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System review

Ademar Francisco de Oliveira, Gêssyca Adryene de Menezes Silva, Débora Milenna Xavier Almeida
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons, which are the central nervous system cells that control voluntary muscle movements. The excessive salivation (sialorrhea) is present in approximately 50% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases. Thus, some alternative therapeutic methods are sought, such as anticholinergic drugs and surgery. Recently the use of botulinum toxin applied at a midpoint of the salivary glands, often guided by ultrasound, have demonstrated positive results...
July 2016: Einstein
Gleim Dias de Souza, Luciana Rodrigues Queiroz Souza, Ronaldo Máfia Cuenca, Bárbara Stephane de Medeiros Jerônimo, Guilherme Medeiros de Souza, Vinícius Martins Vilela
Introduction: Contrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are widely used due to its image quality and ability to study pancreatic and peripancreatic morphology. The understanding of the various subtypes of the disease and identification of possible complications requires a familiarity with the terminology, which allows effective communication between the different members of the multidisciplinary team. Aim: Demonstrate the terminology and parameters to identify the different classifications and findings of the disease based on the international consensus for acute pancreatitis ( Atlanta Classification 2012)...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Joel E Abbott, Roger L Sur
The aim of this paper was to evaluate the current technology and designs of flexible ureterorenoscopes. We will review contemporary fiberoptic and digital ureteroscopes, including a discussion on ureteroscope damage and repair, and lastly present the projected future of flexible ureterorenoscopy. Ureterorenoscopy has evolved dramatically over the past several decades, which has led to landscape reshaping of stone disease treatment and upper tract pathology. Advancements in tip control, miniaturization of scopes, introduction of a digital chip on the tip, disposable devices to augment surgery, surgical experience/familiarity and most recently single use scopes are all independent factors that have increased flexible ureterorenoscopy adoption and success...
October 19, 2016: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
Mar Llamas-Velasco, Victoria Alegría, Ángel Santos-Briz, Lorenzo Cerroni, Heinz Kutzner, Luis Requena
We review the most characteristic clinical and histopathologic findings of the cutaneous manifestations of the occlusive nonvasculitic vasculopathic disorders. Clinically, most of these conditions are characterized by retiform purpura. Histopathologic findings consist of occlusion of the vessel lumina with no vasculitis. Different disorders may produce nonvasculitic occlusive vasculopathy in cutaneous blood and lymphatic vessels, including embolization due to cholesterol and oxalate emboli, cutaneous intravascular metastasis from visceral malignancies, atrial myxomas, intravascular angiosarcoma, intralymphatic histiocytosis, intravascular lymphomas, endocarditis, crystal globulin vasculopathy, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and foreign material...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Varun K Phadke, Rachel J Friedman-Moraco, Brian C Quigley, Alton B Farris, J P Norvell
BACKGROUND: Herpesvirus infections often complicate the clinical course of patients with inflammatory bowel disease; however, invasive disease due to herpes simplex virus is distinctly uncommon. METHODS: We present a case of herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis, review all the previously published cases of herpes simplex virus colitis, and discuss common clinical features and outcomes. We also discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of herpes simplex virus infections, focusing specifically on patients with inflammatory bowel disease...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ajit Dash, Robert A Figler, Arun J Sanyal, B R Wamhoff
Drug induced steatohepatitis (DISH), a form of drug induced liver injury (DILI) is characterized by intracellular accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes and subsequent inflammatory events, in some ways similar to the pathology seen with other metabolic, viral and genetic causes of non alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis (NAFLD and NASH). Areas covered: This paper provides a comprehensive review of the main underlying mechanisms by which various drugs cause DISH, and outlines existing preclinical tools to predict it and study underlying pathways involved...
October 19, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Gino A Vena, Maria Concetta Fargnoli, Nicoletta Cassano, Giuseppe Argenziano
The sudden eruption of melanocytic nevi has been associated with a number of conditions, such as bullous skin diseases, immunodeficiency and immunosuppression. The exact mechanisms leading to the development of eruptive melanocytic nevi are unknown. Areas covered: The aim of this article is to review the literature concerning eruptive melanocytic nevi following the administration of immunosuppressive drugs and other medications. Expert opinion: The literature regarding the development of eruptive nevi in association with pharmacological therapies includes a relatively low number of reports...
October 19, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Robert Thomas
The reported acetate-derived labelling of the fungal naphthalene γ-pyrone fonsecin, two streptomycete dodecaketide αpyrones TW93f and TW93g, and the streptomycete phenanthraquinones piloquinone, murayaquinone and haloquinone appear to be exceptions to the generalisation that fungi and streptomycetes produce fused-ring aromatic polyketides by different modes of cyclisation. A review of their 1) originally assigned formulae, 2) [(13) C2 ]acetate-derived labelling patterns, and 3) modes of cyclisation leads to the recognition of feasible alternative chemical structures or biosynthetic pathways, which are in accord with the originally proposed classification system...
October 18, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Nelson Trieu, Ryan Xia, Robert Loneragan, Lloyd Ridley, Joseph Trieu
INTRODUCTION: We report a series of patients who had computed tomography (CT) of their brains which showed an uncommon artefact caused by excess air bubbles in the cooling oil around the X-ray tube. METHODS: In November and December 2015, it was recognised that artefacts appearing on CT brain images acquired at our department were caused by a scanner fault. The test images were reviewed and the service engineer for the CT scanner was questioned about the artefact cause...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Oleksandr Zagorodko, Juan José Arroyo-Crespo, Vicent J Nebot, María J Vicent
Synthetic polypeptides or polyamino acids have become a useful and multifunctional platform in advanced drug delivery studies. Nonetheless, the full potential of these systems has yet to be achieved. The final structure of polypeptide conjugates and their in vivo behavior are dependent on an extraordinarily complex pattern of interconnected physico-chemical and structural parameters, making sophisticated directional design of such systems difficult and often unachievable. In this review, the authors aim to discuss the role of these parameters in the successful design of different drug delivery architectures and to delineate some basic correlations between structure, properties, and the biological behavior of polypeptide-based conjugates...
October 18, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Lucia Mastrototaro, Gerhard Sponder, Behnam Saremi, Jörg R Aschenbach
Methionine (Met) is a neutral, sulfur-containing, essential amino acid with biological functions in the initiation and prolongation step of protein synthesis, transmethylation reactions, the synthesis of cysteine and cystine, and as a component of antioxidant systems. Its key importance is reflected by the fact that it is usually absorbed from the diet with highest efficiency among all proteinogenic amino acids but may yet not optimally support metabolism and health. As such, crystalline Met supplements are partly used in man and heavily used in production of animal species (poultry, fish, shrimps, pigs and cattle) to provide improved health and performance...
October 17, 2016: IUBMB Life
A M Acosta, M A D S Lima, G Q Marques, P F Levandovski, L A F Weber
AIM: To translate, adapt and evaluate psychometric properties of the complete (15 items) and reduced (three items) versions of the Care Transitions Measure into Brazilian Portuguese. INTRODUCTION: The Care Transitions Measure assesses the quality of care transitions, from the perspective of patients. As accomplishing effective transitions is a challenge to healthcare systems, the instrument provides an opportunity to assess care transitions and improve quality initiatives...
October 18, 2016: International Nursing Review
Ioannis Christakis, Angelica M Silva, Lily Joy Kwatampora, Carla L Warneke, Callisia N Clarke, Michelle D Williams, Elizabeth G Grubbs, Jeffrey E Lee, Naifa L Busaidy, Nancy D Perrier
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is rare but potentially lethal. No standardized staging system or treatment guidelines have been established. We aimed to determine whether management of PC and patient outcomes have changed at our institution over the past 35 years. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients with PC at our institution between 1980 and 2015. Patients were grouped by date of initial surgery: group 1, 1980-2001; group 2, 2002-2015...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Mariana Angoa-Pérez, John H Anneken, Donald M Kuhn
The present review briefly explores the neurotoxic properties of methcathinone, mephedrone, methylone, and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), four synthetic cathinones most commonly found in "bath salts." Cathinones are β-keto analogs of the commonly abused amphetamines and display pharmacological effects resembling cocaine and amphetamines, but despite their commonalities in chemical structures, synthetic cathinones possess distinct neuropharmacological profiles and produce unique effects. Among the similarities of synthetic cathinones with their non-keto analogs are their targeting of monoamine systems, the release of neurotransmitters, and their stimulant properties...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Samuel Obimakinde, Olalekan Fatoki, Beatrice Opeolu, Olatunde Olatunji
Environmental studies have shown that pharmaceuticals can contaminate aqueous matrices, such as groundwater, surface water, sediment as well as aquatic flora and fauna. Effluents from sewage and wastewater treatment plants, pharmaceutical industries and hospitals have been implicated in such contamination. Recent studies have however revealed significant concentrations of pharmaceuticals in wastewater from animal facilities in proximal aquatic habitats. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have shown a consistent positive correlation between exposure to some drugs of veterinary importance and increased adverse effects in aquatic biota largely due to induction of endocrine disruption, antibiotic resistance, neurotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Youngsin Jung, Erik K St Louis
REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a common parasomnia disorder affecting between 1 and 7 % of community-dwelling adults, most frequently older adults. RBD is characterized by nocturnal complex motor behavior and polysomnographic REM sleep without atonia. RBD is strongly associated with synucleinopathy neurodegeneration. The approach to RBD management is currently twofold: symptomatic treatment to prevent injury and prognostic counseling and longitudinal follow-up surveillance for phenoconversion toward overt neurodegenerative disorders...
November 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Amanda N Fader, Tim Xu, Brian J Dunkin, Martin A Makary
BACKGROUND: Surgery is one of the highest priced services in health care, and complications from surgery can be serious and costly. Recently, advances in surgical techniques have allowed surgeons to perform many common operations using minimally invasive methods that result in fewer complications. Despite this, the rates of open surgery remain high across multiple surgical disciplines. METHODS: This is an expert commentary and review of the contemporary literature regarding minimally invasive surgery practices nationwide, the benefits of less invasive approaches, and how minimally invasive compared with open procedures are differentially reimbursed in the United States...
October 17, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Choung Ah Lee, Joon Pil Cho, Sang Cheon Choi, Hyuk Hoon Kim, Ju Ok Park
OBJECTIVE: Discharge against medical advice (DAMA) from the emergency department (ED) accounts for 0.1% to 2.7% of all ED discharges. DAMA carries a risk of increased mortality and readmissions. Our aim was to investigate the general characteristics of DAMA patients and the differences between them and non-DAMA patients. METHODS: We reviewed data collected by the National Emergency Medical Center between 2010 and 2011. Subjects were categorized into 2 groups, namely, the DAMA group and the non-DAMA group...
June 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Sungbae Moon, Suk Hee Lee, Hyun Wook Ryoo, Jong Kun Kim, Jae Yun Ahn, Sung Jin Kim, Jae Cheon Jeon, Kyung Woo Lee, Ae Jin Sung, Yun Jeong Kim, Dae Ro Lee, Byung Soo Do, Sin Ryul Park, Jin-Seok Lee
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the preventable death rate in Daegu, South Korea, and assessed affecting factors and preventable factors in order to improve the treatment of regional trauma patients. METHODS: All traumatic deaths between January 2012 and December 2012 in 5 hospitals in Daegu were analyzed by panel review, which were classified into preventable and non-preventable deaths. We determined the factors affecting trauma deaths and the preventable factors during trauma care...
December 2015: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Michael R Hamblin
Photobiomodulation (PBM) describes the use of red or near-infrared light to stimulate, heal, regenerate, and protect tissue that has either been injured, is degenerating, or else is at risk of dying. One of the organ systems of the human body that is most necessary to life, and whose optimum functioning is most worried about by humankind in general, is the brain. The brain suffers from many different disorders that can be classified into three broad groupings: traumatic events (stroke, traumatic brain injury, and global ischemia), degenerative diseases (dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's), and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, post traumatic stress disorder)...
December 2016: BBA Clinical
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