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Pain physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823008/neuropathic-pain-s-biopsychosocial-effects
#1
Esra Dogru Huzmeli, Ismet Melek
The aim of our study is to understand neuropathic pain's social, psychological, and biological effects on the patients. All of the patients who were diagnosed with neuropathic pain (NP) by a neurologist were invited to participate in the study. The diagnoses were made based on the patients' history and symptoms and the results of their neurological examinations. Demographic characteristics (age and pain duration), diagnoses, and medical histories of the patients were recorded. Average daily pain intensity was measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS)...
August 19, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821271/high-speed-resistance-training-and-balance-training-for-people-with-knee-osteoarthritis-to-reduce-falls-risk-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Pazit Levinger, Jeremy Dunn, Nancy Bifera, Michael Butson, George Elias, Keith D Hill
BACKGROUND: The number of falls experienced by people with knee osteoarthritis (OA) is almost double the number experienced by people with no OA. The neuromuscular elements required to arrest a fall are more impaired in people with knee OA compared to their asymptomatic counterparts. Therefore, these elements may need to be incorporated into an exercise intervention to reduce the risk of falling. The aim of this study will be to examine the feasibility, safety and patient satisfaction of a high-speed resistance-training program, with and without balance exercises, in people with knee OA compared to a control group...
August 18, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818984/pseudo-reference-regions-for-glial-imaging-with-11-c-pbr28-investigation-in-two-clinical-cohorts
#3
Daniel Strakis Albrecht, Marc David Normandin, Sergey Shcherbinin, Dustin W Wooten, Adam J Schwarz, Nicole R Zurcher, Vanessa N Barth, Nicolas J Guehl, Oluwaseun Johnson-Akeju, Nazem Atassi, Mattia Veronese, Federico Turkheimer, Jacob M Hooker, Marco Luciano Loggia
The translocator protein (TSPO) is a commonly used imaging target to investigate neuroinflammation. While TSPO imaging demonstrates great promise, its signal exhibits substantial interindividual variability, which needs to be accounted for to uncover group effects that are truly reflective of neuroimmune activation. Recent evidence suggests that relative metrics computed using pseudo-reference approaches can minimize within-group variability, and increase sensitivity to detect physiologically meaningful group differences...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818476/complex-anatomic-abnormalities-of-the-lower-leg-muscles-and-tendons-associated-with-phocomelia-a-case-report
#4
Thomas Hodo, Mark Hamrick, Yulia Melenevsky
Musculoskeletal anatomy is widely known to have components that stray from the norm in the form of variant muscle and tendon presence, absence, origin, insertion, and bifurcation. Although these variant muscles and tendons might be deemed incidental and insignificant findings by most, they can be important contributors to pathologic physiology or, more importantly, an option for effective treatment. In the present case report, we describe a patient with phocomelia and Müllerian abnormalities secondary to in utero thalidomide exposure...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818303/nkcc1-chloride-importer-antagonists-attenuate-many-neurological-and-psychiatric-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Yehezkel Ben-Ari
In physiological conditions, adult neurons have low intracellular Cl(-) [(Cl(-))I] levels underlying the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inhibitory drive. In contrast, neurons have high (Cl(-))I levels and excitatory GABA actions in a wide range of pathological conditions including spinal cord lesions, chronic pain, brain trauma, cerebrovascular infarcts, autism, Rett and Down syndrome, various types of epilepsies, and other genetic or environmental insults. The diuretic highly specific NKCC1 chloride importer antagonist bumetanide (PubChem CID: 2461) efficiently restores low (Cl(-))I levels and attenuates many disorders in experimental conditions and in some clinical trials...
August 14, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817717/short-report-trpv1-polymorphism-1911-a-g-alters-capsaicin-induced-sensory-changes-in-healthy-subjects
#6
Julia Forstenpointner, Matti Förster, Denisa May, Friederike Hofschulte, Ingolf Cascorbi, Gunnar Wasner, Janne Gierthmühlen, Ralf Baron
BACKGROUND: C-fibers express transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. These high-voltage gated channels function as integrators of different physical stresses (e.g. heat, protons, ATP). Additionally channel activation can be induced by capsaicin. Topically applied, capsaicin elicits burning pain, heat and mechanical hyperalgesia and serves as a human surrogate model for pain. It was suggested that the TRPV1-variant rs8065080 (1911A>G) plays a pivotal role in patients with neuropathic pain syndromes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816575/cross-cultural-translation-validity-and-reliability-of-the-french-version-of-the-neurophysiology-of-pain-questionnaire
#7
Christophe Demoulin, Pauline Brasseur, Nathalie Roussel, Clara Brereton, Fabienne Humblet, Daniel Flynn, Julien Van Beveren, Thomas Osinsky, Anne-Françoise Donneau, Jean-Michel Crielaard, Marc Vanderthommen, Olivier Bruyère
Pain physiology education is an important component in the management of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The Neurophysiology of Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) was developed in English to assess pain physiology knowledge in patients. This study aimed to translate the NPQ into French (NPQ-Fr) and to investigate the main psychometric properties of the NPQ-Fr. The translation was performed using the best practice translation guidelines. One hundred and one French-speaking patients with chronic non-specific spinal pain completed the NPQ-Fr to assess its acceptability and presence of floor/ceiling effects and test its dimensionality...
August 17, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815513/an-update-on-p2y13-receptor-signalling-and-function
#8
Raquel Pérez-Sen, Rosa Gómez-Villafuertes, Felipe Ortega, Javier Gualix, Esmerilda G Delicado, María Teresa Miras-Portugal
The distribution of nucleotide P2Y receptors across different tissues suggests that they fulfil key roles in a number of physiological and pathological conditions. P2Y13 is one of the latest P2Y receptors identified, a novel member of the Gi-coupled P2Y receptor subfamily that responds to ADP, together with P2Y12 and P2Y14. Pharmacological studies drew attention to this new ADP receptor, with a pharmacology that overlaps that of P2Y12 receptors but with unique features and roles. The P2RY12-14 genes all reside on human chromosome 3 at 3q25...
August 17, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814817/conjugated-polymers-mediate-effective-activation-of-the-mammalian-ion-channel-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1
#9
F Lodola, N Martino, G Tullii, G Lanzani, M R Antognazza
Selective and rapid regulation of ionic channels is pivotal to the understanding of physiological processes and has a crucial impact in developing novel therapeutic strategies. Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels are emerging as essential cellular switches that allow animals to respond to their environment. In particular, the Vanilloid Receptor 1 (TRPV1), besides being involved in the body temperature regulation and in the response to pain, has important roles in several neuronal functions, as cytoskeleton dynamics, injured neurons regeneration, synaptic plasticity...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811742/respiratory-t-wave-inversion-in-a-patient-with-chest-pain
#10
Himani Sharma, Abhinav Tiwari
T-wave inversion on electrocardiogram (ECG) is always a concerning finding as it is often associated with myocardial ischemia or ventricular strain. Respiratory variation in the T-wave morphology has been reported in the literature; however, the frequency of this observation remains unknown as this is not routinely evaluated. Although the exact physiological mechanisms underlying this ECG change are unclear, it is proposed to be due to the respiratory variation of the heart position resulting in an alteration in T-wave polarity...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810990/gait-and-functional-outcomes-for-young-active-males-with-traumatic-unilateral-transfemoral-limb-loss
#11
Caitlin E Mahon, Alison L Pruziner, Brad D Hendershot, Erik J Wolf, Benjamin J Darter, K Bo Foreman, Joseph B Webster
OBJECTIVE: Altered body structures that occur with the loss of a lower limb can impact mobility and quality of life. Specifically, biomechanical changes that result from wearing a prosthesis have been associated with an increased risk of falls or joint degeneration, as well as increased energy demands. While previous studies describing these outcomes are typically limited by number of outcome measures and/or small, diverse patient groups, recent military conflicts present a unique opportunity to collect outcomes from a relatively homogenous, active patient population with limb loss...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809765/cyclin-dependent-kinase-5-modulates-the-p2x2a-receptor-channel-gating-through-phosphorylation-of-c-terminal-threonine-372
#12
Claudio Coddou, Rodrigo Sandoval, Patricio Castro, Pablo Lazcano, Maria José Hevia, Milos Rokic, Bradford Hall, Anita Terse, Christian Gonzalez-Billault, Ashok B Kulkarni, Stanko S Stojilkovic, Elias Utreras
The purinergic P2X2 receptor (P2X2R) is an adenosine triphosphate-gated ion channel widely expressed in the nervous system. Here, we identified a putative cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) phosphorylation site in the full-size variant P2X2aR (TPKH), which is absent in the splice variant P2X2bR. We therefore investigated the effects of Cdk5 and its neuronal activator, p35, on P2X2aR function. We found an interaction between P2X2aR and Cdk5/p35 by co-immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation in HEK293 cells...
July 17, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808362/a-study-on-the-psychometric-properties-of-revised-nonverbal-pain-scale-and-original-nonverbal-pain-scale-in-iranian-nonverbal-ventilated-patients
#13
Hoda Chookalayi, Mehdi Heidarzadeh, Mohammad Hasanpour, Sajjad Jabrailzadeh, Fatemeh Sadeghpour
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The nonverbal pain scale is one of the instruments which study pain in nonverbal-ventilated patients with regard to the changes of behavioral and physiological indices. The purpose of the study is to survey the psychometric properties of revised-nonverbal pain scale (R-NVPS) and original-nonverbal pain scale (O-NVPS) in ventilated patients hospitalized in critical care units. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four nurses studied pain in sixty patients hospitalized in trauma, medical, neurology, and surgical critical care units using R-NVPS and O-NVPS at six times (before, during, and after nociceptive and nonnociceptive procedures)...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807080/a-descriptive-analysis-of-traction-splint-utilization-and-iv-analgesia-by-emergency-medical-services
#14
Joshua Nackenson, Amado A Baez, Jonathan P Meizoso
Study Objectives Traction splinting has been the prehospital treatment of midshaft femur fracture as early as the battlefield of the First World War (1914-1918). This study is the assessment of these injuries and the utilization of a traction splint (TS) in blunt and penetrating trauma, as well as intravenous (IV) analgesia utilization by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in Miami, Florida (USA). METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients who sustained a midshaft femur fracture in the absence of multiple other severe injuries or severe physiologic derangement, as defined by an injury severity score (ISS) <20 and a triage revised trauma score (T-RTS)≥10, who presented to an urban, Level 1 trauma center between September 2008 and September 2013...
August 15, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804005/performance-assessment-of-the-saps-ii-and-sofa-scoring-systems-in-hanta-virus-hemorrhagic-fever-with-renal-syndrome
#15
Zhenjun Yu, Ni Zhou, Ali Li, Jie Chen, Huazhong Chen, Zebao He, Fei Yan, Haihong Zhao, Jiansheng Zhu
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS), caused by the hantavirus, is a natural infectious disease characterized by fever, hemorrhage and renal damage. China is the most severely endemic area for HFRS in the world. In recent years, critical scoring systems based on quantitative classification have become an important clinical tool for predicting and evaluating the prognosis of critical illness, and provide guidelines for clinical practice. METHODS: The sample comprised 384 patients with HFRS treated in the Taizhou Hospital from January 2006 to February 2017...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802647/pharmacological-modulation-of-acid-sensing-ion-channels-1a-and-3-by-amiloride-and-2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline-gmq
#16
Thomas Besson, Eric Lingueglia, Miguel Salinas
Acid-Sensing Ion Channels (ASICs) are cation channels activated by extracellular acidification that emerge as potential pharmacological targets in pain and other neurological disorders. Here, we compare the pharmacological modulation of ASIC1a and ASIC3 channels by amiloride and 2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline (GMQ), two compounds commonly used for their in vitro and in vivo investigation. We analyzed the effect of amiloride on the pH-dependent activation and inactivation, the relative influence of the extracellular domain and the transmembrane/cytosolic domains on the effect of amiloride and GMQ using chimeras between ASIC1a and ASIC3, and how these compounds potentiate the physiologically relevant ASIC3 sustained window current...
August 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800673/m-type-k-channels-in-peripheral-nociceptive-pathways
#17
REVIEW
Xiaona Du, Haixia Gao, David Jaffe, Hailin Zhang, Nikita Gamper
Pathological pain is a hyperexcitability disorder. Since the excitability of a neuron is set and controlled by a complement of ion channels it expresses, in order to understand and treat pain we need to develop a mechanistic insight into the key ion channels controlling excitability within the mammalian pain pathways, and how these ion channels are regulated and modulated in various physiological and pathophysiological settings. In this review we will discuss the emerging data on the expression in pain pathways, functional role and modulation of a family of voltage-gated K(+) channels called 'M channels' (KCNQ, Kv7)...
August 11, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798669/receptor-mechanisms-mediating-the-pro-nociceptive-action-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-rat-trigeminal-neurons-and-meningeal-afferents
#18
Kseniya Koroleva, Alsu Mustafina, Aleksey Yakovlev, Anton Hermann, Rashid Giniatullin, Guzel Sitdikova
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a well-established member of the gasotransmitter family, is involved in a variety of physiological functions, including pro-nociceptive action in the sensory system. Although several reports have shown that H2S activates sensory neurons, the molecular targets of H2S action in trigeminal (TG) nociception, implicated in migraine, remains controversial. In this study, using suction electrode recordings, we investigate the effect of the H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), on nociceptive firing in rat meningeal TG nerve fibers...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795169/chronic-pain-and-chronic-stress-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#19
Chadi G Abdallah, Paul Geha
Pain and stress share significant conceptual and physiological overlaps. Both phenomena challenge the body's homeostasis and necessitate decision-making to help animals adapt to their environment. In addition, chronic stress and chronic pain share a common behavioral model of failure to extinguish negative memories. Yet, they also have discrepancies such that the final brain endophenotype of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and chronic pain appears to be different among the three conditions, and the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis remains unclear in the physiology of pain...
February 2017: Chronic stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794695/water-filtered-infrared-a-wira-overcomes-swallowing-disorders-and-hypersalivation-a-case-report
#20
Gerd Hoffmann
Case description: A patient with a Barrett oesophageal carcinoma and a resection of the oesophagus with gastric pull-up developed swallowing disorders 6 years and 2 months after the operation. Within 1 year and 7 months two recurrences of the tumor at the anastomosis were found and treated with combined chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy respectively. 7 years and 9 months after the operation local tumor masses and destruction were present with no ability to orally drink or eat (full feeding by jejunal PEG tube): quality of life was poor, as saliva and mucus were very viscous (pulling filaments) and could not be swallowed and had to be spat out throughout the day and night resulting in short periods of sleep (awaking from the necessity to spit out)...
2017: German Medical Science: GMS E-journal
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