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Granny smith apples

Ihsanul Khaliq, Giles E St J Hardy, Diane White, Treena I Burgess
Proper isolation and identification of Phytophthora species is critical due to their broad distribution and huge impact on natural ecosystems throughout the world. In this study, five different sites were sampled and seven methods were compared to determine the Phytophthora community. Three traditional isolation methods were conducted (1) soil baiting, (2) filtering of the bait water, and (3) isolation from field roots using Granny Smith apples. These were compared to four sources of eDNA used for metabarcoding using Phytophthora specific primers on (1) sieved field soil, (2) roots from field, (3) filtered baiting water, and (4) roots from bait plants grown in the glasshouse in soil collected from these sites...
March 20, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Mariana Rodríguez-Arzuaga, Andrea M Piagentini
Enzymatic browning affects the sensory and nutritional quality of fresh-cut apples and limits their shelf-life. Yerba mate ( Ilex paraguariensis), a plant widely consumed in South America as an infusion, could potentially be used in minimally processed fruits and vegetables as a natural additive to prevent browning, due to its high content of phenolic compounds with antioxidant capacity. The effects of the concentrations of ascorbic acid, citric acid, and yerba mate in an aqueous dipping solution on the instrumental color parameters, antioxidant capacity, and sensory quality of "Granny Smith" fresh-cut apples were modeled and the solution was optimized to obtain treated apples with maximum antioxidant capacity and minimum browning, without affecting the natural flavor of the fruits...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Sara Muñoz-Pina, José V Ros-Lis, Ángel Argüelles, Carmen Coll, Ramón Martínez-Máñez, Ana Andrés
Darkening processed fruits and vegetables is caused mainly by enzymatic browning through polyphenol oxidase (PPO) action. Accordingly, we explored the potential of four silica-based materials (MCM-41 nanometric size, MCM-41 micrometric size, UVM-7 and aerosil), non-functionalised and functionalised with thiol groups, to inhibit PPO activity in the model system and apple juice. All materials showed relevant performance when immobilising and inhibiting PPO in model systems, and support topology is a main factor for enzyme immobilisation and inhibition...
February 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Lina Sheng, Katheryn Edwards, Hsieh-Chin Tsai, Ines Hanrahan, Mei-Jun Zhu
Fresh apples are typically stored for up to 1 year commercially; different apple varieties require different storage temperatures to maintain their quality characteristics. There is sparse information available about Listeria monocytogenes survival on fresh apples under various storage temperatures. The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the effect of storage temperature on apple fruit decay and L. monocytogenes survival. Unwaxed apple fruits of selected varieties (Fuji and Granny Smith) were dip inoculated in a three-strain L...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Scott M Schaeffer, Ryan Christian, Nohely Castro-Velasquez, Brennan Hyden, Valerie Lynch-Holm, Amit Dhingra
Comparative ultrastructural developmental time-course analysis has identified discrete stages at which the fruit plastids undergo structural and consequently functional transitions to facilitate subsequent development-guided understanding of the complex plastid biology. Plastids are the defining organelle for a plant cell and are critical for myriad metabolic functions. The role of leaf plastid, chloroplast, is extensively documented; however, fruit plastids-chromoplasts-are poorly understood, especially in the context of the diverse metabolic processes operating in these diverse plant organs...
October 2017: Plant Cell Reports
Yonghua Jiang, Cuihua Liu, Dan Yan, Xiaohong Wen, Yanli Liu, Haojie Wang, Jieyu Dai, Yujie Zhang, Yanfei Liu, Bin Zhou, Xiaolin Ren
Coloration in apple (Malus×domestica) flesh is mainly caused by the accumulation of anthocyanin. Anthocyanin is biosynthesized through the flavonoid pathway and regulated by MYB, bHLH, and WD40 transcription factors (TFs). Here, we report that the HD-Zip I TF MdHB1 was also involved in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation. MdHB1 silencing caused the accumulation of anthocyanin in 'Granny Smith' flesh, whereas its overexpression reduced the flesh content of anthocyanin in 'Ballerina' (red-fleshed apple)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Linda Ahammer, Sarina Grutsch, Anna S Kamenik, Klaus R Liedl, Martin Tollinger
More than 70% of birch pollen-allergic patients develop allergic cross-reactions to the major allergen found in apple fruits (Malus domestica), the 17.5 kDa protein Mal d 1. Allergic reactions against this protein result from initial sensitization to the major allergen from birch pollen, Bet v 1. Immunologic cross-reactivity of Bet v 1-specific IgE antibodies with Mal d 1 after apple consumption can subsequently provoke severe oral allergic syndromes. This study presents the three-dimensional NMR solution structure of Mal d 1 (isoform Mal d 1...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Weiwei Yang, Benoît Pallas, Jean-Baptiste Durand, Sébastien Martinez, Mingyu Han, Evelyne Costes
Water stress (WS) generates a number of physiological and morphological responses in plants that depend on the intensity and duration of stress as well as the plant species and development stage. In perennial plants, WS may affect plant development through cumulative effects that modify plant functions, architecture and production over time. Plant architecture depends on the fate of the terminal and axillary buds that can give rise, in the particular case of apple, to reproductive or vegetative growth units (GUs) of different lengths...
November 2016: Tree Physiology
Gian Carlo Tenore, Domenico Caruso, Giuseppe Buonomo, Emanuela D'Urso, Maria D'Avino, Pietro Campiglia, Luciana Marinelli, Ettore Novellino
BACKGROUND: Recent human studies have evaluated the effect of daily apple consumption on plasma cholesterol level, which is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nevertheless, slightly significant effects have been generally registered although consuming more than two apples a day for several weeks. RESULTS: This study describes the influence of daily consumption of Annurca apples on the cholesterol levels of mildly hypercholesterolaemic healthy subjects...
May 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Maria Esperanza Dalmau, Gail M Bornhorst, Valeria Eim, Carmen Rosselló, Susana Simal
The influence of processing (freezing at -196°C in liquid N2, FN sample; freeze-drying at -50°C and 30Pa, FD sample; and convective drying at 60°C and 2m/s, CD sample) on apple (var. Granny Smith) behavior during in vitro gastric digestion was investigated. Dried apples (FD and CD samples) were rehydrated prior to digestion. Changes in carbohydrate composition, moisture, soluble solids, acidity, total polyphenol content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (AA) of apple samples were measured at different times during digestion...
January 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Abel Ortiz, Dominique Le Meurlay, Isabel Lara, Ronan Symoneaux, Emmanuel Madieta, Emira Mehinagic
This work aimed at evaluating the effects of sous-vide cooking parameters, such as time and temperature and their interactions, on textural attributes of 'Mondial Gala' and 'Granny Smith' apple cultivars. For this, different response surface methodology-based models were developed. This methodology proved a suitable means for the assessment of changes in textural parameters and cell wall modifications during the processing of apples. 'Mondial Gala' fruit displayed better aptitude for the preservation of textural properties after high-temperature processing conditions and were therefore apparently more suited to sous-vide cooking than 'Granny Smith' apples...
March 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Joelle K Salazar, Christina K Carstens, Vriddi M Bathija, Sartaj S Narula, Mickey Parish, Mary Lou Tortorello
An outbreak of listeriosis in late 2014 and early 2015 associated with caramel apples led to questions about how this product became a vector for Listeria monocytogenes. This investigation aimed to determine information about the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes in both fresh apples and caramel apples, specifically examining the effects of site and level of inoculation, inoculum drying conditions, and storage temperature. At a high inoculation level (7 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end proliferated on Gala caramel apples at both 5 and 25°C and on Granny Smith caramel apples at 25°C by as much as 3 to 5 log CFU per apple...
May 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Dubravka Cukrov, Monica Zermiani, Stefano Brizzolara, Alessandro Cestaro, Francesco Licausi, Claudio Luchinat, Claudio Santucci, Leonardo Tenori, Hans Van Veen, Andrea Zuccolo, Benedetto Ruperti, Pietro Tonutti
The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith) fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control) and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen) conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dong Qu, Fei Yan, Rui Meng, Xiaobing Jiang, Huijuan Yang, Ziyi Gao, Yonghui Dong, Yazhou Yang, Zhengyang Zhao
Bagged fruits of green apple cultivar "Granny Smith" have been found to turn cardinal red after debagging during fruit-ripening in the Loess Plateau region of China. To understand this phenomenon at post-transcriptional level, we have investigated the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in response to debagging. Three small RNA libraries were primarily constructed from peels of "Granny Smith" apples subjected to bagging followed by sunlight re-exposure treatments (0, 6 h, 1 day) (debagging), and from peels of apples without any bagging treatments (0, 6 h, 1 day)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sudhanshu Saxena, Jyoti Verma, Satyendra Gautam
Potential prophylactic attributes in terms of antimutagenicity, antioxidant, and radioprotective properties were evaluated for 8 common apple cultivars namely "Fuji," "Golden Delicious," "Granny Smith," "Ambri Kashmiri," "Kinnaur," "Red Delicious," "Royal Gala," and "Shimla," where cultivar based significant variation was observed. Cv. "Granny Smith" displayed significantly higher and broad spectrum antimutagenicity in Escherichia coli rpoB based rifampicin resistance (Rif(R) ) assay, whereas, "Ambri Kashmiri," "Royal Gala," and "Shimla" showed lower antimutagenicity...
February 2016: Journal of Food Science
Kathleen A Glass, Max C Golden, Brandon J Wanless, Wendy Bedale, Charles Czuprynski
UNLABELLED: A 2014 multistate listeriosis outbreak was linked to consumption of caramel-coated apples, an unexpected and previously unreported vehicle for Listeria monocytogenes. This outbreak was unanticipated because both the pH of apples (<4.0) and the water activity of the caramel coating (<0.80) are too low to support Listeria growth. In this study, Granny Smith apples were inoculated with approximately 4 log10 CFU of L. monocytogenes (a cocktail of serotype 4b strains associated with the outbreak) on each apple's skin, stem, and calyx...
October 13, 2015: MBio
Tanja Mimmo, Federica Camin, Luana Bontempo, Calogero Capici, Massimo Tagliavini, Stefano Cesco, Matteo Scampicchio
RATIONALE: The awareness of customers of the origin of foods has become an important issue. The growing demand for foods that are healthy, safe and of high quality has increased the need for traceability and clear labelling. Thus, this study investigates the capability of C and N stable isotope ratios to determine the geographical origin of several apple varieties grown in northern Italy. METHODS: Four apple varieties (Cripps Pink, Gala, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith) have been sampled in orchards located in the Districts of Bolzano, Ferrara, Verona and Udine (northern Italy)...
November 15, 2015: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Antonio Vega-Gálvez, Kong Ah-Hen, Marcelo Chacana, Judith Vergara, Javier Martínez-Monzó, Purificación García-Segovia, Roberto Lemus-Mondaca, Karina Di Scala
The aim of this work was to study the effect of temperature and air velocity on the drying kinetics and quality attributes of apple (var. Granny Smith) slices during drying. Experiments were conducted at 40, 60 and 80°C, as well as at air velocities of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5ms(-1). Effective moisture diffusivity increased with temperature and air velocity, reaching a value of 15.30×10(-9)m(2)s(-1) at maximum temperature and air velocity under study. The rehydration ratio changed with varying both air velocity and temperature indicating tissue damage due to processing...
May 1, 2012: Food Chemistry
Monica Zermiani, Elisabetta Zonin, Alberto Nonis, Maura Begheldo, Luca Ceccato, Alice Vezzaro, Barbara Baldan, Annarita Trentin, Antonio Masi, Marco Pegoraro, Livio Fadanelli, William Teale, Klaus Palme, Luigi Quintieri, Benedetto Ruperti
Apple (Malus×domestica Borkh) fruits are stored for long periods of time at low temperatures (1 °C) leading to the occurrence of physiological disorders. 'Superficial scald' of Granny Smith apples, an economically important ethylene-dependent disorder, was used as a model to study relationships among ethylene action, the regulation of the ROP-GAP rheostat, and maintenance of H2O2 homeostasis in fruits during prolonged cold exposure. The ROP-GAP rheostat is a key module for adaptation to low oxygen in Arabidopsis through Respiratory Burst NADPH Oxidase Homologs (RBOH)-mediated and ROP GTPase-dependent regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis...
December 2015: Journal of Experimental Botany
J V Santacatalina, M Contreras, S Simal, J A Cárcel, J V Garcia-Perez
Low temperature drying (LTD) allows high-quality dried products to be obtained, preserving the nutritional properties of fresh foods better than conventional drying, but it is a time-consuming operation. Power ultrasound (US) could be used to intensify LTD, but it should be taken into account that process variables, such as the level of applied power, have an influence on the magnitude and extension of the ultrasonic effects. Therefore, the aim of this work was to assess the influence of the level of applied ultrasonic power on the LTD of apple, analyzing the drying kinetics and the quality of the dried product...
January 2016: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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