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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343181/experiencing-abortion-rights-in-india-through-issues-of-autonomy-and-legality-a-few-controversies
#1
Tulsi Patel
Abortion laws in India, like other laws, are premised on the 1861 British Penal Code. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act was passed in 1971 to circumvent the criminality clause around abortion. Yet the law continues to render invisible women's right to choose. Legal procedures have often hindered in permitting abortion, resulting in the death of a mother or the foetus. Despite the latest techno-medical advances, the laws have remained stagnant or rather restrictive, complicated further by selective female foetus abortions...
January 17, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340725/decision-making-in-management-of-the-complex-trauma-patient-changing-the-mindset-of-the-non-trauma-surgeon
#2
Linda Sonesson, Kenneth Boffard, Lars Lundberg, Martin Rydmark, Klas Karlgren
BACKGROUND: European surgeons are frequently subspecialized and trained primarily in elective surgical techniques. As trauma leaders, they may occasionally have to deal with complex polytrauma, advanced management techniques, differing priorities, and the need for multidisciplinary care. There is a lack of expertise, experience, and a low trauma volume, as well as a lack of research, with limited support as to the decision-making and teaching challenges present. We studied what experienced trauma experts describe as the challenges that are specific to the advanced surgical decision-making required, whether civilian, humanitarian, or military...
January 16, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336502/nursing-teamwork-in-a-health-system-a-multisite-study
#3
Jennifer A Kaiser, Judith B Westers
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine how the facets of teamwork exist among nurse-only teams in acute and continuing care settings. BACKGROUND: The health care 'team' conventionally describes the interdisciplinary team in both literature and practice. Nursing-specific teams are rarely considered in the literature. An examination of this specific professional cohort is important to understand how teamwork exists among those who provide the majority of patient care...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331059/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-grit-growth-mindset-mediates-the-association-between-gray-matter-structure-and-trait-grit-in-late-adolescence
#4
Song Wang, Jing Dai, Jingguang Li, Xu Wang, Taolin Chen, Xun Yang, Manxi He, Qiyong Gong
There is a long-standing interest in exploring the factors related to student achievement. As a newly explored personality trait, grit is defined as a person's tendency to pursue long-term goals with continual perseverance and passion, and grit plays a critical role in student achievement. Increasing evidence has shown that growth mindset, the belief that one's basic abilities are malleable and can be developed through effort, is a potential factor for cultivating grit. However, less is known about the association between grit and the brain and the role of growth mindset in this association...
January 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329978/data-quality-over-data-quantity-in-computational-cognitive-neuroscience
#5
Antonio Kolossa, Bruno Kopp
We analyzed factors that may hamper the advancement of computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN). These factors include a particular statistical mindset, which paves the way for the dominance of statistical power theory and a preoccupation with statistical replicability in the behavioral and neural sciences. Exclusive statistical concerns about sampling error occur at the cost of an inadequate representation of the problem of measurement error. We contrasted the manipulation of data quantity (sampling error, by varying the number of subjects) against the manipulation of data quality (measurement error, by varying the number of data per subject) in a simulated Bayesian model identifiability study...
January 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314172/shifting-mindsets-a-realist-synthesis-of-evidence-from-self-management-support-training
#6
REVIEW
Freya Davies, Fiona Wood, Alison Bullock, Carolyn Wallace, Adrian Edwards
CONTEXT: Accompanying the growing expectation of patient self-management is the need to ensure health care professionals (HCPs) have the required attitudes and skills to provide effective self-management support (SMS). Results from existing training interventions for HCPs in SMS have been mixed and the evidence base is weaker for certain settings, including supporting people with progressive neurological conditions (PNCs). We set out to understand how training operates, and to identify barriers and facilitators to training designed to support shifts in attitudes amongst HCPs...
January 4, 2018: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298905/gliotransmission-beyond-black-and-white
#7
Iaroslav Savtchouk, Andrea Volterra
Astrocytes are highly complex cells with many emerging putative roles in brain function. Of these, gliotransmission (active information transfer from glia to neurons) has probably the widest implications on our understanding of how the brain works: do astrocytes really contribute to information processing within the neural circuitry? "Positive evidence" for this stems from work of multiple laboratories reporting many examples of modulatory chemical signaling from astrocytes to neurons in the timeframe of hundreds of milliseconds to several minutes...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280957/emotional-encoding-context-leads-to-memory-bias-in-individuals-with-high-anxiety
#8
Christopher Lee, Myra A Fernandes
We investigated whether anxious individuals, who adopt an inherently negative mindset, demonstrate a particularly salient memory bias for words tainted by negative contexts. To this end, sequentially presented target words, overlayed onto negative or neutral pictures, were studied in separate blocks (within-subjects) using a deep or shallow encoding instruction (between-subjects). Following study, in Test 1, participants completed separate recognition test blocks for the words overlayed onto the negative and the neutral contexts...
December 27, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258849/the-good-the-bad-and-the-suffering-transient-emotional-episodes-modulate-the-neural-circuits-of-pain-and-empathy
#9
Emilie Qiao-Tasserit, Corrado Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Patrik Vuilleumier
People's sensitivity to first-hand pain is affected by their ongoing emotions, with positive states (joy, amusement) exerting analgesic-like effects, and negative states (sadness, fear) often enhancing the subjective experience. It is however less clear how empathetic responses to others' pain are affected by one's own emotional state. Following embodied accounts that posit a shared representational code between self and others' states, it is plausible that pain empathy might be influenced by emotions in the same way as first-hand pain...
December 16, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251606/issues-in-access-to-end-of-life-care-in-low-resource-areas
#10
Yogesh Jain, Gajanan Phutke
Even though 1% of people require palliative and end-of-life care in low-resource situations, it remains an uncharted arena. Yet it is as important as curative care to alleviate suffering. Palliative care is not only a need in cancer and HIV disease; but is needed in a diverse group of illnesses ranging from tuberculosis, renal failures, paraplegia to chronic lung diseases. In a lower resource setting, the gaps in palliation may be the need for more technology and interventions or more healthcare professionals...
October 25, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251534/the-organizational-climate-in-collegiate-athletics-an-athletic-trainer-s-perspective
#11
Stephanie M Mazerolle, Christianne M Eason
CONTEXT:   An organizational climate is largely based on an employee's perceptions of the working conditions in which he or she engages regularly. A multifaceted concept, the organizational climate is often formed by perceptions of employee welfare, rewards, and support. Achieving work-life balance is also a part of the climate. OBJECTIVE:   To learn collegiate athletic trainers' perceptions of organizational climate and specifically how it may pertain to their work-life balance...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248596/the-wonderland-of-neuronal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#12
REVIEW
Daniel Bertrand, A V Terry
Nearly 30 years of experimental evidence supports the argument that ligands of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have potential as therapeutic agents. However, as in the famous Lewis Carroll novel "Alice in Wonderland", there have been many unexpected adventures along the pathway of development, and few nAChR ligands have been approved for any clinical condition to date with the exception of nicotine dependence. The recent failures of nAChR ligands in AD and schizophrenia clinical trials have reduced enthusiasm for this therapeutic strategy and many pharmaceutical companies have now abandoned this field of research...
December 14, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239643/not-all-differentiation-is-the-same-examining-the-moderating-effects-of-leader-member-exchange-lmx-configurations
#13
Jungmin Jamie Seo, Jennifer D Nahrgang, Min Z Carter, Peter W Hom
Leaders often influence whether an employee stays or quits and yet research in collective turnover, or turnover at the work-unit level, has neglected leadership as a key antecedent. In the current study we examine how the quality of leader-member relationships within a group (i.e., leader-member exchange, LMX) influences building a shared mindset of collective organizational commitment and ultimately influences collective turnover. We build on a key tenet of LMX theory that leaders form differentiated relationships with followers and propose that not all LMX differentiation is the same and therefore, researchers must take into account the configuration, or mix of high and low LMX relationships, within a group...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235174/big-data-and-medicine-a-big-deal
#14
Viktor Mayer-Schönberger, Erik Ingelsson
Big Data promises huge benefits for medical research. Looking beyond superficial increases in the amount of data collected, we identify three key areas where Big Data differs from conventional analyses of data samples: (1) data is captured more comprehensively relative to the phenomenon under study; this reduces some bias but surfaces important tradeoffs, such as between data quantity and data quality; (2) data is often analyzed using machine learning tools, such as neural networks rather than conventional statistical methods resulting in systems that over time capture insights implicit in data, but remain black boxes, rarely revealing causal connections; and (3) the purpose of the analyses of data is no longer simply answering existing questions, but hinting at novel ones and generating promising new hypotheses...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224485/assessment-of-dietary-factors-dietary-practices-and-exercise-on-mental-distress-in-young-adults-versus-matured-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Lina Begdache, Maher Chaar, Nasim Sabounchi, Hamed Kianmehr
The importance of the diet in modulating mental health is uncovering as many dietary factors have been described to alter brain chemistry. Brain maturation may not complete until the age of 30 which may explain the differential emotional control, mindset, and resilience between young adults and matured adults. As a result, dietary factors may influence mental health differently in these two populations. OBJECTIVES: To study dietary intake, dietary practices and exercise in young adults (YA) (18-29 years) versus matured adults (MA) (30 years and older) in relation to mental distress...
December 11, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200799/improving-police-interventions-during-mental-health-related-encounters-past-present-and-future
#16
Jennifer D Wood, Amy C Watson
There are calls across America for police to re-imagine themselves as "guardians" rather than "warriors" in the performance of their innumerable duties. The contentious history of police attitudes and practices surrounding encounters with people affected by mental illnesses can be understood through the lens of this wider push toward guardianship. At least as far back as the de-institutionalization of mental health care and the profound lack of community-based resources to fill service deficits, the role of police as mental health interventionists has been controversial and complex...
2017: Policing & Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193042/driving-access-to-medicines-with-a-totality-of-evidence-mindset-an-opportunity-for-clinical-pharmacology
#17
Karthik Venkatakrishnan, Jack Cook
Access to Medicine (AtM) initiatives have traditionally focused on enabling continuous availability and affordability of medicines for patients in the developing world. A more holistic view of AtM across the discovery-development-regulation-utilization continuum would also include participation in the development and timely access to emerging therapies in diverse populations in the era of precision therapeutics, built upon foundational clinical pharmacology principles, leveraging a Totality of Evidence (ToE) mindset...
November 28, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187816/differential-effects-of-oxytocin-on-visual-perspective-taking-for-men-and-women
#18
Tong Yue, Yuhan Jiang, Caizhen Yue, Xiting Huang
Although oxytocin (OXT) has been shown to lead to reduced self-orientation, no study to date has directly and effectively weakened the egocentric tendencies in perspective taking tasks for both men and women. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, mixed design study we investigated the effects of OXT on men and women in visual perspective taking tasks. The results showed that OXT shortened the differences in response time between men and women in all experimental conditions. In addition, after OXT administration, the difference in reaction time between judging from one's own perspective and judging from others' perspectives decreased in female participants; however, this effect was not present in males...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185878/using-problem-solving-therapy-to-improve-problem-solving-orientation-problem-solving-skills-and-quality-of-life-in-older-hemodialysis-patients
#19
Shiloh D Erdley-Kass, Darrin S Kass, Zvi D Gellis, Hillary A Bogner, Andrea Berger, Robert M Perkins
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of Problem-Solving Therapy (PST) in older hemodialysis (HD) patients by assessing changes in health-related quality of life and problem-solving skills. METHODS: 33 HD patients in an outpatient hemodialysis center without active medical and psychiatric illness were enrolled. The intervention group (n = 15) received PST from a licensed social worker for 6 weeks, whereas the control group (n = 18) received usual care treatment...
August 24, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180910/research-during-medical-school-is-it-particularly-difficult-in-developing-countries-compared-to-developed-countries
#20
REVIEW
Manjunath Siddaiah-Subramanya, Harveen Singh, Kor Woi Tiang
Objectives: Medical student involvement in research has been declining over the years. We reviewed the factors that hinder participation in research with a focus on developing countries. Methods: Literature search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library. Peer-reviewed articles published between 1995 and 2017 were screened for relevance to identify key factors affecting medical student involvement in research with a particular focus on developing world...
2017: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
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