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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655027/zolpidem-for-the-treatment-of-neurologic-disorders-a-systematic-review
#1
Martin N Bomalaski, Edward S Claflin, Whitney Townsend, Mark D Peterson
Importance: Given its selective action on the ω1 subtype of the γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor, zolpidem tartrate presents a potential treatment mechanism for other neurologic disorders. Objective: To synthesize studies that used zolpidem to treat neurologic disorders. Evidence Review: Eligibility criteria included any published English-language article that examined the use of zolpidem for noninsomnia neurologic disorders in humans for all dates up to March 20, 2015...
June 26, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654909/brain-metastases-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-the-role-of-mutated-egfrs-with-an-exon-19-deletion-or-l858r-point-mutation-in-cancer-cell-dissemination
#2
Shih-Hsin Hsiao, Yu-Ting Chou, Sey-En Lin, Ru-Chun Hsu, Chi-Li Chung, Yu-Rung Kao, H Eugene Liu, Cheng-Wen Wu
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients tend to develop brain metastases (BM), but the link between BM occurrence and driver mutations in NSCLC is not very clear. We explored whether activating mutations of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in exon 19 deletion or L858R predict BM in NSCLC. A retrospective multivariable logistic regression analysis of 384 patients demonstrated that the presence of mutated-EGFRs was associated with overall BM (OR=2.24, P=0.001) compared to that of wild-type EGFR (WT-EGFR)...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654861/aging-alters-mrna-expression-of-amyloid-transporter-genes-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#3
Doreen Osgood, Miles C Miller, Arthur A Messier, Liliana Gonzalez, Gerald D Silverberg
Decreased clearance of potentially toxic metabolites, due to aging changes, likely plays a significant role in the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides and other macromolecules in the brain of the elderly and in the patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aging is the single most important risk factor for AD development. Aβ transport receptor proteins expressed at the blood-brain barrier are significantly altered with age: the efflux transporters lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and P-glycoprotein are reduced, whereas the influx transporter receptor for advanced glycation end products is increased...
May 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653887/the-effect-of-distant-metastases-sites-on-survival-in-de-novo-stage-iv-breast-cancer-a-seer-database-analysis
#4
San-Gang Wu, Hui Li, Li-Ying Tang, Jia-Yuan Sun, Wen-Wen Zhang, Feng-Yan Li, Yong-Xiong Chen, Zhen-Yu He
To investigate the effect of distant metastases sites on survival in patients with de novo stage-IV breast cancer. From 2010 to 2013, patients with a diagnosis of de novo stage-IV breast cancer were identified using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to analyze the effect of distant metastases sites on breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival. A total of 7575 patients were identified. The most common metastatic sites were bone, followed by lung, liver, and brain...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653801/a-putative-lysophosphatidylinositol-receptor-gpr55-modulates-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#5
Katrina Hurst, Corinne Badgley, Tanner Ellsworth, Spencer Bell, Lindsey Friend, Brad Prince, Jacob Welch, Zack Cowan, Ryan Williamson, Chris Lyon, Brandon Anderson, Brian Poole, Michael Christensen, Michael McNeil, Jarrod Call, Jeffrey G Edwards
GPR55, an orphan G-protein coupled receptor, is activated by lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) and the endocannabinoid anandamide, as well as by other compounds including THC. LPI is a potent endogenous ligand of GPR55 and neither GPR55 nor LPIs' functions in the brain are well understood. While endocannabinoids are well known to modulate brain synaptic plasticity, the potential role LPI could have on brain plasticity has never been demonstrated. Therefore, we examined not only GPR55 expression, but also the role its endogenous ligand could play in long-term potentiation, a common form of synaptic plasticity...
June 8, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653244/%C3%AE-hydroxybutyric-acid-ghb-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-semi-mechanistic-and-physiologically-relevant-pk-pd-model
#6
Rutwij A Dave, Kristin E Follman, Marilyn E Morris
An overdose of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a drug of abuse, results in fatality caused by severe respiratory depression. In this study, a semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model was developed to characterize monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1)-mediated transport of GHB, as well as effects of GHB on respiration frequency, for IV doses of 200, 600, and 1500 mg/kg in rats. The proposed PK/PD model for GHB consists of nonlinear metabolism of GHB in the liver, MCT1-mediated renal reabsorption with physiologically relevant concurrent fluid reabsorption, MCT1-mediated uptake into the brain, and direct effects of binding of GHB to GABAB receptors on the PD parameter, respiration frequency...
June 26, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653080/alterations-of-expression-of-inflammation-immune-related-genes-in-the-dorsal-and-ventral-striatum-of-adult-c57bl-6j-mice-following-chronic-oxycodone-self-administration-a-rna-sequencing-study
#7
Yong Zhang, Yupu Liang, Orna Levran, Matthew Randesi, Vadim Yuferov, Connie Zhao, Mary Jeanne Kreek
INTRODUCTION: Non-medical use of prescription opioids such as the mu opioid receptor (MOP-r) agonist oxycodone is a growing problem in the USA and elsewhere. There is limited information about oxycodone's impact on diverse gene systems in the brain. OBJECTIVES: The current study was designed to examine how chronic oxycodone self-administration (SA) affects gene expression in the terminal areas of the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways in mice. METHOD: Adult male C57BL/6J mice underwent a 14-day oxycodone self-administration procedure (4 h/day, 0...
June 26, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652537/current-knowledge-of-ghrelin-in-amphibians
#8
Hiroyuki Kaiya, Kenji Kangawa, Mikiya Miyazato
We are exploring physiological importance of the ghrelin system in vertebrates. This review summarizes current knowledge of the ghrelin system in amphibians. Our study on ghrelin precursor in various amphibians revealed that the third amino acid with acyl modification has changed to threonine (Thr-3) instead of serine (Ser-3) only in the genus, Rana. Functional analyses of the ghrelin receptor in three species of amphibians, Japanese fire belly newt, American bullfrog and Japanese tree frog revealed that ghrelin and GHS-R1a agonists increase intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in HEK293 cells expressing each receptor, and that ligand selectivity of ghrelin with Ser-3 and Thr-3 that expected to see in the bullfrog receptor was not found in the two frog receptors, but in the newt receptor...
2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652219/the-fate-of-the-brain-cholinergic-neurons-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Giancarlo Pepeu, Maria Grazia Giovannini
The aims of this review are: 1) to describe which cholinergic neurons are affected in brain neurodegenerative diseases leading to dementia; 2) to discuss the possible causes of the degeneration of the cholinergic neurons, 3) to summarize the functional consequences of the cholinergic deficit. The brain cholinergic system is basically constituted by three populations of phenotypically similar neurons forming a series of basal forebrain nuclei, the midpontine nuclei and a large population of striatal interneurons...
June 23, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652218/quantitative-positron-emission-tomography-in-brain-research
#10
REVIEW
Kerstin Heurling, Antoine Leuzy, My Jonasson, Andreas Frick, Eduardo R Zimmer, Agneta Nordberg, Mark Lubberink
The application of positron emission tomography (PET) in brain research has increased substantially during the past 20 years, and is still growing. PET provides a unique insight into physiological and pathological processes in vivo. In this article we introduce the fundamentals of PET, and the methods available for acquiring quantitative estimates of the parameters of interest. A short introduction to different areas of application is also given, including basic research of brain function and in neurology, psychiatry, drug receptor occupancy studies, and its application in diagnostics of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease...
June 23, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652134/effects-of-thermal-stress-on-the-expression-of-glucocorticoid-receptor-complex-linked-genes-in-senegalese-sole-solea-senegalensis-acute-and-adaptive-stress-responses
#11
Vanessa Benítez-Dorta, María J Caballero, Mónica B Betancor, Manuel Manchado, Lluis Tort, Silvia Torrecillas, María J Zamorano, Marisol Izquierdo, Daniel Montero
The present study examined the short and mid-term effects of a rise in temperature from 18 °C to 24 °C on the expression of genes related to the stress response regulation in juveniles of Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis. The animals were exposed to a temperature increase of 6 °C, after 1 month of acclimation at 18 °C. After this process, samples of different tissues were collected from a total of 96 fish at four sampling points: 1 hour, 24 hours, 3 days and 1 week. The transcript levels of a set of genes involved in the stress response such as glucocorticoid receptors 1 and 2, corticotrophin-releasing factor, corticotrophin-releasing factor binding proteins, proopiomelanocortin A and B, and cellular stress defense (heat shock protein 70, 90AA and 90AB) were quantified at these sampling points...
June 23, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652078/extracellular-cytochrome-c-as-an-intercellular-signaling-molecule-regulating-microglial-functions
#12
Ayden Gouveia, Ekta Bajwa, Andis Klegeris
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome c is well known to be released from mitochondria into the cytosol where it can initiate apoptosis. Recent studies indicate that cytochrome c is also released into the extracellular space by both healthy and damaged cells, where its function is not well understood. We hypothesized that extracellular cytochrome c could function as an intercellular signaling molecule of the brain, which is recognized by brain microglia. These cells belong to the mononuclear phagocyte system and can be activated by endogenous substances associated with diverse pathologies including trauma, ischemic damage and neurodegenerative diseases...
June 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651891/neuroanatomical-alterations-and-synaptic-plasticity-impairment-in-the-perirhinal-cortex-of-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome
#13
Vincenzo Roncacé, Costanza Burattini, Fiorenza Stagni, Sandra Guidi, Andrea Giacomini, Marco Emili, Giorgio Aicardi, Renata Bartesaghi
Down syndrome (DS), a genetic condition due to triplication of Chromosome 21, is characterized by numerous neurodevelopmental alterations and intellectual disability. Individuals with DS and DS mouse models are impaired in several memory domains, including hippocampus-dependent declarative (spatial, in rodents) memory and visual recognition memory, a form of memory in which the perirhinal cortex (PRC) plays a fundamental role. The anatomo-functional substrates of hippocampus-dependent memory impairment have been largely elucidated in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS...
June 23, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651603/a-systems-pharmacology-based-approach-to-identify-novel-kv1-3-channel-dependent-mechanisms-in-microglial-activation
#14
Srikant Rangaraju, Syed Ali Raza, Andrea Pennati, Qiudong Deng, Eric B Dammer, Duc Duong, Michael W Pennington, Malu G Tansey, James J Lah, Ranjita Betarbet, Nicholas T Seyfried, Allan I Levey
BACKGROUND: Kv1.3 potassium channels regulate microglial functions and are overexpressed in neuroinflammatory diseases. Kv1.3 blockade may selectively inhibit pro-inflammatory microglia in neurological diseases but the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulated by Kv1.3 channels are poorly defined. METHODS: We performed immunoblotting and flow cytometry to confirm Kv1.3 channel upregulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV2 microglia and in brain mononuclear phagocytes freshly isolated from LPS-treated mice...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651374/cd70-a-novel-target-of-car-t-cell-therapy-for-gliomas
#15
Linchun Jin, Haitao Ge, Yu Long, Changlin Yang, Yifan Emily Chang, Luyan Mu, Elias J Sayour, Gabriel De Leon, Qiong J Wang, James C Yang, Paul S Kubilis, Hongbo Bao, Songsong Xia, Dunyue Lu, Yingjun Kong, Li Hu, Yujiao Shang, Chencheng Jiang, Jing Nie, Shimin Li, Yunhe Gu, Jiahang Sun, Duane A Mitchell, Zhiguo Lin, Jianping Huang
Background: Cancer immunotherapy represents a promising treatment approach for malignant-gliomas, but is hampered by the limited number of ubiquitously expressed tumor antigens and the profoundly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We identified CD70 as a novel immunosuppressive ligand and glioma target. Methods: Normal tissues derived from 52 different organs, and primary and recurrent low-grade gliomas (LGGs) and glioblastomas (GBMs) were thoroughly evaluated for CD70 gene and protein expression...
June 23, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651369/reduced-thalamus-volume-may-reflect-nicotine-severity-in-young-male-smokers
#16
Dahua Yu, Kai Yuan, Jiadong Cheng, Yanyan Guan, Yangding Li, Yanzhi Bi, Jinquan Zhai, Lin Luo, Bo Liu, Ting Xue, Xiaoqi Lu
Introduction: Nicotine acts as an agonist at presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and to facilitate synaptic release of several neurotransmitters including dopamine and glutamate. The thalamus has the highest density of nAChRs in the brain, which may make this area be more vulnerable to the addictive effects of nicotine. However, the volume of thalamus abnormalities and the association with smoking behaviors in young smokers remains unknown. Methods: Thirty-six young male smokers and 36 age-, gender- and education-matched nonsmokers participated in current study...
June 23, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650560/uncovering-the-role-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-trkb-signaling-in-head-and-neck-malignancies
#17
REVIEW
Juliana Kern de Moraes, Vivian Petersen Wagner, Felipe Paiva Fonseca, Pablo Agustin Vargas, Caroline Brunetto de Farias, Rafael Roesler, Manoela Domingues Martins
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors that was first known as responsible for sustain the growth, function and plasticity of neural cells. BDNF exerts its effects by binding to the tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB). The BDNF/TrkB axis has been reported to be overexpressed in several neurogenic and non-neurogenic tumors. Its higher expression was associated with a poor prognosis to patients affected by different human malignancies, tumor growth, invasion and metastasis; epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and resistance to chemotherapy...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650460/a-calcium-and-light-gated-switch-to-induce-gene-expression-in-activated-neurons
#18
Dongmin Lee, Jung Ho Hyun, Kanghoon Jung, Patrick Hannan, Hyung-Bae Kwon
Despite recent advances in optogenetics, it remains challenging to manipulate gene expression in specific populations of neurons. We present a dual-protein switch system, Cal-Light, that translates neuronal-activity-mediated calcium signaling into gene expression in a light-dependent manner. In cultured neurons and brain slices, we show that Cal-Light drives expression of the reporter EGFP with high spatiotemporal resolution only in the presence of both blue light and calcium. Delivery of the Cal-Light components to the motor cortex of mice by viral vectors labels a subset of excitatory and inhibitory neurons related to learned lever-pressing behavior...
June 26, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650234/antinociceptive-and-respiratory-effects-following-application-of-transdermal-fentanyl-patches-and-assessment-of-brain-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-mrna-expression-in-ball-pythons
#19
Rima J Kharbush, Allison Gutwillig, Kate E Hartzler, Rebecca S Kimyon, Alyssa N Gardner, Andrew D Abbott, Sherry K Cox, Jyoti J Watters, Kurt K Sladky, Stephen M Johnson
OBJECTIVE To quantify plasma fentanyl concentrations (PFCs) and evaluate antinociceptive and respiratory effects following application of transdermal fentanyl patches (TFPs) and assess cerebrospinal μ-opioid receptor mRNA expression in ball pythons (compared with findings in turtles). ANIMALS 44 ball pythons (Python regius) and 10 turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). PROCEDURES To administer 3 or 12 μg of fentanyl/h, a quarter or whole TFP (TFP-3 and TFP-12, respectively) was used. At intervals after TFP-12 application in snakes, PFCs were measured by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography...
July 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650104/alzheimer-s-disease-and-metabolic-syndrome-a-link-from-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-to-neurodegeneration
#20
REVIEW
Eduardo Rojas-Gutierrez, Guadalupe Muñoz-Arenas, Samuel Treviño, Blanca Espinosa, Raúl Chavez, Karla Rojas, Gonzalo Flores, Alfonso Díaz, Jorge Guevara
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality among the aging population. AD diagnosis is made post-mortem, and the two pathologic hallmarks, particularly evident in the end stages of the illness, are amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). Currently, there is no curative treatment for AD. Additionally, there is a strong relation between oxidative stress, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and AD. The high levels of circulating lipids and glucose imbalances amplify lipid peroxidation that gradually diminishes the antioxidant systems, causing high levels of oxidative metabolism that affects cell structure, leading to neuronal damage...
June 26, 2017: Synapse
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