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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030218/acupuncture-suppresses-intravenous-methamphetamine-self-administration-through-gaba-receptor-s-mediation
#1
Yi Jeong Choi, Nam Jun Kim, Rong Jie Zhao, Da Hye Kim, Chae Ha Yang, Hee Young Kim, Young S Gwak, Eun Young Jang, Jae Su Kim, Yun Kyu Lee, Hyun Jong Lee, Sang Nam Lee, Sung Chul Lim, Bong Hyo Lee
OBJECTIVES: Methamphetamine is one of the widely abused drugs. In spite of a number of studies, there is still little successful therapy to suppress the methamphetamine abuse. Acupuncture has shown to attenuate the reinforcing effects of psychostimulant. Based on, the present study investigated if acupuncture could suppress intravenous methamphetamine self-administration behavior. In addition, a possible neuronal mechanism was investigated. MATERIALS & METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 270-300g were trained to intake food pellet...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028947/dlx1-and-dlx2-promote-interneuron-gaba-synthesis-synaptogenesis-and-dendritogenesis
#2
Ramon Pla, Amelia Stanco, MacKenzie A Howard, Anna N Rubin, Daniel Vogt, Niall Mortimer, Inma Cobos, Gregory Brian Potter, Susan Lindtner, James D Price, Alex S Nord, Axel Visel, Christoph E Schreiner, Scott C Baraban, David H Rowitch, John L R Rubenstein
The postnatal functions of the Dlx1&2 transcription factors in cortical interneurons (CINs) are unknown. Here, using conditional Dlx1, Dlx2, and Dlx1&2 knockouts (CKOs), we defined their roles in specific CINs. The CKOs had dendritic, synaptic, and survival defects, affecting even PV+ CINs. We provide evidence that DLX2 directly drives Gad1, Gad2, and Vgat expression, and show that mutants had reduced mIPSC amplitude. In addition, the mutants formed fewer GABAergic synapses on excitatory neurons and had reduced mIPSC frequency...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026448/newborn-genome-wide-dna-methylation-in-association-with-pregnancy-anxiety-reveals-a-potential-role-for-gabbr1
#3
Elise Beau Vangeel, Ehsan Pishva, Titia Hompes, Daniel van den Hove, Diether Lambrechts, Karel Allegaert, Kathleen Freson, Benedetta Izzi, Stephan Claes
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence for the role of prenatal stress in shaping offspring DNA methylation and disease susceptibility. In the current study, we aimed to identify genes and pathways associated with pregnancy anxiety using a genome-wide DNA methylation approach. METHODS: We selected 22 versus 23 newborns from our Prenatal Early Life Stress (PELS) cohort, exposed to the lowest or highest degree of maternal pregnancy anxiety, respectively. Cord blood genome-wide DNA methylation was assayed using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (HM450, n = 45) and candidate gene methylation using EpiTYPER (n = 80)...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025969/a-versatile-optical-tool-for-studying-synaptic-gabaa-receptor-trafficking
#4
Joshua M Lorenz-Guertin, Madeleine R Wilcox, Ming Zhang, Mads B Larsen, Jyotsna Pilli, Brigitte F Schmidt, Marcel P Bruchez, Jon W Johnson, Alan S Waggoner, Simon C Watkins, Tija C Jacob
Live-cell imaging methods can provide critical real-time receptor trafficking measurements. Here we describe an optical tool to study synaptic GABAA receptor (GABAAR) dynamics using adaptable fluorescent tracking capabilities. A fluorogen-activating peptide (FAP) was genetically inserted into a γ2 subunit tagged with pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein (γ2(pH)FAP). The FAP selectively binds and activates malachite green (MG) dyes that are otherwise non-fluorescent in solution. γ2(pH)FAP GABAARs are expressed at the cell surface in transfected cortical neurons, form synaptic clusters, and do not perturb neuronal development...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024720/disruptions-to-the-cerebellar-gabaergic-system-in-juvenile-guinea-pigs-following-preterm-birth
#5
Julia C Shaw, Hannah K Palliser, Rebecca M Dyson, Mary J Berry, Jonathan J Hirst
BACKGROUND: Children that are born preterm are at an increased risk of developing cognitive problems and behavioural disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There is increasing interest in the role of the cerebellum in these processes and the potential involvement of GABAergic pathways in neurodevelopmental disorders. We propose that preterm birth, and the associated loss of the trophic intrauterine environment, alters the development of the cerebellum, contributing to ongoing neurobehavioral disorders...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024230/%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-oral-rinse-reduces-capsaicin-induced-burning-mouth-pain-sensation-an-experimental-quantitative-sensory-testing-study-in-healthy-subjects
#6
Y Zhang, K Wang, L Arendt-Nielsen, B E Cairns
BACKGROUND: In burning mouth patients, analgesia after oral administration of clonazepam may result from modulation of peripheral γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. METHODS: The effect of oral administration of test solutions (water, 0.5 mol/L or 0.05 mol/L GABA, 1% lidocaine) was investigated for the amelioration of pain and sensitivity induced by application of capsaicin (1%, 2 min) to the tongue of thirty healthy male and female subjects in this four-session, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over study...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023772/negative-modulation-of-the-gabaa-%C3%AF-1-receptor-function-by-l-cysteine
#7
Andrea N Beltrán González, Florencia Vicentini, Daniel J Calvo
L-Cysteine is an endogenous Sulphur containing amino acid with multiple and varied roles in the central nervous system, including neuroprotection and the maintenance of the redox balance. However, it was also suggested as an excitotoxic agent implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. L-Cysteine can modulate the activity of ionic channels, including voltage-gated calcium channels and glutamatergic NMDA receptors, whereas its effects on GABAergic neurotransmission had not been studied before...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023733/tonic-inhibition-of-brown-adipose-tissue-sympathetic-nerve-activity-via-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-the-rostral-raphe-pallidus
#8
Ellen Paula Santos da Conceição, Christopher J Madden, Shaun F Morrison
We sought to determine if body temperature and energy expenditure are influenced by a cholinergic input to neurons in the rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa), the site of sympathetic premotor neurons controlling brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Nanoinjections of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) receptor agonist, oxotremorine, or the cholinesterase inhibitor, neostigmine (NEOS), in the rRPa of anaesthetized rats decreased cold-evoked BAT sympathetic nerve activity (SNA, nadirs: -72%, and -95%), BAT temperature (TBAT, -0...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023146/is-there-a-role-for-combined-use-of-gabapentin-and-pregabalin-in-pain-control-too-good-to-be-true
#9
Helen Senderovich, Geetha Jeyapragasan
Gabapentin (Neurontin) and Pregabalin (Lyrica) are first and second-generation α2δ [1,2] ligands, respectively, and are both approved for use as adjunctive therapy in pain control. Although they do not bind to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors they have been successfully used to treat neuropathic pain conditions. Their mechanism of action is not yet fully understood, but research has demonstrated promising results. Despite their similarities, they have been used in combination in both clinical and research situations, and have been noted to have a synergistic effect in pain control without concern for clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions...
October 12, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020412/emerging-role-of-one-carbon-metabolism-and-dna-methylation-enrichment-on-%C3%AE-containing-gabaa-receptor-expression-in-the-cerebellum-of-subjects-with-alcohol-use-disorders-aud
#10
Eleonora Gatta, James Auta, David P Gavin, Dulal K Bhaumik, Dennis R Grayson, Subhash C Pandey, Alessandro Guidotti
BACKGROUND: Cerebellum is an area of the brain particularly sensitive to the effects of acute and chronic alcohol consumption. Alcohol exposure decreases cerebellar Purkinje cell output by increasing GABA release from Golgi cells onto extrasynaptic α6/δ-containing GABAA receptors located on glutamatergic granule cells. Here, we studied whether chronic alcohol consumption induces changes in GABAA receptor subunit expression and whether these changes are associated with alterations in epigenetic mechanisms via DNA methylation...
August 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018828/repurposing-lesogaberan-to-promote-human-islet-cell-survival-and-%C3%AE-cell-replication
#11
Jide Tian, Hoa Dang, Angela Hu, Willem Xu, Daniel L Kaufman
The activation of β-cell's A- and B-type gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAA-Rs and GABAB-Rs) can promote their survival and replication, and the activation of α-cell GABAA-Rs promotes their conversion into β-cells. However, GABA and the most clinically applicable GABA-R ligands may be suboptimal for the long-term treatment of diabetes due to their pharmacological properties or potential side-effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Lesogaberan (AZD3355) is a peripherally restricted high-affinity GABAB-R-specific agonist, originally developed for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) that appears to be safe for human use...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993837/gaba-receptors-and-the-pharmacology-of-sleep
#12
W Wisden, X Yu, N P Franks
Current GABAergic sleep-promoting medications were developed pragmatically, without making use of the immense diversity of GABAA receptors. Pharmacogenetic experiments are leading to an understanding of the circuit mechanisms in the hypothalamus by which zolpidem and similar compounds induce sleep at α2βγ2-type GABAA receptors. Drugs acting at more selective receptor types, for example, at receptors containing the α2 and/or α3 subunits expressed in hypothalamic and brain stem areas, could in principle be useful as hypnotics/anxiolytics...
October 10, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991279/el-papel-del-%C3%A3-cido-gamma-aminobut%C3%A3-rico-en-la-depresi%C3%A3-n-de-la-mujer
#13
Mónica Flores-Ramos, Margus Salinas, Armando Carvajal-Lohr, Lorena Rodríguez-Bores
other: La depresión es un trastorno psiquiátrico frecuente e incapacitante. Es causada por diferentes factores, entre los que figura el aspecto neurobiológico. En el presente trabajo presentamos evidencias acerca del papel del ácido gamma-aminobutírico (GABA) en la etiopatogenia de la depresión, con énfasis en la mujer. Los estudios en animales fundamentan la implicación del GABA en la depresión, mientras que los estudios clínicos han demostrado que el GABA se encuentra disminuido en líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) y plasma en pacientes con depresión...
2017: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988097/no-evidence-of-increased-growth-or-mortality-in-fish-exposed-to-oxazepam-in-semi-natural-ecosystems
#14
A Lagesson, T Brodin, J Fahlman, J Fick, M Jonsson, J Persson, P Byström, J Klaminder
An increasing number of short-term laboratory studies on fish reports behavioral effects from exposure to aquatic contaminants or raised carbon dioxide levels affecting the GABAA receptor. However, how such GABAergic behavioral modifications (GBMs) impact populations in more complex natural systems is not known. In this study, we induced GBMs in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) via exposure to a GABA agonist (oxazepam) and followed the effects on growth and survival over one summer (70days) in replicated pond ecosystems...
October 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987273/tranexamic-acid-impairs-hippocampal-synaptic-transmission-mediated-by-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-receptor-type-a
#15
Hedwig Irl, Stephan Kratzer, Stefan Schwerin, Eberhard Kochs, Manfred Blobner, Gerhard Schneider, Gerhard Rammes, Rainer Haseneder
High-dose application of tranexamic acid (TXA), a widely used antifibrinolytic drug, can cause seizures in patients undergoing surgery. Mechanistically, seizures are considered to arise from an imbalance between inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission, whose main transmitters are gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TXA on neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, a structure that plays a pivotal role in human epilepsy...
October 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986332/anticonvulsant-effects-of-senna-spectabilis-on-seizures-induced-by-chemicals-and-maximal-electroshock
#16
Nkantchoua Nkamguie Gisele Claudine, Njapdounke Kameni Jacqueline Stephanie, Fifen Jean Jules, Taiwe Sotoing Germain, Ojong Lucie Josiane, Kandeda Kavaye Antoine, Ngo Bum Elisabeth
Senna spectabilis (Fabaceae) is one of the medicinal plants used in Cameroon by traditional healers to treat epilepsy, constipation, insomnia, anxiety. The present study aimed to investigate the anticonvulsant effects of Senna spectabilis decoction induced by maximal electroshock (MES), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), pilocarpine (PC) and its possible action mechanisms in animal models using flumazenil (FLU), methyl-ß-carboline-3-carboxylate (BC) and bicuculline (BIC). Senna spectabilis decoction (106.5 and 213...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983255/the-regulatory-effects-of-lateral-hypothalamus-area-gabab-receptor-on-gastric-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#17
Lin Gao, Huiru Zhao, Tao Zhu, Yeliu Liu, Li Hu, Zhenguo Liu, Hai Huang, Fuxue Chen, Zhenxu Deng, Dechang Chu, Dongshu Du
HIGHLIGHTS The aim of the research was to determine the functional effects and molecular mechanisms of GABAB receptor on ischemia reperfusion-induced gastric injury in rats.The lateral hypothalamus area GABAB receptor attenuated the ischemia reperfusion-induced gastric injury by up-regulating the production of GABA, GABABR, and down-regulating P-GABABR in the brain.This work would provide a new therapeutic strategy for acute gastric injury. Gastric ischemia-reperfusion (GI-R) injury progression is largely associated with excessive activation of the greater splanchnic nerve (GSN)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981081/influence-of-gaba-b-agonist-baclofen-on-capsaicin-induced-excitation-of-secondary-peristalsis-in-humans
#18
Wei-Yi Lei, Jui-Sheng Hung, Tso-Tsai Liu, Chih-Hsun Yi, Chien-Lin Chen
OBJECTIVES: Esophageal instillation of capsaicin enhances secondary peristalsis, but the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor type B (GABA-B) agonist baclofen inhibits secondary peristalsis. This study aimed to investigate whether baclofen could influence heartburn perception and secondary peristalsis subsequent to capsaicin infusion in healthy adults. METHODS: Secondary peristalsis was performed by slow and rapid mid-esophagus air injections in 15 healthy subjects. Two different sessions including esophageal infusion of capsaicin-containing red pepper sauce (0...
October 5, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978766/trpc5-is-required-for-the-no-dependent-increase-in-dendritic-ca-2-and-gaba-release-from-chick-retinal-amacrine-cells
#19
John Wesley Maddox, Nikka Khorsandi, Evanna L Gleason
GABAergic signaling from amacrine cells (ACs) is a fundamental aspect of visual signal processing in the inner retina. We have previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) can elicit release of GABA independently from activation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in cultured retinal ACs. This voltage-independent quantal GABA release relies on a Ca(2+) influx mechanism with pharmacological characteristics consistent with the involvement of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels TRPC4 and/or TRPC5. To determine the identity of these channels, we evaluate the ability of NO to elevate dendritic Ca(2+) and to stimulate GABA release from cultured ACs under conditions known to alter the function of TRPC4 and 5...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977038/computational-model-of-interictal-discharges-triggered-by-interneurons
#20
Anton V Chizhov, Dmitry V Amakhin, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Interictal discharges (IIDs) are abnormal waveforms registered in the periods before or between seizures. IIDs that are initiated by GABAergic interneurons have not been mathematically modeled yet. In the present study, a mathematical model that describes the mechanisms of these discharges is proposed. The model is based on the experimental recordings of IIDs in pyramidal neurons of the rat entorhinal cortex and estimations of synaptic conductances during IIDs. IIDs were induced in cortico-hippocampal slices by applying an extracellular solution with 4-aminopyridine, high potassium, and low magnesium concentrations...
2017: PloS One
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