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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110470/thermal-control-weather-and-aging
#1
REVIEW
Alexandra Schneider, Regina Rückerl, Susanne Breitner, Kathrin Wolf, Annette Peters
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight the latest developments in the field of weather and health with a focus on the elderly. The current state of knowledge is summarized and open questions and emerging fields of research are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: It is expected that climate change will lead to higher global average surface temperatures and more extreme climatic conditions. Previous studies have shown that non-optimal temperatures are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, specifically in elderly people...
January 21, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110467/an-overview-of-autosomal-dominant-tumour-syndromes-with-prominent-features-in-the-oral-and-maxillofacial-region
#2
REVIEW
Robert A Kennedy, Selvam Thavaraj, Salvador Diaz-Cano
Several autosomal dominant inherited tumour syndromes demonstrate prominent features in the oral and maxillofacial region. Although multiple organ systems are frequently involved, the target organs more frequently affected are the skin (nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, Brooke-Spiegler syndrome, Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome and Muir-Torre syndrome), gastrointestinal tract (Peutz-Jegher syndrome and Gardner syndrome) or endocrine system (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b and hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome)...
January 21, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110453/update-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cholangiocarcinoma
#3
REVIEW
Bryan Doherty, Vinod E Nambudiri, William C Palmer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cholangiocarcinoma is a rare biliary adenocarcinoma associated with poor outcomes. Cholangiocarcinoma is subdivided into extrahepatic and intrahepatic variants. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is then further differentiated into (1) peripheral mass-forming tumors and (2) central periductal infiltrating tumors. We aimed to review the currently known risk factors, diagnostic tools, and treatment options, as well as highlight the need for further clinical trials and research to improve overall survival rates...
January 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110410/neurophysiological-assessment-of-brain-dysfunction-in-critically-ill-patients-an-update
#4
REVIEW
Eric Azabou, Catherine Fischer, Jean Michel Guerit, Djillali Annane, François Mauguiere, Fréderic Lofaso, Tarek Sharshar
The aim of this review was to provide up-to-date information about the usefulness of clinical neurophysiology testing in the management of critically ill patients. Evoked potentials (EPs) and electroencephalogram (EEG) are non-invasive clinical neurophysiology tools that allow an objective assessment of the central nervous system's function at the bedside in intensive care unit (ICU). These tests are quite useful in diagnosing cerebral complications, and establishing the vital and functional prognosis in ICU...
January 21, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110405/cyanotoxins-producing-organisms-occurrence-toxicity-mechanism-of-action-and-human-health-toxicological-risk-evaluation
#5
REVIEW
Franca M Buratti, Maura Manganelli, Susanna Vichi, Mara Stefanelli, Simona Scardala, Emanuela Testai, Enzo Funari
Cyanobacteria were present on the earth 3.5 billion years ago; since then they have colonized almost all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. They produce a high number of bioactive molecules, among which some are cyanotoxins. Cyanobacterial growth at high densities, forming blooms, is increasing in extension and frequency, following anthropogenic activities and climate changes, giving rise to some concern for human health and animal life exposed to cyanotoxins. Numerous cases of lethal poisonings have been associated with cyanotoxins ingestion in wild animal and livestock...
January 21, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110384/compass-systems
#6
Nikita Chernetsov
Three compass systems based on global cues known to exist in migrating birds are reviewed. Two of these systems are based on celestial cues, a time-dependent sun compass and time-independent, i.e. not involving the internal clock, star compass. The third system is the magnetic compass, based on a separate sensory modality, which currently attracts much attention from behavioural ecologists, physiologists and physicists. The complex pattern of hierarchy and interactions between these compass systems is briefly discussed...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110361/the-impact-of-routine-whole-spine-mri-screening-in-the-evaluation-of-spinal-degenerative-diseases
#7
Rishi Mugesh Kanna, Younis Kamal, Anupama Mahesh, Prakash Venugopal, Ajoy Prasad Shetty, S Rajasekaran
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine is a sensitive investigation, which not only provides detailed images of the spinal column but also adjacent spinal regions and para-vertebral organ systems. Such incidental findings (IF) can be asymptomatic but significant. The efficacy of whole spine T2 sagittal screening in providing additional information has been demonstrated in several spinal diseases but its routine use in patients with spinal degenerative diseases has not been studied...
January 21, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110321/recent-advances-in-arsenic-trioxide-encapsulated-nanoparticles-as-drug-delivery-agents-to-solid-cancers
#8
Akhtar Anam, Wang Scarlet Xiaoyan, Ghali Lucy, Bell Celia, Wen Xuesong
Since arsenic trioxide was first approved as the front line therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia 25 years ago, its anti-cancer properties for various malignancies have been under intense investigation. However, the clinical successes of arsenic trioxide in treating hematological cancers have not been translated to solid cancers. This is due to arsenic's rapid clearance by the body's immune system before reaching the tumor site. Several attempts have henceforth been made to increase its bioavailability toward solid cancers without increasing its dosage albeit without much success...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110319/perioperative-remote-acute-lung-injury-recent-update
#9
Jin Zhaosheng, Suen Ka Chun, Ma Daqing
Perioperative acute lung injury (ALI) is a syndrome characterised by hypoxia and chest radiograph changes. It is a serious post-operative complication, associated with considerable mortality and morbidity. In addition to mechanical ventilation, remote organ insult could also trigger systemic responses which induce ALI. Currently, there are limited treatment options available beyond conservative respiratory support. However, increasing understanding of the pathophysiology of ALI and the biochemical pathways involved will aid the development of novel treatments and help to improve patient outcome as well as to reduce cost to the health service...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110290/guided-and-unguided-internet-based-vestibular-rehabilitation-versus-usual-care-for-dizzy-adults-of-50%C3%A2-years-and-older-a-protocol-for-a-three-armed-randomised-trial
#10
Vincent A van Vugt, Johannes C van der Wouden, Judith E Bosmans, Martin Smalbrugge, Willianne van Diest, Rosie Essery, Lucy Yardley, Henriëtte E van der Horst, Otto R Maarsingh
INTRODUCTION: Dizziness is a common symptom in general practice with a high prevalence among older adults. The most common cause of dizziness in general practice is peripheral vestibular disease. Vestibular rehabilitation (VR) is a safe and effective treatment for peripheral vestibular disease that entails specific exercises to maximise the central nervous system compensation for the effects of vestibular pathology. An internet-based VR intervention has recently been shown to be safe and effective...
January 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110083/preconditioning-in-neuroprotection-from-hypoxia-to-ischemia
#11
REVIEW
Sijie Li, Adam Hafeez, Fatima Noorulla, Xiaokun Geng, Guo Shao, Changhong Ren, Guowei Lu, Heng Zhao, Yuchuan Ding, Xunming Ji
Sublethal hypoxic or ischemic events can improve the tolerance of tissues, organs, and even organisms from subsequent lethal injury caused by hypoxia or ischemia. This phenomenon has been termed hypoxic or ischemic preconditioning (HPC or IPC) and is well established in the heart and the brain. This review aims to discuss HPC and IPC with respect to their historical development and advancements in our understanding of the neurochemical basis for their neuroprotective role. Through decades of collaborative research and studies of HPC and IPC in other organ systems, our understanding of HPC and IPC-induced neuroprotection has expanded to include: early- (phosphorylation targets, transporter regulation, interfering RNA) and late- (regulation of genes like EPO, VEGF, and iNOS) phase changes, regulators of programmed cell death, members of metabolic pathways, receptor modulators, and many other novel targets...
January 18, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109973/sleep-loss-and-structural-plasticity
#12
REVIEW
Cassandra C Areal, Simon C Warby, Valérie Mongrain
Wakefulness and sleep are dynamic states during which brain functioning is modified and shaped. Sleep loss is detrimental to many brain functions and results in structural changes localized at synapses in the nervous system. In this review, we present and discuss some of the latest observations of structural changes following sleep loss in some vertebrates and insects. We also emphasize that these changes are region-specific and cell type-specific and that, most importantly, these structural modifications have functional roles in sleep regulation and brain functions...
January 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109891/redox-regulation-of-electrophilic-signaling-by-reactive-persulfides-in-cardiac-cells
#13
REVIEW
Motohiro Nishida, Akiyuki Nishimura, Tetsuro Matsunaga, Hozumi Motohashi, Shingo Kasamatsu, Takaaki Akaike
Maintaining a redox balance by means of precisely controlled systems that regulate production, and elimination, and metabolism of electrophilic substances (electrophiles) is essential for normal cardiovascular function. Electrophilic signaling is mainly regulated by endogenous electrophiles that are generated from reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and the derivative reactive species of nitric oxide during stress responses, as well as by exogenous electrophiles including compounds in foods and environmental pollutants...
January 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109835/gut-microbiota-a-player-in-aging-and-a-target-for-anti-aging-intervention
#14
REVIEW
Alexander M Vaiserman, Alexander K Koliada, Francesco Marotta
Aging-associated alterations in composition, diversity and functional features of intestinal microbiota are well-described in the modern literature. They are suggested to be caused by an age-related decline in immune system functioning (immunosenescence) and a low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammaging), which accompany many aging-associated pathologies. The microbiota-targeted dietary and probiotic interventions have been shown to favorably affect the host health and aging by an enhancement of antioxidant activity, improving immune homeostasis, suppression of chronic inflammation, regulation of fat deposition and metabolism and prevention of insulin resistance...
January 18, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109672/optimizing-follow-up-after-anatomic-total-shoulder-arthroplasty
#15
Bradley Schoch, Jean David Werthel, Cathy D Schleck, William S Harmsen, John Sperling, Joaquín Sánchez-Sotelo, Robert H Cofield
BACKGROUND: With increases in both total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) volumes and patient life expectancies, the number of patients requiring follow-up after shoulder arthroplasty continues to grow exponentially. The purpose of this study is to establish a data-based follow-up schedule minimizing unnecessary patient and health care system costs without sacrificing patient care. METHODS: Between January 1975 and January 2013, 2786 consecutive anatomic TSAs were performed at our institution...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109619/obesity-and-heart-failure-focus-on-the-obesity-paradox
#16
REVIEW
Salvatore Carbone, Carl J Lavie, Ross Arena
The escalating prevalence of obesity has been linked to substantial increases in both metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, the direct effects of obesity on cardiovascular health and function require further exploration. In particular, the relationship between obesity and cardiac function has received intense scrutiny. Although obesity increases the risk for development of heart failure (HF), it appears to exert a protective effect in patients in whom HF has already been diagnosed (the "obesity paradox")...
January 5, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109566/effectiveness-of-virtual-reality-rehabilitation-for-children-and-adolescents-with-cerebral-palsy-an-updated-evidence-based-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
D K Ravi, N Kumar, P Singhi
BACKGROUND: The use of virtual reality systems in the motor rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy is new, and thus the scientific evidence for its effectiveness needs to be evaluated through a systematic review. OBJECTIVE: To provide updated evidence-based guidance for virtual reality rehabilitation in sensory and functional motor skills of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, PEDro, Web of Science, OTseeker, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library were searched from their earliest records up to 1 June, 2016...
September 27, 2016: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109497/management-of-carotid-body-tumor-in-pediatric-patients-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Apanisile Ifeoluwa, István Lázár, Éva Szövördi, Tamás Karosi
Carotid body tumors (CBTs) are rare types of extra-adrenal paragangliomas, which originate from the neuroendocrine cells of the adventitial layer of carotid bifurcation. An 8-year-old girl was admitted to our department with left-sided and pulsating neck swelling, which progressively grew over several months. The patient had no family history of CBTs. Computed tomography (CT) and CT angiography (CTA) scans revealed a contrast material enhancing, hypervascularized mass involving the left carotid bifurcation, internal carotid artery (ICA), and external carotid artery (ECA), respectively...
February 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109486/a-population-based-analysis-of-the-implementation-of-pediatric-facemasks-in-girls-youth-lacrosse
#19
Andrew Walls, David Kasle, Nicole Aaronson, Earl Harley, Erik Waldman
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, relative risk reduction, odds ratio and absolute risk reduction of head and ear injuries associated with the implementation of pediatric facial eye guards in lacrosse events. STUDY DESIGN: Cross Sectional Review of a National Database. STUDY LOCATION: National Emergency Injury Survelliance System. METHODS: Our group retrospectively reviewed a nationwide sampling estimate of 809 patients who presented to emergency rooms with head and ear injuries during lacrosse events...
February 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109413/biobehavioral-factors-that-shape-nutrition-in-low-income-populations-a-narrative-review
#20
EDITORIAL
Barbara A Laraia, Tashara M Leak, June M Tester, Cindy W Leung
Although evidence exists for an association between income level and diet quality, a causal relationship has not been established. A number of studies found that the price of nutritious food and the time cost to prepare foods are economically driven reasons for this relationship. However, in addition to economic constraints, low-income individuals and families face a number of additional challenges linked with food choice, eating behaviors, and diet-related chronic conditions that contribute to diet quality and health...
February 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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