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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088732/apelin-13-protects-rat-primary-cortical-glia-neuron-co-culture-against-pentylenetetrazole-induced-toxicity
#1
Taj Pari Kalantaripour, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Vahid Sheibani, Hamid Najafipour, Majid Asadi-Shekaari M
In spite of recent advances in the treatment of epilepsy, up to 35% of people living with the condition do not respond to accessible anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) and continue to experience regular, devastating and potentially life-threatening seizures. Neuronal death is a significant feature of epilepsy in humans and experimental models. It has been reported that apelin, an endogenous ligand for the angiotensin-1-like receptor (APJ), has anticonvulsive as well as protective effects in some neurodegenerative situations...
January 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088683/effects-of-protease-activated-receptor-1-inhibition-on-anxiety-and-fear-following-status-epilepticus
#2
Mihail Fedoriuk, Dmytro Isaev, Oleg Krishtal, Gregory L Holmes, Elena Isaeva
Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of a variety of brain disorders associated with a risk of epilepsy development. Using the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we recently showed that inhibition of this receptor during the first ten days after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) results in substantial anti-epileptogenic and neuroprotective effects. As PAR1 is expressed in the central nervous system regions of importance for processing emotional reactions, including amygdala and hippocampus, and TLE is frequently associated with a chronic alteration of the functions of these regions, we tested the hypothesis that PAR1 inhibition could modulate emotionally driven behavioral responses of rats experiencing SE...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088659/altered-cerebral-insulin-response-in-transgenic-mice-expressing-the-epsilon-4-allele-of-the-human-apolipoprotein-e-gene
#3
Marie-Thérèse Traversy, Milène Vandal, Cyntia Tremblay, Marine Tournissac, Ariane Giguère-Rancourt, A David Bennett, Frédéric Calon
Apolipoprotein E epsilon-4 (APOEε4 or APOE4), an allelic variation of the APOE gene, not only increases the risk of developing the late-onset form of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but also influences the outcome of treatment. Indeed, data from clinical studies show that the beneficial effect of insulin on cognition is blunted in APOE4 carriers. To investigate how APOE impacts insulin response, we assessed the effects of an acute insulin injection in APOE3- and APOE4-targeted replacement mice that respectively express the human APOE3 or APOE4 isoform instead of the endogenous murine ApoE protein...
November 30, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088642/anti-rage-antibody-selectively-blocks-acute-systemic-inflammatory-responses-to-lps-in-serum-liver-csf-and-striatum
#4
Juciano Gasparotto, Camila Tiefensee Ribeiro, Rafael Calixto Bortolin, Henrique Schaan Fernandes, Alexsander Alves Teixeira, Marcelo Otavio Rodrigues Guasselli, Crepin Aziz Jose O Agani, Natália Cabral Souza, Mateus Grings, Guilhian Leipnitz, Henrique Mautone Gomes, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt Pasquali, Peter R Dunkley, Phillip W Dickson, José Claudio Fonseca Moreira, Daniel Pens Gelain
Systemic inflammation induces transient or permanent dysfunction in the brain by exposing it to soluble inflammatory mediators. The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) binds to distinct ligands mediating and increasing inflammatory processes. In this study we used an LPS-induced systemic inflammation model in rats to investigate the effect of blocking RAGE in serum, liver, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain (striatum, prefrontal cortex, ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra). Intraperitoneal injection of RAGE antibody (50 μg/kg) was followed after 1h by a single LPS (5 mg/kg) intraperitoneal injection...
January 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088610/the-effects-of-voluntary-wheel-running-on-neuroinflammatory-status-role-of-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1
#5
Lindsay J Spielman, Mehrbod Estaki, Sanjoy Ghosh, Deanna L Gibson, Andis Klegeris
The health benefits of exercise and physical activity (PA) have been well researched and it is widely accepted that PA is crucial for maintaining health. One of the mechanisms by which exercise and PA exert their beneficial effects is through peripheral immune system adaptations. To date, very few studies have looked at the regulation of neuroimmune reactions in response to PA. We studied the effect of voluntary wheel running (VWR) on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, patterns of glial cell activation and expression of immune receptors in the brains of female C57BL/6 mice...
January 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088578/the-effect-of-long-term-hindlimb-unloading-on-the-expression-of-risk-neurogenes-encoding-elements-of-serotonin-dopaminergic-systems-and-apoptosis-comparison-with-the-effect-of-actual-spaceflight-on-mouse-brain
#6
E A Kulikova, V A Kulikov, N A Sinyakova, A V Kulikov, N K Popova
The study of spaceflight effects on the brain is technically complex concern; complicated by the problem of applying an adequate ground model. The most-widely used experimental model to study the effect of microgravity is the tail-suspension hindlimb unloading model; however, its compliance with the effect of actual spaceflight on the brain is still unclear. We evaluated the effect of one month hindlimb unloading on the expression of genes related to the brain neuroplasticity - brain neutotrophic factors (Gdnf, Cdnf), apoptotic factors (Bcl-xl, Bax), serotonin- and dopaminergic systems (5-HT2A, Maoa, Maob, Th, D1r, Comt), and compared the results with the data obtained on mice that spent one month in spaceflight on Russian biosatellite Bion-M1...
January 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088536/targeting-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-in-neurological-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Sita Sharan Patel, Sunil Tomar, Diksha Sharma, Neeraj Mahindroo, Malairaman Udayabanu
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling influences neurogenesis and neural patterning during the development of central nervous system. Dysregulation of Shh signaling in brain leads to neurological disorders like autism spectrum disorder, depression, dementia, stroke, Parkinson's diseases, Huntington's disease, locomotor deficit, epilepsy, demyelinating disease, neuropathies as well as brain tumors. The synthesis, processing and transport of Shh ligand as well as the localization of its receptors and signal transduction in the central nervous system has been carefully reviewed...
January 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088313/q-space-myelin-map-imaging-for-longitudinal-analysis-of-demyelination-and-remyelination-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-treated-with-fingolimod-a-preliminary-study
#8
Mariko Tanikawa, Jin Nakahara, Junichi Hata, Shigeaki Suzuki, Kanehiro Fujiyoshi, Hirokazu Fujiwara, Suketaka Momoshima, Masahiro Jinzaki, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano, Shinichi Takahashi, Norihiro Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Fingolimod (FTY) is an oral sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator that reduces relapse and slows brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In addition, FTY has been shown to enhance remyelination in certain animal models. OBJECTIVE: To analyze feasibility of a novel q-space Myelin Map imaging to monitor demyelination and remyelination under FTY treatment in MS patients. METHODS: Treatment outcomes of 24 consecutive MS patients treated with FTY were analyzed...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088249/interactions-of-human-microglia-cells-with-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#9
Nils Lannes, Viviane Neuhaus, Brigitte Scolari, Solange Kharoubi-Hess, Michael Walch, Artur Summerfield, Luis Filgueira
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a neurotropic flavivirus causing mortality and morbidity in humans. Severe Japanese encephalitis cases display strong inflammatory responses in the central nervous system and an accumulation of viral particles in specific brain regions. Microglia cells are the unique brain-resident immune cell population with potent migratory functions and have been proposed to act as a viral reservoir for JEV. Animal models suggest that the targeting of microglia by JEV is partially responsible for inflammatory reactions in the brain...
January 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087766/control-of-amygdala-circuits-by-5-ht-neurons-via-5-ht-and-glutamate-co-transmission
#10
Ayesha Sengupta, Marco Bocchio, David M Bannerman, Trevor Sharp, Marco Capogna
: The serotonin (5-HT) system and the amygdala are key regulators of emotional behavior. Several lines of evidence suggest that 5-HT transmission in the amygdala is implicated in the susceptibility and drug treatment of mood disorders. Thus, elucidating the physiological mechanisms through which midbrain 5-HT neurons modulate amygdala circuits could be pivotal in understanding emotional regulation in health and disease. To shed light on these mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings from basal amygdala (BA) neurons in brain slices from mice with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) genetically targeted to 5-HT neurons...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087735/relationships-linking-emotional-motor-cognitive-and-gabaergic-dysfunctions-in-dystrophin-deficient-mdx-mice
#11
Cyrille Vaillend, Rémi Chaussenot
Alterations in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene have been associated with enhanced stress reactivity in vertebrate species, suggesting a role for brain dystrophin in fear-related behavioral and cognitive processes. Because the loss of dystrophin (Dp427) reduces clustering of central GABAA receptors, it is suspected that local inhibitory tuning and modulation of neuronal excitability are perturbed in a distributed brain circuit that normally controls such critical behavioral functions. In this study we undertook a large-scale behavioral study to evaluate fear-related behavioral disturbances in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice...
January 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087694/iso-%C3%AE-acids-bitter-components-of-beer-prevent-inflammation-and-cognitive-decline-induced-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Yasuhisa Ano, Atsushi Dhata, Yoshimasa Taniguchi, Ayaka Hoshi, Kazuyuki Uchida, Akihiko Takashima, Hiroyuki Nakayama
Alongside the rapid growth in aging populations worldwide, prevention and therapy for age-related memory decline and dementia are in great demand to maintain a long healthy life. Here we found that iso-α-acids, hop-derived bitter compounds in beer, enhance microglial phagocytosis and suppress inflammation via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ). In normal mice, oral administration of iso-α-acids led to a significant increase both in CD11b and CD206 double-positive anti-inflammatory type microglia (P<0...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087635/rb-controls-growth-survival-and-neuronal-migration-in-human-cerebral-organoids
#13
Takeshi Matsui, Vanesa Nieto-Estévez, Sergii Kyrychenko, Jay W Schneider, Jenny Hsieh
Retinoblastoma (RB) is a tumor suppressor gene which regulates cell cycle entry to S phase via E2F transcription factors. Using knockout (KO) mice, it has been described that Rb plays a role in cell migration and differentiation in developing and adult brain as well as apoptosis. In addition, the RB family is required for the self-renewal and survival of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, little is known about the role of this gene in human brain development. Here, we investigated the role of RB in cerebral organoids from human ESCs deficient for RB...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087359/the-effect-of-nmda-r-antagonism-on-simultaneously-acquired-local-field-potentials-and-tissue-oxygen-levels-in-the-brains-of-freely-moving-rats
#14
John Kealy, Sean Commins, John P Lowry
Non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists are known to induce psychosis-like symptoms in rodents. Administration of such compounds cause behavioural effects such as memory impairment and hyperlocomotion. Additionally, drugs such as phencyclidine (PCP), ketamine and MK-801 all cause distinctive increases in striatal local field potential (LFP) in the high frequency oscillation (HFO) band in the power spectrum (140-180 Hz). Amperometric sensors provide a means to measure tissue oxygen (tO2; a BOLD-like signal) in the brains of freely-moving rats while simultaneously acquiring LFP using the same electrode...
January 10, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087344/up-regulation-of-the-active-form-of-small-gtpase-rab13-promotes-macroautophagy-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#15
Lu Zhang, Fang Dai, LiuQing Cui, Bo Zhou, YuQi Guo
The importance of macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) in vascular endothelial cell (VEC) biology and dysfunction is increasingly recognized, but the molecular mechanisms of autophagy in VECs in the presence of serum are still poorly understood. Previously, we identified pterostilbene as a potent autophagy inducer of VECs in the presence of serum. In this study, we used pterostilbene as a tool to induce VEC autophagy and identified the differentially expressed genes using high-throughput DAN microarray...
January 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087224/5-ht6-receptor-blockade-regulates-primary-cilia-morphology-in-striatal-neurons
#16
Matthew Brodsky, Adam J Lesiak, Alex Croicu, Nathalie Cohenca, Jane M Sullivan, John F Neumaier
The 5-HT6 receptor has been implicated in a variety of cognitive processes including habitual behaviors, learning, and memory. It is found almost exclusively in the brain, is expressed abundantly in striatum, and localizes to neuronal primary cilia. Primary cilia are antenna-like, sensory organelles found on most neurons that receive both chemical and mechanical signals from other cells and the surrounding environment; however, the effect of 5-HT6 receptor function on cellular morphology has not been examined...
January 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086980/inflammation-in-epileptogenesis-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
REVIEW
Kyria M Webster, Mujun Sun, Peter Crack, Terence J O'Brien, Sandy R Shultz, Bridgette D Semple
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common and debilitating consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Seizures contribute to progressive neurodegeneration and poor functional and psychosocial outcomes for TBI survivors, and epilepsy after TBI is often resistant to existing anti-epileptic drugs. The development of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) occurs in a complex neurobiological environment characterized by ongoing TBI-induced secondary injury processes. Neuroinflammation is an important secondary injury process, though how it contributes to epileptogenesis, and the development of chronic, spontaneous seizure activity, remains poorly understood...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086912/wwl70-attenuates-pge2-production-derived-from-2-arachidonoylglycerol-in-microglia-by-abhd6-independent-mechanism
#18
Mikiei Tanaka, Sean Moran, Jie Wen, Kwame Affram, Tinghua Chen, Aviva J Symes, Yumin Zhang
BACKGROUND: α/β-Hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) is one of the major enzymes for endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) hydrolysis in microglia cells. Our recent studies have shown that a selective ABHD6 inhibitor WWL70 has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in animal models of traumatic brain injury and multiple sclerosis. However, the role of ABHD6 in the neuroinflammatory response and the mechanisms by which WWL70 suppresses inflammation has not yet been elucidated in reactive microglia...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079752/changes-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-gene-expression-in-response-to-spinal-cord-stimulation
#19
Dana M Tilley, David L Cedeño, Courtney A Kelley, Margaret DeMaegd, Ramsin Benyamin, Ricardo Vallejo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to influence pain-related genes in the spinal cord directly under the stimulating electrodes. There is limited information regarding changes occurring at the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This study evaluates gene expression in the DRG in response to SCS therapy. METHODS: Rats were randomized into experimental or control groups (n = 6 per group). Experimental animals underwent spared-nerve injury, implantation of lead, and continuous SCS (72 hours)...
January 11, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079534/practical-efficacy-of-olmesartan-versus-azilsartan-in-patients-with-hypertension-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial-muscat-4-study
#20
Yuki Kakio, Haruhito A Uchida, Ryoko Umebayashi, Hidemi Takeuchi, Yuka Okuyama, Yoshihisa Hanayama, Jun Wada
BACKGROUND: Olmesartan and azilsartan, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), are expected to decrease blood pressure more than the other ARBs. We conducted randomized-controlled trials to compare the practical efficacy of olmesartan with azilsartan. METHODS: Eighty-four patients treated with the conventional ARBs for more than 3 months were assigned randomly to receive either 20 mg of olmesartan (olmesartan medoxomil, OL group) or 20 mg of azilsartan (azilsartan, not azilsartan medoxomil, AZ group) once daily for 16 weeks...
January 10, 2017: Blood Pressure Monitoring
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