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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437721/optimizing-follow-up-and-study-retention-in-the-21st-century-advances-from-the-front-line-in-alcohol-and-tobacco-research
#1
Lia J Smith, Patrick J McNamara, Andrea C King
AIMS: Longitudinal studies are integral in addiction research but retention of participants over time can be challenging. While statistical algorithms for missing data have advanced, they remain less desirable than collecting actual data with high retention rates. An update to methodological primers with consideration of evolving technology and privacy concerns is needed for 21st century researchers. METHODS: Comprehensive follow-up methodological strategies were conducted in four concurrent laboratory- and intervention-based studies across N=697 drinker and smokers enrolled in studies at the Clinical Addictions Research Laboratory at the University of Chicago...
April 15, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427051/subjective-time-perceptions-and-aging-well-a-review-of-concepts-and-empirical-research-a-mini-review
#2
Martina Gabrian, Anne J Dutt, Hans-Werner Wahl
Human beings impose subjective, time-related interpretations on their existence, and the experience of time is a major aspect of lifespan development. In this mini-review, we understand subjective time as the way individuals subjectively perceive and evaluate the passing of their personal "objective" lifetime. A broad range of constructs and operationalizations has been developed in (gero-) psychology to capture subjective time, including future time perspective, personal goals, or autobiographical memories...
April 21, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426360/pharmaceutical-cognitive-enhancement-in-greek-university-students-differences-between-users-and-non-users-in-social-cognitive-variables-burnout-and-engagement
#3
Lambros Lazuras, Antonia Ypsilanti, Efthymios Lamprou, Christos Kontogiorgis
Pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (PCE) represents the non-medical use of prescribed medication for the improvement of cognitive functioning and academic performance. Although there are some studies about PCE prevalence, it is less clear how users and non-users of PCE substances differ with respect to their positive and negative student experiences (e.g. academic burnout and engagement with studies) and in social cognitive variables that relate to decision-making and self-regulation of PCE use. The present study assessed whether students with different experiences of PCE substance use displayed differences in academic burnout, study engagement, and social cognitive variables relevant to PCE use...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421019/gender-moderates-the-influence-of-self-construal-priming-on-fairness-considerations
#4
Nic Flinkenflogel, Sheida Novin, Mariette Huizinga, Lydia Krabbendam
Research in social and cultural psychology has identified that self-construal, or the way the self is defined in relation to others, plays an important role in social decision-making processes. Yet it remains difficult to isolate the effect of self-construal in a comparative approach. Therefore, we used priming methodology in three studies to induce either an independent or interdependent mindset to test direct consequences on fairness considerations. Specifically, we asked whether participants would accept an unfair ultimatum game offer: a split of 10 euros, where the participant is allocated the marginal share of 3 and the proposer 7...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418538/changing-mindsets-to-enhance-treatment-effectiveness
#5
Alia Crum, Barry Zuckerman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415921/intimate-strangers-eritrean-male-asylum-seekers-perceptions-of-marriage-and-sexuality
#6
Lior Birger, Einat Peled
This study examined perceptions of marriage and sexuality among male asylum seekers from Eritrea. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 men living in Israel. Their perceptions of marriage and sexuality were found to be influenced by their life as asylum seekers, and particularly by their encounter with a different culture, by their lack of legal status, and by the marked numerical imbalance between women and men within their community. Changes in their perceptions occurred after their arrival in Israel, and included greater relaxing of social codes and the transition from a relatively 'closed' sexual mindset to a more 'open' one...
April 18, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400404/a-growth-mindset-approach-to-preparing-trainees-for-medical-error
#7
Jill Klein, Clare Delany, Michael D Fischer, David Smallwood, Stephen Trumble
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2017: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398910/ebm-vs-ebm-combining-evidence-based-and-experienced-based-medicine-in-resuscitation-research
#8
Paul E Pepe, Tom P Aufderheide
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the clear rationale for evidence-based medicine (EvBM) in the challenging realms of resuscitation research, yet also provide case examples in which even the well designed, multicentered randomized clinical trial may have had unrecognized limitations, and thus misleading results. This is where experienced-based medicine (ExBM) helps to resolve the issue. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent publications have brought to task the conclusions drawn from various clinical trials of resuscitative interventions...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342402/the-effects-of-mindful-learning-on-pro-environmental-behavior-a-self-expansion-perspective
#9
Yanmei Tang, Liuna Geng, P Wesley Schultz, Kexin Zhou, Peng Xiang
This current article explores the differential effects of mindful learning on pro-environmental behavior from the perspective of self-expansion. A total of 253 participants were recruited for four experiments. In Study 1, the mindful-learning group reported greater levels of pro-environmental behavioral intentions compared to a randomized control. In Study 2, we utilized different learning materials focusing on self, humans, or the biosphere in three sub-experiments. Study 2a manipulated mindsets by a self-related focus and revealed participants in a mindfulness condition had lower pro-environmental behavioral intentions than those in the mindlessness group...
March 22, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337158/how-not-to-do-a-mindset-intervention-learning-from-a-mindset-intervention-among-students-with-good-grades
#10
Gábor Orosz, Szilvia Péter-Szarka, Beáta Bőthe, István Tóth-Király, Rony Berger
The present study examined the effectiveness of a Growth Mindset intervention based on Dweck et al.'s (1995) theory in the Hungarian educational context. A cluster randomized controlled trial classroom experiment was carried out within the framework of a train-the-trainer intervention among 55 Hungarian 10th grade students with high Grade Point Average (GPA). The results suggest that students' IQ and personality mindset beliefs were more incremental in the intervention group than in the control group 3 weeks after the intervention...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319151/ethical-problems-in-an-era-where-disasters-have-become-a-part-of-daily-life-a-qualitative-study-of-healthcare-workers-in-turkey
#11
M Murat Civaner, Kevser Vatansever, Kayihan Pala
BACKGROUND: Natural disasters, armed conflict, migration, and epidemics today occur more frequently, causing more death, displacement of people and economic loss. Their burden on health systems and healthcare workers (HCWs) is getting heavier accordingly. The ethical problems that arise in disaster settings may be different than the ones in daily practice, and can cause preventable harm or the violation of basic human rights. Understanding the types and the determinants of ethical challenges is crucial in order to find the most benevolent action while respecting the dignity of those affected people...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316939/application-of-established-pathophysiologic-processes-brings-greater-clarity-to-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyponatremia
#12
EDITORIAL
John K Maesaka, Louis J Imbriano, Nobuyuki Miyawaki
Hyponatremia, serum sodium < 135 mEq/L, is the most common electrolyte abnormality and is in a state of flux. Hyponatremic patients are symptomatic and should be treated but our inability to consistently determine the causes of hyponatremia has hampered the delivery of appropriate therapy. This is especially applicable to differentiating syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) from cerebral salt wasting (CSW) or more appropriately, renal salt wasting (RSW), because of divergent therapeutic goals, to water-restrict in SIAD and administer salt and water in RSW...
March 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300608/towards-a-reduced-meat-diet-mindset-and-motivation-of-young-vegetarians-low-medium-and-high-meat-eaters
#13
Joop de Boer, Hanna Schösler, Harry Aiking
This study provides insight into differences and similarities in the mindset and motivation of four dietary groups (young self-declared vegetarians, low, medium and high meat-eaters) to support the development of strategies for a general transition to a less meat-based diet. The paper highlights the value of the identity concept for our understanding of both vegetarians and meat eaters. The analysis involves a comparison of the four dietary groups focusing on the strength and the profile of their food-related motivation and their reasons for and against frequent meat eating...
March 12, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299788/narratives-of-effort-among-chinese-hungarian-and-chinese-immigrant-students-in-hungary
#14
Nóra Sebestyén, Krisztián Ivaskevics, Márta Fülöp
The present study aimed to reveal the effect of migration processes on the conceptualisation of effort involving two cultures with different approaches towards effort: China with an effort-promoting mindset and Hungary with an effort-repressing mindset. In the study, narrative approach was used in cross-sectional design involving Chinese, Hungarian and Chinese immigrant students living in Hungary. Altogether 139 students-49 Hungarian, 47 Chinese, 43 Chinese immigrants-aged 13-15 years provided narratives on past personal effort...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269799/an-analysis-of-health-promotion-materials-for-dutch-truck-drivers-off-target-and-too-complex
#15
Anniek Boeijinga, Hans Hoeken, José Sanders
BACKGROUND: Despite various health promotion initiatives, unfavorable figures regarding Dutch truck drivers' eating behaviors, exercise behaviors, and absenteeism have not improved. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to obtain a better understanding of the low level of effectiveness of current health interventions for Dutch truck drivers by examining to what extent these are tailored to the target group's particular mindset (focus of content) and health literacy skills (presentation of content)...
February 27, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264076/mindset-matters-for-parents-and-adolescents
#16
Claudia Mueller, Meredith L Rowe, Barry Zuckerman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254095/the-new-mindset-for-embracing-precision-medicine-developing-new-approaches-for-exploring-diseases
#17
EDITORIAL
Ming-Chin Lin, Usman Iqbal, Yu-Chuan Jack Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250915/the-reset-mindset-model-applied-on-decreasing-antibiotic-usage-in-dairy-cattle-in-the-netherlands
#18
REVIEW
T J G M Lam, J Jansen, R J Wessels
BACKGROUND: Prudent use of antibiotics is important to prevent antibiotic resistance in humans and in animals. For this reason politicians demanded a decrease of total antibiotic use and of use of critically important antibiotics in animal husbandry in the Netherlands. In the dairy sector the use of antibiotics almost halved in the years 2009-2015, with a decrease of the use of critically important antibiotics to very low levels. THEORY OF BEHAVIOUR CHANGE: To realize a sustainable decrease in antibiotic usage, the mindset towards the subject was considered crucial...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250479/consensus-statement-on-anaesthesia-for-day-care-surgeries
#19
REVIEW
Satish Kulkarni, S S Harsoor, M Chandrasekar, S Bala Bhaskar, Jitendra Bapat, Edakeparavan Keloth Ramdas, Umesh Kumar Valecha, Amol Shashikumar Pradhan, Adarsh Chandra Swami
The primary aim of day-care surgery units is to allow for early recovery of the patients so that they can return to their familiar 'home' environment; the management hence should be focused towards achieving these ends. The benefits could include a possible reduction in the risk of thromboembolism and hospital-acquired infections. Furthermore, day-care surgery is believed to reduce the average unit cost of treatment by up to 70% as compared to inpatient surgery. With more than 20% of the world's disease burden, India only has 6% of the world's hospital beds...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223290/nephrologists-perspectives-on-defining-and-applying-patient-centered-outcomes-in-hemodialysis
#20
Allison Tong, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer, David C Wheeler, Wim van Biesen, Peter Tugwell, Braden Manns, Brenda Hemmelgarn, Tess Harris, Sally Crowe, Angela Ju, Emma O'Lone, Nicole Evangelidis, Jonathan C Craig
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patient centeredness is widely advocated as a cornerstone of health care, but it is yet to be fully realized, including in nephrology. Our study aims to describe nephrologists' perspectives on defining and implementing patient-centered outcomes in hemodialysis. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Face-to-face, semistructured interviews were conducted with 58 nephrologists from 27 dialysis units across nine countries, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Singapore, and New Zealand...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
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