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Pain physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687750/non-invasive-systemic-drug-delivery-through-mucosal-routes
#1
Amit K Goyal, Ranjit Singh, Gaurav Chauhan, Goutam Rath
Science of drug delivery has achieved tremendous milestones in the last few decades. Emergence of novel drug delivery techniques and the most popular nanotechnology directed the drug delivery to another level. Without any doubt, present technology holds the proficiency to approach even the intercellular targets. Between all these success auras, there lies wads of giant challenges. One such challenge is delivering the molecule directly to the blood stream. Parenteral route is considered as the most effective route for delivering active pharmaceutical substances, but is associated with major disadvantages of painful drug delivery...
April 24, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687346/long-term-cognitive-outcomes-after-sepsis-a-translational-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Tatiana Barichello, Pavani Sayana, Vijayasree V Giridharan, Anithachristy S Arumanayagam, Boomadevi Narendran, Amanda Della Giustina, Fabricia Petronilho, João Quevedo, Felipe Dal-Pizzol
Sepsis is systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a life-threatening organ dysfunction that is caused by an unbalanced host immune response in an attempt to eliminate invasive microorganisms. We posed questions, "Does sepsis survivor patients have increased risk of neuropsychiatric manifestations?" and "What is the mechanism by which sepsis induces long-term neurological sequelae, particularly substantial cognitive function decline in survivor patients and in pre-clinical sepsis models?" The studies were identified by searching PubMed/MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine), PsycINFO, EMBASE (Ovid), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), IBECS (Bibliographical Index in Spanish in Health Sciences), and Web of Science databases for peer-reviewed journals that were published until January 2018...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685345/the-nature-of-labour-pain-an-updated-review-of-the-literature
#3
Laura Y Whitburn, Lester E Jones, Mary-Ann Davey, Susan McDonald
BACKGROUND: The pain experience associated with labour is complex. Literature indicates psychosocial and environmental determinants of labour pain, and yet methods to support women usually target physiological attributes via pharmacological interventions. AIM: To provide an update of our understanding of labour pain based on modern pain science. The review aims to help explain why women can experience labour pain so differently - why some cope well, whilst others experience great suffering...
April 20, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685002/study-on-physiological-and-psychological-comprehensive-nursing-of-elderly-tumor-patients-after-surgery
#4
L M Zhang, H Y Li, B Liu, M Y Li, X L Yao, Y H Chang
The aim of this study is to formulate nursing schemes for elderly tumor patients after surgery according to their clinical characteristics, and give effective guidance for alleviating the patients’ psychological anxiety. One hundred elderly tumor patients admitted to the oncology department of the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Harbin Medical University were included and divided into an intervention group (50) and a control group (50). Nursing intervention was performed on the intervention group, and routine nursing was performed in the control group...
March 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681177/-preemptive-and-preventive-analgesia-an-important-element-in-perioperative-pain-management
#5
Balázs Szedlák, Calin Mitre, Béla Fülesdi
In this review, the definition and history of preemptive analgesia and the progress of its conception will be summarized. In the physiology-pathophysiology chapter, central sensitization, the key component of the evolution of postoperative pain, and the neurochemical processes in its background will be explored. Tissue damage caused by surgical incision consists of mechanical and inflammatory components, and it has high importance in the postoperative pain management. The preemptive approach of pain management means more than just preincisional analgesia, it includes the application of multifactious synergistic medication at the same time accordingly...
April 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678668/the-effect-of-music-on-postoperative-recovery-in-older-patients-a-systematic-review
#6
Hanneke van der Wal-Huisman, Karolien S K Dons, Rineke Smilde, Erik Heineman, Barbara L van Leeuwen
OBJECTIVE: Surgery is an important part of the treatment modalities offered to older patients with cancer. Natural ageing processes lead to deterioration of organ function, making older patients more vulnerable and at risk for experiencing less-favourable outcomes and complications after surgery. Non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as music, may be preferable to medical interventions in older people, who are at risk for adverse effects and drug interactions due to altered physiology and drug metabolism...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673529/neurochemistry-of-anesthetic-states
#7
Ralph Lydic, Helen A Baghdoyan, Amanda L May
Anesthetic mechanisms that eliminate consciousness and perception of pain are products of the nervous system. Chemical approaches to the study of anesthetic mechanisms have the potential to serve as an ideal interface between basic and clinical neuroscience. There are disproportionately more basic neurochemical studies than clinical studies of anesthetic mechanisms. Even within neuroscience, the study of anesthetic mechanisms is sparse. The Society for Neuroscience hosts one of the world's largest and most vibrant scientific meetings, yet the content themes of that meeting do not include anesthesia...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673040/focusing-on-optimising-laparoscopic-surgery
#8
Frank F Tu
van Dijk and colleagues add to the overall evidence for low intensity procedure modifications to improve surgical outcomes in this randomised controlled trial. Perioperative approaches to reduce acute pain are particularly relevant given new emphasis on reducing excess global opioid exposure. The presentation concisely summarises the physiological basis of commonly reported post-laparoscopy diaphragmatic pain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 19, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671419/trpm2-a-candidate-therapeutic-target-for-treating-neurological-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Jillian Corinne Belrose, Michael Frederick Jackson
Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a calcium (Ca2+ )-permeable non-selective cation channel belonging to the TRP ion channel family. Oxidative stress-induced TRPM2 activation provokes aberrant intracellular Ca2+ accumulation and cell death in a variety of cell types, including neurons. Aberrant TRPM2 function has been implicated in several neurological disorders including ischemia/stroke, Alzheimer's disease, neuropathic pain, Parkinson's disease and bipolar disorder. In addition to research identifying a role for TRPM2 in disease, progress has been made in the identification of physiological functions of TRPM2 in the brain, including recent evidence that TRPM2 is necessary for the induction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent long-term depression, an important form of synaptic plasticity at glutamate synapses...
April 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670003/stress-and-alterations-in-the-pain-matrix-a-biopsychosocial-perspective-on-back-pain-and-its-prevention-and-treatment
#10
Pia-Maria Wippert, Christine Wiebking
The genesis of chronic pain is explained by a biopsychosocial model. It hypothesizes an interdependency between environmental and genetic factors provoking aberrant long-term changes in biological and psychological regulatory systems. Physiological effects of psychological and physical stressors may play a crucial role in these maladaptive processes. Specifically, long-term demands on the stress response system may moderate central pain processing and influence descending serotonergic and noradrenergic signals from the brainstem, regulating nociceptive processing at the spinal level...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669079/blended-learning-pain-neuroscience-education-for-people-with-chronic-spinal-pain-randomized-controlled-multicenter-trial
#11
Anneleen Malfliet, Jeroen Kregel, Mira Meeus, Nathalie Roussel, Lieven Danneels, Barbara Cagnie, Mieke Dolphens, Jo Nijs
Background: Available evidence favors the use of pain neuroscience education (PNE) in patients with chronic pain. However, PNE trials are often limited to small sample sizes and, despite the current digital era, the effects of blended-learning PNE (ie, the combination of online digital media with traditional educational methods) have not yet been investigated. Objective: The study objective was to examine whether blended-learning PNE is able to improve disability, catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and illness perceptions...
May 1, 2018: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667028/a-review-of-commercial-and-medical-grade-physiological-monitoring-devices-for-biofeedback-assisted-quality-of-life-improvement-studies
#12
Pedro Nogueira, Joana Urbano, Luís Paulo Reis, Henrique Lopes Cardoso, Daniel Castro Silva, Ana Paula Rocha, Joaquim Gonçalves, Brígida Mónica Faria
With the rise in wearable technology and "health culture", we are seeing an increasing interest and affordances in studying how to not only prolong life expectancy but also in how to improve individuals' quality of life. On the one hand, this attempts to give meaning to the increasing life expectancy, as living above a certain threshold of pain and lack of autonomy or mobility is both degrading and unfair. On the other hand, it lowers the cost of continuous care, as individuals with high quality of life indexes tend to have lower hospital readmissions or secondary complications, not to mention higher physical and mental health...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660896/a-physiological-exploration-on-operational-stance-and-occupational-musculoskeletal-problem-manifestations-amongst-construction-labourers-of-west-bengal-india
#13
Arijit Chatterjee, Subhashis Sahu
BACKGROUND: A huge number of labourers engaged in construction industry in India both in organized and unorganized sectors. The construction labourers most often work for an extended period of time and they are compelled to uphold altered static and dynamic operational stance in awkward positions during the complete period of work which raises the demand on the musculoskeletal system and may lead to work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs). OBJECTIVE: This study is intended to explore the operational stance and occupation related musculoskeletal manifestations amongst the construction labourers...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659026/%C3%AE-1-subunit-stabilises-sodium-channel-nav1-7-against-mechanical-stress
#14
Jannis Körner, Jannis Meents, Jan-Philipp Machtens, Angelika Lampert
Voltage-gated sodium channels are key players in neuronal excitability and pain signalling. Precise gating of these channels is crucial as small alterations can already lead to pathologic phenotypes like pain or heart failure. Mechanical stress has been shown to affect sodium channel activation and inactivation. This suggests that stabilising components are necessary to ensure precise channel gating in living organisms. Here, we show that mechanical shear stress affects voltage dependence of activation and fast inactivation of the Nav1...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653266/proteome-based-systems-biology-in-chronic-pain
#15
David Gomez-Varela, Allison M Barry, Manuela Schmidt
Chronic pain represents a major medical challenge in the 21st century. Enormous efforts have been invested towards deciphering the complexity of chronic pain from different angles (molecular, physiological, psychosocial, and behavioral) in both preclinical and clinical settings. While progress has been made, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of chronic pain remains insufficient. Consequently, chronic pain treatment is often inadequate. It lacks efficacy in most patients and is associated with detrimental side effects - a situation which calls for urgent changes in pain research and management...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649262/antinociceptive-antibiotics-loaded-into-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-of-prolonged-release-measuring-pharmacological-efficiency-and-time-span-on-chronic-monoarthritis-rats
#16
Carlos Valdes, Gonzalo Bustos, Jose L Martinez, Claudio Laurido
Pain is a sensory experience of a complex physiological nature in which is not only involved the nervous system. Among its many features is the development of chronic pain that is more complicated to treat because of the central somatization processes involved, becoming inefficient treatments used in other forms of pain. Among them is the role of glial cells, whose participation is such that some authors have proposed to chronic pain as a gliopathy. Because of this, the drug target of possible treatments focuses on modulating nociceptive response affecting transduction into the central nervous system through affecting synapses in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628828/pain-assessment-in-the-critically-ill-mechanically-ventilated-adult-patients-comparison-between-skin-conductance-algesimeter-index-and-physiologic-indicators
#17
Puneet Khanna, Chandralekha Chandralekha, Ravinder Kumar Pandey, Ankur Sharma
Background and Objectives: Critically ill patients are unable to communicate effectively, so it is difficult to assess their pain and analgesic requirement. Skin conductance algesimeter (SCA) index is a device that primarily measures changes in skin conductance real time to assess pain. Methods: We planned this quantitative prospective observational study to assess pain in the critically ill mechanically ventilated patients in comparison to physiologic indicators such as blood pressure and heart rate...
April 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628614/pelvic-congestion-syndrome-systematic-review-of-treatment-success
#18
REVIEW
Candace L Brown, Magda Rizer, Ryan Alexander, Emerson E Sharpe, Paul J Rochon
Pelvic venous insufficiency is now a well-characterized etiology of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS). The prevalence of CPP is 15% in females aged 18 to 50 years in the United States and up to 43.4% worldwide. In addition to individual physical, emotional, and quality-of-life implications of CPP, there are profound healthcare and socioeconomic expenses with estimated annual direct and indirect costs in the United States in excess of 39 billion dollars. PCS consists of clinical symptoms with concomitant anatomic and physiologic abnormalities originating in venous insufficiency...
March 2018: Seminars in Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623199/the-physiological-functions-of-central-nervous-system-pericytes-and-a-potential-role-in-pain
#19
REVIEW
Nicholas Beazley-Long, Alexandra M Durrant, Matthew N Swift, Lucy F Donaldson
Central nervous system (CNS) pericytes regulate critical functions of the neurovascular unit in health and disease. CNS pericytes are an attractive pharmacological target for their position within the neurovasculature and for their role in neuroinflammation. Whether the function of CNS pericytes also affects pain states and nociceptive mechanisms is currently not understood. Could it be that pericytes hold the key to pain associated with CNS blood vessel dysfunction? This article reviews recent findings on the important physiological functions of CNS pericytes and highlights how these neurovascular functions could be linked to pain states...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617398/impact-of-an-animal-assisted-therapy-programme-on-physiological-and-psychosocial-variables-of-paediatric-oncology-patients
#20
Nathiana B Silva, Flávia L Osório
The objective of this study was to propose an intervention and safety protocol for performing animal-assisted therapy (AAT) and evaluating its efficacy in children under outpatient oncological treatment based on psychological, physiological, and quality of life indicators for the children and caregivers. The sample consisted of 24 children diagnosed with leukaemia and solid tumours (58% girls with a mean age of 8.0 years) who underwent an AAT programme consisting of three 30-min sessions in an open group. Two dogs (one Labrador retriever and one golden retriever) were used, and activities such as sensory stimulation, gait training, and socialization were conducted...
2018: PloS One
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