#7
Amy Canevello, Jennifer Crocker
Optimal social interactions can leave people feeling socially connected and at ease, which has clear implications for health and psychological well-being. Yet, not all social interactions leave people feelings at ease and connected. What explains this variability? We draw from the egosystem-ecosystem theory of social motivation (Crocker & Canevello, 2008) to suggest that compassionate goals to support others explain some of this variability. We explored the nature of this association across 4 studies and varying social contexts...
April 2017: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889203/do-growth-mindsets-in-math-benefit-females-identifying-pathways-between-gender-mindset-and-motivation
#8
Jessica L Degol, Ming-Te Wang, Ya Zhang, Julie Allerton
Despite efforts to increase female representation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), females continue to be less motivated to pursue STEM careers than males. A short-term longitudinal study used a sample of 1449 high school students (grades 9-12; 49% females) to examine pathways from gender and mindset onto STEM outcomes via motivational beliefs (i.e., expectancy beliefs, task value, and cost). Mindset, motivational beliefs, and STEM career aspirations were assessed between the fall and winter months of the 2014-2015 school year and math grades were obtained at the conclusion of the same year...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887753/can-an-infusion-of-federal-funds-result-in-sustainable-projects-an-evaluation-of-suicide-prevention-programs
#9
Robert Apsler, Scott W Formica, Ellyson Stout, Colleen Carr
Our study evaluated the sustainability of programs in early cohorts of the Garrett Lee Smith (GLS) Memorial Act suicide prevention initiative, a major source of federal funding for youth suicide prevention among states, tribes, and institutions of higher education. We sought to: (1) determine whether suicide prevention activities initiated with federal support continued after funding ended, and (2) identify factors associated with sustainment. Thirty-three sites between 1 and 4 years beyond the end of their GLS grant participated in a retrospective online survey assessing their level of suicide prevention activity 1 year before, during (during-GLS), and 1 year after funding (after-GLS)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Primary Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882211/introduction-to-northeast-pacific-shark-biology-ecology-and-conservation
#10
Dayv Lowry, Shawn E Larson
Sharks are iconic, sometimes apex, predators found in every ocean and, as a result, they have featured prominently in the mythology, history, and fisheries of diverse human cultures around the world. Because of their regional significance to fisheries and ecological role as predators, and as a result of concern over long-term stability of their populations, there has been an increasing amount of work focused on shark conservation in recent decades. This volume highlights the biodiversity and biological attributes of, and conservation efforts targeted at, populations of sharks that reside in the Northeast Pacific Ocean bordering the west coast of the United States and Canada, one of the most economically and ecologically important oceanic regions in the world...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876605/trauma-laparoscopy-teaching-an-old-dog-new-tricks
#11
O Matsevych, M Koto, C Aldous
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic laparoscopy is well-accepted in management of penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT) with the rate of missed injuries below 1%. However, there is a reluctance to accept therapeutic laparoscopy in trauma society. The main reason is the lack of laparoscopic skills by trauma surgeons. Moreover, no formal laparoscopy training program for trauma exists. The aim of this study was to discuss the trauma laparoscopy training at our institution. METHOD: All patients managed laparoscopically for PAT from January 2012 to December 2015 were included in the study...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873338/myths-and-truths-about-the-cellular-composition-of-the-human-brain-a-review-of-influential-concepts
#12
REVIEW
Christopher S Bvon Bartheld
Over the last 50 years, quantitative methodology has made important contributions to our understanding of the cellular composition of the human brain. Not all of the concepts that emerged from quantitative studies have turned out to be true. Here, I examine the history and current status of some of the most influential notions. This includes claims of how many cells compose the human brain, and how different cell types contribute and in what ratios. Additional concepts entail whether we lose significant numbers of neurons with normal aging, whether chronic alcohol abuse contributes to cortical neuron loss, whether there are significant differences in the quantitative composition of cerebral cortex between male and female brains, whether superior intelligence in humans correlates with larger numbers of brain cells, and whether there are secular (generational) changes in neuron number...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872676/beliefs-about-stress-attenuate-the-relation-among-adverse-life-events-perceived-distress-and-self-control
#13
Daeun Park, Alisa Yu, Sarah E Metz, Eli Tsukayama, Alia J Crum, Angela L Duckworth
Prior research has shown that adverse events in the lives of adolescents precipitate psychological distress, which in turn impairs self-control. This study (N = 1,343) examined the protective effects of stress mindsets-beliefs about the extent to which stress might be beneficial or strictly detrimental. The results confirmed that increasing the number of adverse life events across the school year predicted rank order increases in perceived distress, which in turn predicted rank order decreases in self-control...
September 5, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865659/prioritizing-possibilities-for-child-and-family-health-an-agenda-to-address-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-foster-the-social-and-emotional-roots-of-well-being-in-pediatrics
#14
Christina D Bethell, Michele R Solloway, Stephanie Guinosso, Sandra Hassink, Aditi Srivastav, David Ford, Lisa A Simpson
OBJECTIVE: A convergence of theoretical and empirical evidence across many scientific disciplines reveals unprecedented possibilities to advance much needed improvements in child and family well-being by addressing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), promoting resilience, and fostering nurturance and the social and emotional roots of healthy child development and lifelong health. In this article we synthesize recommendations from a structured, multiyear field-building and research, policy, and practice agenda setting process to address these issues in children's health services...
September 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855529/schizophrenia-genetics-in-the-genome-wide-era-a-review-of-japanese-studies
#15
REVIEW
Tetsufumi Kanazawa, Chad A Bousman, Chenxing Liu, Ian P Everall
The introduction of the genome-wide association study transformed schizophrenia genetics research and has promoted a genome-wide mindset that has stimulated the development of genomic technology, enabling departures from the traditional candidate gene approach. As result, we have witnessed a decade of major discoveries in schizophrenia genetics and the development of genome-wide approaches to the study of copy number variants. These genomic technologies have primarily been applied in populations of European descent...
August 30, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855112/diseases-and-or-in-frailty-an-important-conceptual-difference
#16
Miguel Germán Borda, Daniela Patino-Hernandez
Frailty is a clinical state that increases an individual's vulnerability. It is an outcome marker in several medical scenarios. However, there is a lack of recognition in the medical field. Frailty should not be regarded as a condition superimposed to disease. Contrarily, it should be noticed as a state frequently found either as a component of diseases themselves or as their outcome. The work of a geriatrician is focused on the best possible approximation to the medical and psychosocial issues that an elder has, and must join the treatment team when the person has a considerable number of conditions that makes him/her frail...
August 30, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854888/principles-and-processes-behind-promoting-awareness-of-rights-for-quality-maternal-care-services-a-synthesis-of-stakeholder-experiences-and-implementation-factors
#17
Asha S George, Casey Branchini
BACKGROUND: Promoting awareness of rights is a value-based process that entails a different way of thinking and acting, which is at times misunderstood or deemed as aspirational. METHODS: Guided by the SURE framework, we undertook a secondary analysis of 26 documents identified by an earlier systematic review on promoting awareness of rights to increase use of maternity care services. We thematically analysed stakeholder experiences and implementation factors across the diverse initiatives to derive common elements to guide future efforts...
August 31, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835409/towards-a-three-dimensional-framework-of-centrally-regulated-and-goal-directed-exercise-behaviour-a-narrative-review
#18
REVIEW
Andreas Venhorst, Dominic Micklewright, Timothy D Noakes
The Central Governor Model (CGM) ignited a paradigm shift from concepts of catastrophic failure towards central regulation of exercise performance. However, the CGM has focused on the central integration of afferent feedback in homeostatic control. Accordingly, it neglected the important role of volitional self-regulatory control and the integration of affective components inherently attached to all physiological cues. Another limitation is the large reliance on the Gestalt phenomenon of perceived exertion...
August 23, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827911/short-bowel-syndrome-an-uncommon-clinical-entity-and-a-therapeutic-challenge-our-experience-and-review-of-literature
#19
Lalit Aggarwal, Swati Sattavan, Romesh Lal, Deborshi Sharma, Saurabh Borgharia, Nishit Shrivastava, Rama Alagappan, Ranvir Singh
Short bowel syndrome (SBS), one of the commonest types of intestinal failure, usually secondary to extensive bowel resection, traditionally has been associated with a high mortality rate and hence a big challenge for the treating surgeons. It requires comprehensive clinical care to minimise the morbidities and mortality associated with the condition. We report a retrospective review of a series of seven patients with SBS, who presented at our surgical emergency within a period of 1 year and their outcome so as to encourage others in managing such a challenge with more positive mindsets...
August 2017: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822755/does-the-transformation-of-dietitians-from-counseling-to-therapy-also-apply-to-the-physical-and-therapeutic-environment-a-case-study-of-israeli-practice
#20
Anat Gesser-Edelsburg, Yael Birman
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle change can be influenced through effective interaction between care receiver and care provider. The physical environment where the interaction occurs can affect the dynamics of long-term therapeutic treatment. There have been no studies on the perception of the physical environment in nutritional treatment. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to ascertain the impact of the physical environment on the dynamics and communication between dietitian and patient based on perceptions of dietitians...
August 17, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
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