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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587485/the-impact-of-long-term-water-stress-on-tree-architecture-and-production-is-related-to-changes-in-transitions-between-vegetative-and-reproductive-growth-in-the-granny-smith-apple-cultivar
#1
Weiwei Yang, Benoît Pallas, Jean-Baptiste Durand, Sébastien Martinez, Mingyu Han, Evelyne Costes
Water stress (WS) generates a number of physiological and morphological responses in plants that depend on the intensity and duration of stress as well as the plant species and development stage. In perennial plants, WS may affect plant development through cumulative effects that modify plant functions, architecture and production over time. Plant architecture depends on the fate of the terminal and axillary buds that can give rise, in the particular case of apple, to reproductive or vegetative growth units (GUs) of different lengths...
November 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571713/annurca-malus-pumila-miller-cv-annurca-apple-as-a-functional-food-for-the-contribution-to-a-healthy-balance-of-plasma-cholesterol-levels-results-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Gian Carlo Tenore, Domenico Caruso, Giuseppe Buonomo, Emanuela D'Urso, Maria D'Avino, Pietro Campiglia, Luciana Marinelli, Ettore Novellino
BACKGROUND: Recent human studies have evaluated the effect of daily apple consumption on plasma cholesterol level, which is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nevertheless, slightly significant effects have been generally registered although consuming more than two apples a day for several weeks. RESULTS: This study describes the influence of daily consumption of Annurca apples on the cholesterol levels of mildly hypercholesterolaemic healthy subjects...
August 30, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542444/effects-of-freezing-freeze-drying-and-convective-drying-on-in-vitro-gastric-digestion-of-apples
#3
Maria Esperanza Dalmau, Gail M Bornhorst, Valeria Eim, Carmen Rosselló, Susana Simal
The influence of processing (freezing at -196°C in liquid N2, FN sample; freeze-drying at -50°C and 30Pa, FD sample; and convective drying at 60°C and 2m/s, CD sample) on apple (var. Granny Smith) behavior during in vitro gastric digestion was investigated. Dried apples (FD and CD samples) were rehydrated prior to digestion. Changes in carbohydrate composition, moisture, soluble solids, acidity, total polyphenol content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (AA) of apple samples were measured at different times during digestion...
January 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413015/the-effects-of-sous-vide-cooking-parameters-on-texture-and-cell-wall-modifications-in-two-apple-cultivars-a-response-surface-methodology-approach
#4
Abel Ortiz, Dominique Le Meurlay, Isabel Lara, Ronan Symoneaux, Emmanuel Madieta, Emira Mehinagic
This work aimed at evaluating the effects of sous-vide cooking parameters, such as time and temperature and their interactions, on textural attributes of 'Mondial Gala' and 'Granny Smith' apple cultivars. For this, different response surface methodology-based models were developed. This methodology proved a suitable means for the assessment of changes in textural parameters and cell wall modifications during the processing of apples. 'Mondial Gala' fruit displayed better aptitude for the preservation of textural properties after high-temperature processing conditions and were therefore apparently more suited to sous-vide cooking than 'Granny Smith' apples...
July 13, 2016: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296414/fate-of-listeria-monocytogenes-in-fresh-apples-and-caramel-apples
#5
Joelle K Salazar, Christina K Carstens, Vriddi M Bathija, Sartaj S Narula, Mickey Parish, Mary Lou Tortorello
An outbreak of listeriosis in late 2014 and early 2015 associated with caramel apples led to questions about how this product became a vector for Listeria monocytogenes. This investigation aimed to determine information about the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes in both fresh apples and caramel apples, specifically examining the effects of site and level of inoculation, inoculum drying conditions, and storage temperature. At a high inoculation level (7 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end proliferated on Gala caramel apples at both 5 and 25°C and on Granny Smith caramel apples at 25°C by as much as 3 to 5 log CFU per apple...
May 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26909091/extreme-hypoxic-conditions-induce-selective-molecular-responses-and-metabolic-reset-in-detached-apple-fruit
#6
Dubravka Cukrov, Monica Zermiani, Stefano Brizzolara, Alessandro Cestaro, Francesco Licausi, Claudio Luchinat, Claudio Santucci, Leonardo Tenori, Hans Van Veen, Andrea Zuccolo, Benedetto Ruperti, Pietro Tonutti
The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith) fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control) and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen) conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26870053/identification-of-micrornas-and-their-targets-associated-with-fruit-bagging-and-subsequent-sunlight-re-exposure-in-the-granny-smith-apple-exocarp-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#7
Dong Qu, Fei Yan, Rui Meng, Xiaobing Jiang, Huijuan Yang, Ziyi Gao, Yonghui Dong, Yazhou Yang, Zhengyang Zhao
Bagged fruits of green apple cultivar "Granny Smith" have been found to turn cardinal red after debagging during fruit-ripening in the Loess Plateau region of China. To understand this phenomenon at post-transcriptional level, we have investigated the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in response to debagging. Three small RNA libraries were primarily constructed from peels of "Granny Smith" apples subjected to bagging followed by sunlight re-exposure treatments (0, 6 h, 1 day) (debagging), and from peels of apples without any bagging treatments (0, 6 h, 1 day)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26753515/potential-prophylactic-properties-of-apple-and-characterization-of-potent-bioactive-from-cv-granny-smith-displaying-strong-antimutagenicity-in-models-including-human-lymphoblast-tk6-cell-line
#8
Sudhanshu Saxena, Jyoti Verma, Satyendra Gautam
Potential prophylactic attributes in terms of antimutagenicity, antioxidant, and radioprotective properties were evaluated for 8 common apple cultivars namely "Fuji," "Golden Delicious," "Granny Smith," "Ambri Kashmiri," "Kinnaur," "Red Delicious," "Royal Gala," and "Shimla," where cultivar based significant variation was observed. Cv. "Granny Smith" displayed significantly higher and broad spectrum antimutagenicity in Escherichia coli rpoB based rifampicin resistance (Rif(R) ) assay, whereas, "Ambri Kashmiri," "Royal Gala," and "Shimla" showed lower antimutagenicity...
February 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26463161/growth-of-listeria-monocytogenes-within-a-caramel-coated-apple-microenvironment
#9
Kathleen A Glass, Max C Golden, Brandon J Wanless, Wendy Bedale, Charles Czuprynski
UNLABELLED: A 2014 multistate listeriosis outbreak was linked to consumption of caramel-coated apples, an unexpected and previously unreported vehicle for Listeria monocytogenes. This outbreak was unanticipated because both the pH of apples (<4.0) and the water activity of the caramel coating (<0.80) are too low to support Listeria growth. In this study, Granny Smith apples were inoculated with approximately 4 log10 CFU of L. monocytogenes (a cocktail of serotype 4b strains associated with the outbreak) on each apple's skin, stem, and calyx...
October 13, 2015: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26443397/traceability-of-different-apple-varieties-by-multivariate-analysis-of-isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry-data
#10
Tanja Mimmo, Federica Camin, Luana Bontempo, Calogero Capici, Massimo Tagliavini, Stefano Cesco, Matteo Scampicchio
RATIONALE: The awareness of customers of the origin of foods has become an important issue. The growing demand for foods that are healthy, safe and of high quality has increased the need for traceability and clear labelling. Thus, this study investigates the capability of C and N stable isotope ratios to determine the geographical origin of several apple varieties grown in northern Italy. METHODS: Four apple varieties (Cripps Pink, Gala, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith) have been sampled in orchards located in the Districts of Bolzano, Ferrara, Verona and Udine (northern Italy)...
November 15, 2015: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26434262/effect-of-temperature-and-air-velocity-on-drying-kinetics-antioxidant-capacity-total-phenolic-content-colour-texture-and-microstructure-of-apple-var-granny-smith-slices
#11
Antonio Vega-Gálvez, Kong Ah-Hen, Marcelo Chacana, Judith Vergara, Javier Martínez-Monzó, Purificación García-Segovia, Roberto Lemus-Mondaca, Karina Di Scala
The aim of this work was to study the effect of temperature and air velocity on the drying kinetics and quality attributes of apple (var. Granny Smith) slices during drying. Experiments were conducted at 40, 60 and 80°C, as well as at air velocities of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5ms(-1). Effective moisture diffusivity increased with temperature and air velocity, reaching a value of 15.30×10(-9)m(2)s(-1) at maximum temperature and air velocity under study. The rehydration ratio changed with varying both air velocity and temperature indicating tissue damage due to processing...
May 1, 2012: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26428066/ethylene-negatively-regulates-transcript-abundance-of-rop-gap-rheostat-encoding-genes-and-affects-apoplastic-reactive-oxygen-species-homeostasis-in-epicarps-of-cold-stored-apple-fruits
#12
Monica Zermiani, Elisabetta Zonin, Alberto Nonis, Maura Begheldo, Luca Ceccato, Alice Vezzaro, Barbara Baldan, Annarita Trentin, Antonio Masi, Marco Pegoraro, Livio Fadanelli, William Teale, Klaus Palme, Luigi Quintieri, Benedetto Ruperti
Apple (Malus×domestica Borkh) fruits are stored for long periods of time at low temperatures (1 °C) leading to the occurrence of physiological disorders. 'Superficial scald' of Granny Smith apples, an economically important ethylene-dependent disorder, was used as a model to study relationships among ethylene action, the regulation of the ROP-GAP rheostat, and maintenance of H2O2 homeostasis in fruits during prolonged cold exposure. The ROP-GAP rheostat is a key module for adaptation to low oxygen in Arabidopsis through Respiratory Burst NADPH Oxidase Homologs (RBOH)-mediated and ROP GTPase-dependent regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis...
December 2015: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26384888/impact-of-applied-ultrasonic-power-on-the-low-temperature-drying-of-apple
#13
J V Santacatalina, M Contreras, S Simal, J A Cárcel, J V Garcia-Perez
Low temperature drying (LTD) allows high-quality dried products to be obtained, preserving the nutritional properties of fresh foods better than conventional drying, but it is a time-consuming operation. Power ultrasound (US) could be used to intensify LTD, but it should be taken into account that process variables, such as the level of applied power, have an influence on the magnitude and extension of the ultrasonic effects. Therefore, the aim of this work was to assess the influence of the level of applied ultrasonic power on the LTD of apple, analyzing the drying kinetics and the quality of the dried product...
January 2016: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26215656/the-phytoene-synthase-gene-family-of-apple-malus-x-domestica-and-its-role-in-controlling-fruit-carotenoid-content
#14
Charles Ampomah-Dwamena, Nicky Driedonks, David Lewis, Maria Shumskaya, Xiuyin Chen, Eleanore T Wurtzel, Richard V Espley, Andrew C Allan
BACKGROUND: Carotenoid compounds play essential roles in plants such as protecting the photosynthetic apparatus and in hormone signalling. Coloured carotenoids provide yellow, orange and red colour to plant tissues, as well as offering nutritional benefit to humans and animals. The enzyme phytoene synthase (PSY) catalyses the first committed step of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and has been associated with control of pathway flux. We characterised four PSY genes found in the apple genome to further understand their involvement in fruit carotenoid accumulation...
2015: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25904040/the-o-methyltransferase-gene-mdoomt1-is-required-for-biosynthesis-of-methylated-phenylpropenes-in-ripe-apple-fruit
#15
Yar-Khing Yauk, David Chagné, Sumathi Tomes, Adam J Matich, Mindy Y Wang, Xiuyin Chen, Ratnasiri Maddumage, Martin B Hunt, Daryl D Rowan, Ross G Atkinson
Phenylpropenes, such as eugenol and trans-anethole, are important aromatic compounds that determine flavour and aroma in many herbs and spices. Some apple varieties produce fruit with a highly desirable spicy/aromatic flavour that has been attributed to the production of estragole, a methylated phenylpropene. To elucidate the molecular basis for estragole production and its contribution to ripe apple flavour and aroma we characterised a segregating population from a Royal Gala (RG, estragole producer) × Granny Smith (GS, non-producer) apple cross...
June 2015: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25889420/in-silico-analysis-of-the-polygalacturonase-inhibiting-protein-1-from-apple-malus-domestica
#16
Lerato Bt Matsaunyane, Dean Oelofse, Ian A Dubery
BACKGROUND: The Malus domestica polygalacturonase inhibiting protein 1 (MdPGIP1) gene, encoding the M. domestica polygalacturonase inhibiting protein 1 (MdPGIP1), was isolated from the Granny Smith apple cultivar (GenBank accession no. DQ185063). The gene was used to transform tobacco and potato for enhanced resistance against fungal diseases. FINDINGS: Analysis of the MdPGIP1 nucleotide sequence revealed that the gene comprises 993 nucleotides that encode a 330 amino acid polypeptide...
2015: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25777228/in-silico-analysis-of-the-polygalacturonase-inhibiting-protein-1-from-apple-malus-domestica
#17
Lerato Bt Matsaunyane, Dean Oelofse, Ian A Dubery
BACKGROUND: The Malus domestica polygalacturonase inhibiting protein 1 (MdPGIP1) gene, encoding the M. domestica polygalacturonase inhibiting protein 1 (MdPGIP1), was isolated from the Granny Smith apple cultivar (GenBank accession no. DQ185063). The gene was used to transform tobacco and potato for enhanced resistance against fungal diseases. FINDINGS: Analysis of the MdPGIP1 nucleotide sequence revealed that the gene comprises 993 nucleotides that encode a 330 amino acid polypeptide...
December 2015: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25560914/identification-characterization-and-mycotoxigenic-ability-of-alternaria-spp-causing-core-rot-of-apple-fruit-in-greece
#18
Panagiota Ntasiou, Charalampos Myresiotis, Sotiris Konstantinou, Euphemia Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, George S Karaoglanidis
Alternaria core rot is a major postharvest disease of apple fruit in several countries of the world, including Greece. The study was conducted aiming to identify the disease causal agents at species level, investigate the aggressiveness of Alternaria spp. isolates and the susceptibility of different apple varieties and determine the mycotoxigenic potential of Alternaria spp. isolates from apple fruit. Seventy-five Alternaria spp. isolates obtained from apple fruit showing core rot symptoms were identified as either Alternaria tenuissima or Alternaria arborescens at frequencies of 89...
March 16, 2015: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25228269/characterization-of-the-polyphenol-composition-of-20-cultivars-of-cider-processing-and-dessert-apples-malus-%C3%A3-domestica-borkh-grown-in-virginia
#19
Katherine A Thompson-Witrick, Katheryn M Goodrich, Andrew P Neilson, E Kenneth Hurley, Gregory M Peck, Amanda C Stewart
Polyphenols and maturity parameters were determined in 20 apple cultivars with potential for hard cider production grown in Virginia, U.S.A. Concentrations of five classes of polyphenols were significantly different across cultivar for both peel and flesh. Total polyphenol concentration ranged from 0.9 μg/g wwb in flesh of Newtown Pippin to 453 μg/g wwb in peel of Red Delicious. Harrison, Granny Smith, Rome, Winesap, and Black Twig cultivars contained the highest concentration of total flavan-3-ols in flesh, indicating potential to impart desired astringency and bitterness to cider under processing conditions where extraction of polyphenols from peel is minimal...
October 15, 2014: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25213754/kinetics-of-apple-polyphenol-diffusion-in-solutions-with-different-osmotic-strengths
#20
M Kebe, C M C G Renard, G N G Amani, J-F Maingonnat
Fruits contain polyphenols, widespread antioxidants beneficial for human health. Their mass transfer was studied during the leaching of apple slices immersed in mannitol solutions with ranging concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 M). The solution of Fick's law for unsteady mass transfer in planar configuration was used to calculate apparent diffusivity (De). Polyphenols were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography for each immersion time. Leaching from raw apple tissues occurred only when cell integrity was lost, here at a certain level of difference in osmotic pressure...
October 8, 2014: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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