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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458199/alpha-synuclein-oligomers-impair-memory-through-glial-cell-activation-and-via-toll-like-receptor-2
#1
Pietro La Vitola, Claudia Balducci, Milica Cerovic, Giulia Santamaria, Edoardo Brandi, Federica Grandi, Laura Caldinelli, Laura Colombo, Maria Grazia Morgese, Luigia Trabace, Loredano Pollegioni, Diego Albani, Gianluigi Forloni
Alpha-synuclein oligomers (α-synOs) are emerging as crucial factors in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies. Although the connection between neuroinflammation and α-syn still remains elusive, increasing evidence suggests that extracellular moieties activate glial cells leading to neuronal damage. Using an acute mouse model, we explored whether α-synOs induce memory impairment in association to neuroinflammation, addressing Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) involvement. We found that α-synOs abolished mouse memory establishment in association to hippocampal glial activation...
February 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458190/cannabinoids-prevent-depressive-like-symptoms-and-alterations-in-bdnf-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-ptsd
#2
Or Burstein, Noa Shoshan, Ravid Doron, Irit Akirav
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition highly comorbid with depression. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are suggestively involved in both disorders. We examined whether cannabinoids can prevent the long-term depressive-like symptoms induced by exposure to the shock and situational reminders (SRs) model of PTSD. The CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (0.5 mg/kg; i.p.), the fatty acid hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle were administered 2 h after severe shock...
February 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458138/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-evaluation-of-5-methoxy-2-aminoindane-meai-a-new-binge-mitigating-agent
#3
Jakob A Shimshoni, Eyal Sobol, Ezekiel Golan, Yulius Ben Ari, Orit Gal
5-Methoxy-2-aminoindane (MEAI) is a novel psychoactive aminoindane derivative, exerting euphoric, alcohol-like tipsy experience and reduced desire to consume alcoholic beverages. Our previous toxicological evaluation of MEAI in rats, clearly indicated MEAI's potential to be further evaluated as a promising binge mitigating agent due to its favorable safety profile. In the light of these observations, we have determined MEAI's pharmacokinetic (PK) profile in rats and evaluated in-vitro its pharmacodynamics (PD) profile...
February 16, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458098/spermine-protects-from-lps-induced-memory-deficit-via-bdnf-and-trkb-activation
#4
Pâmella K Frühauf-Perez, Fernanda R Temp, Micheli M Pillat, Cristiane Signor, Arithane Lorena Wendel, Henning Ulrich, Carlos F Mello, Maribel A Rubin
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been long known to promote neuroinflammation and learning and memory deficits. Since spermine, one of the main natural polyamines in the central nervous system, protects from LPS-induced memory deficit by a mechanism that comprises GluN2B receptors, the aim of the present study was to determine whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor and cAMP response element binding (CREB) are involved in this protective effect of spermine...
February 16, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458055/brain-activation-associated-to-olfactory-conditioned-same-sex-partner-preference-in-male-rats
#5
Genaro A Coria-Avila, Tamara Cibrian-Llanderal, Victor X Díaz-Estrada, Luis I García, Rebeca Toledo-Cárdenas, James G Pfaus, Jorge Manzo
Sexual preferences can be strongly modified by Pavlovian learning. For instance, olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference can occur when a sexually naïve male cohabits with an scented male during repeated periods under the effects of enhanced D2-type activity. Preference is observed days later via social and sexual behaviors. Herein we explored brain activity related to learned same-sex preference (Fos-Immunoreactivity, IR) following exposure to a conditioned odor paired with same-sex preference. During conditioning trials males received either saline or the D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole (QNP) and cohabitated during 24 h with a stimulus male that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus...
February 16, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457123/general-anesthesia-with-propofol-for-ovarian-teratoma-excision-associated-with-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#6
Masami Sato, Hiroaki Yasumoto, Toshiyuki Arai
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder caused by production of anti-NMDAR antibodies that is often associated with ovarian teratoma and exhibits various manifestations including psychiatric symptoms, seizures, hypoventilation, and autonomic nerve instability. Patients with this disorder who receive early surgical tumor resection along with immunotherapy have better outcome than the rest of the patients. To establish an anesthetic plan, it is important to understand the pharmacological interaction between the anesthetic agents and the disabled NMDAR, because NMDAR is one of the major sites of action for commonly-used anesthetic agents...
2018: JA Clin Rep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456837/synaptic-neuron-astrocyte-communication-is-supported-by-an-order-of-magnitude-analysis-of-inositol-tris-phosphate-diffusion-at-the-nanoscale-in-a-model-of-peri-synaptic-astrocyte-projection
#7
Pavel Montes de Oca Balderas, Horacio Montes de Oca Balderas
Background: Astrocytes were conceived for decades only as supporting cells of the brain. However, the observation of Ca2+ waves in astrocyte synctitia, their neurotransmitter receptor expression and gliotransmitter secretion suggested a role in information handling, conception that has some controversies. Synaptic Neuron-Astrocyte metabotropic communication mediated by Inositol tris-phosphate (SN-AmcIP3) is supported by different reports. However, some models contradict this idea and Ca2+ stores are 1000 ± 325 nm apart from the Postsynaptic Density in the Perisynaptic Astrocyte Projections (PAP's), suggesting that SN-AmcIP3 is extrasynaptic...
2018: BMC Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456490/limited-access-to-a-high-fat-diet-alters-endocannabinoid-tone-in-female-rats
#8
Valentina Satta, Maria Scherma, Fabiana Piscitelli, Paolo Usai, M Paola Castelli, Tiziana Bisogno, Walter Fratta, Paola Fadda
Emerging evidence suggest an impaired endocannabinoid activity in the pathophysiology of binge eating disorder (BED). Herein, we investigated whether endocannabinoid tone could be modified as a consequence of dietary-induced binge eating in female rats. For this purpose, brain levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), as well as two endocannabinoid-like lipids, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), were assessed in different brain areas involved in the hedonic feeding (i...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456350/recurrent-glioblastomas-exhibit-higher-expression-of-biomarkers-with-stem-like-properties
#9
B N Nandeesh, Sharmistha Naskar, Arun H Shashtri, A Arivazhagan, Vani Santosh
Background: Despite advances in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM), the prognosis of patients continues to remain dismal. This unfavorable prognosis is mainly attributed to the tumor's propensity for progression and recurrence, which in turn is due to the highly aggressive nature of the persisting GBM cells that actively egress from the main tumor mass into the surrounding normal brain tissue. Such a recurrent tumor described to have a more malignant potential is highly invasive and resistant to current therapies, probably due to increased stemness and preferential selection of therapy-resistant clones of tumor cells...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456135/pericyte-alk5-timp3-axis-contributes-to-endothelial-morphogenesis-in-the-developing-brain
#10
Jui M Dave, Teodelinda Mirabella, Scott D Weatherbee, Daniel M Greif
The murine embryonic blood-brain barrier (BBB) consists of endothelial cells (ECs), pericytes (PCs), and basement membrane. Although PCs are critical for inducing vascular stability, signaling pathways in PCs that regulate EC morphogenesis during BBB development remain unexplored. Herein, we find that murine embryos lacking the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor activin receptor-like kinase 5 (Alk5) in brain PCs (mutants) develop gross germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH)...
February 8, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455675/the-function-and-therapeutic-targeting-of-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-alk-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc
#11
REVIEW
Brandon Golding, Anita Luu, Robert Jones, Alicia M Viloria-Petit
Lung cancer is the leading cause of death by cancer in North America. A decade ago, genomic rearrangements in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) receptor tyrosine kinase were identified in a subset of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients. Soon after, crizotinib, a small molecule ATP-competitive ALK inhibitor was proven to be more effective than chemotherapy in ALK-positive NSCLC patients. Crizotinib and two other ATP-competitive ALK inhibitors, ceritinib and alectinib, are approved for use as a first-line therapy in these patients, where ALK rearrangement is currently diagnosed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455417/effect-of-yulangsan-polysaccharide-on-the-reinstatement-of-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#12
Chunxia Chen, Zhihuan Nong, Xingmei Liang, Mingyu Meng, Feifei Xuan, Qiuqiao Xie, Junhui He, Renbin Huang
We previously reported that Yulangsan polysaccharide (YLSP), which was isolated from the root of Millettia pulchra Kurz, attenuates withdrawal symptoms of morphine dependence by regulating the nitric oxide pathway and modulating monoaminergic neurotransmitters. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of YLSP on the reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. A CPP procedure was employed to assess the behavior of rats, and indicators of serum and four brain regions (nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex) were determined to explore its underlying mechanism...
February 17, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455105/shedding-light-on-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-using-optogenetics-and-photopharmacology
#13
REVIEW
Cyril Goudet, Xavier Rovira, Amadeu Llebaria
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors activated by glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter of the mammalian central nervous system. These receptors are considered as potential therapeutic targets in many neurological diseases but a better understanding of their complex molecular dynamics and of their role in the normal and pathological functioning of the brain is still required. Manipulating mGluRs with high spatial and temporal precision holds great promise for deciphering their physiological and pathological functions...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454493/updating-the-recommendations-for-treatment-of-tardive-syndromes-a-systematic-review-of-new-evidence-and-practical-treatment-algorithm
#14
REVIEW
Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Onanong Jitkritsadakul, Joseph H Friedman, Stanley Fahn
BACKGROUND: Management of tardive syndromes (TS) is challenging, with only a few evidence-based therapeutic algorithms reported in the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline in 2013. OBJECTIVE: To update the evidence-based recommendations and provide a practical treatment algorithm for management of TS by addressing 5 questions: 1) Is withdrawal of dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs) an effective TS treatment? 2) Does switching from typical to atypical DRBAs reduce TS symptoms? 3) What is the efficacy of pharmacologic agents in treating TS? 4) Do patients with TS benefit from chemodenervation with botulinum toxin? 5) Do patients with TS benefit from surgical therapy? METHODS: Systematic reviews were conducted by searching PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane for articles published between 2012 and 2017 to identify new evidence published after the 2013 AAN guidelines...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454354/cerebrospinal-fluid-level-of-nogo-receptor-1-antagonist-lateral-olfactory-tract-usher-substance-lotus-correlates-inversely-with-the-extent-of-neuroinflammation
#15
Keita Takahashi, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Yuji Kurihara, Hiroshi Doi, Misako Kunii, Kenichi Tanaka, Haruko Nakamura, Ryoko Fukai, Atsuko Tomita-Katsumoto, Mikiko Tada, Yuichi Higashiyama, Hideto Joki, Shigeru Koyano, Kohtaro Takei, Fumiaki Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Although inflammation in the central nervous system is responsible for multiple neurological diseases, the lack of appropriate biomarkers makes it difficult to evaluate inflammatory activities in these diseases. Therefore, a new biomarker reflecting neuroinflammation is required for accurate diagnosis, appropriate therapy, and comprehension of pathogenesis of these neurological disorders. We previously reported that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration of lateral olfactory tract usher substance (LOTUS), which promotes axonal growth as a Nogo receptor 1 antagonist, negatively correlates with disease activity in multiple sclerosis, suggesting that variation in LOTUS reflects the inflammatory activities and is a useful biomarker to evaluate the disease activity...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454117/the-differentially-expressed-genes-of-human-sporadic-cerebral-cavernous-malformations
#16
Xiangjiang Lin, Guolu Meng, Xing Liu, Tengfei Yu, Chuanfeng Bai, Xiaobin Fei, Shengze Deng, Jizong Zhao, Shulin Ren, Junting Zhang, Zhen Wu, Shuo Wang, Jianguo Zhang, Liwei Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To understand the development of Sporadic cerebral cavernous malformations (SCCM) comprehensively, we analyzed gene expression profiles in SCCMs by the gene microarray. METHODS: The total number of the specimens collected in our study was 14, 7 of which were SCCMs, and the others were controls that were obtained from normal brain vessels. The total RNA was extracted and hybridized with Oligonucleotide array containing 21522 genes. The analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) items and molecular pathways was performed based on the GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454035/high-and-low-doses-of-cocaine-intake-are-differentially-regulated-by-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-and-the-nucleus-accumbens
#17
R Chen, S McIntosh, S E Hemby, H Sun, T Sexton, Thomas Martin, S R Childers
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are associated with vulnerability to addiction; however, whether D2Rs in these two brain regions play differential roles in regulation of drug intake is unknown. Here, we compared the effect of decreased mRNA level of Drd2 in each region on cocaine self-administration in a dose-response function. Drd2 mRNA levels in rat VTA or NAc were knocked down by bilateral microinjection of lentivirus coding shRNAs against rat Drd2...
February 14, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454025/early-alteration-of-distribution-and-activity-of-hippocampal-type-1-cannabinoid-receptor-in-alzheimer-s-disease-like-mice-overexpressing-the-human-mutant-amyloid-precursor-protein
#18
Mauro Maccarrone, Antonio Totaro, Alessandro Leuti, Giacomo Giacovazzo, Lucia Scipioni, Dalila Mango, Roberto Coccurello, Robert Nisticò, Sergio Oddi
Besides its involvement in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as precursor of the neurotoxic amyloid peptides, the pathophysiological impact of brain accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is not yet well understood. Recent studies reported that APP interacts with other membrane proteins, including G protein coupled receptors, affecting their biological functions. Here, we focused on the study of the potential impact of human mutant APP on expression, distribution and activity of type-1 cannabinoid (CB 1 ) receptor in the hippocampus of Tg2576 mice, an AD-like mice model...
February 14, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453990/atp-activated-p2x7-receptor-in-the-pathophysiology-of-mood-disorders-and-as-an-emerging-target-for-the-development-of-novel-antidepressant-therapeutics
#19
REVIEW
Linyu Wei, Sharifah A Syed Mortadza, Jing Yan, Libin Zhang, Lu Wang, Yaling Yin, Chaokun Li, Sylvie Chalon, Patrick Emond, Catherine Belzung, Dongliang Li, Chengbiao Lu, Sebastien Roger, Lin-Hua Jiang
Mood disorders are a group of psychiatric conditions that represent leading global disease burdens. Increasing evidence from clinical and preclinical studies supports that innate immune system dysfunction plays an important part in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. P2X7 receptor, belonging to the ligand-gated ion channel P2X subfamily of purinergic P2 receptors for extracellular ATP, is highly expressed in immune cells including microglia in the central nervous system (CNS) and has a vital role in mediating innate immune response...
February 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453986/sterol-o-acyltransferase-1-deficiency-improves-defective-insulin-signaling-in-the-brains-of-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#20
Ning Xu, Hao Meng, Tian-Yi Liu, Ying-Li Feng, Yuan Qi, Dong-Huan Zhang, Hong-Lei Wang
Insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) is related to metabolic diseases, and sterol O-acyltransferase 1 (SOAT1) is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of cholesteryl ester. In the present study, wild-type (WT) mice and SOAT1-knockout (KO) mice with a C57BL6 background fed a HFD were used to explore the role of SOAT1 in the hypothalamus. The results show that the WT mice exhibited a significant increase in body weight as well as hepatic histologic changes; they also had a lower glucose and insulin tolerance than the WT mice fed a normal diet...
February 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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