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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914011/activation-of-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-reduces-brain-edema-in-mice-with-ischemic-stroke-and-bone-fracture
#1
Dingquan Zou, Man Luo, Zhenying Han, Lei Zhan, Wan Zhu, Shuai Kang, Chen Bao, Zhao Li, Jeffrey Nelson, Rui Zhang, Hua Su
Stroke is an important risk factor for bone fracture. We showed previously that bone fracture at the acute stage of ischemic stroke worsens, and activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR) improves, stroke recovery by attenuating inflammation. We hypothesized that activation of α-7 nAchR also improves the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) was performed on C57BL/6J mice followed by tibia fracture 1 day later. Mice were treated with 0...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913432/von-economo-neurons-and-fork-cells-a-neurochemical-signature-linked-to-monoaminergic-function
#2
Anke A Dijkstra, Li-Chun Lin, Alissa L Nana, Stephanie E Gaus, William W Seeley
The human anterior cingulate and frontoinsular cortices are distinguished by 2 unique Layer 5 neuronal morphotypes, the von Economo neurons (VENs) and fork cells, whose biological identity remains mysterious. Insights could impact research on diverse neuropsychiatric diseases to which these cells have been linked. Here, we leveraged the Allen Brain Atlas to evaluate mRNA expression of 176 neurotransmitter-related genes and identified vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subunit θ (GABRQ), and adrenoreceptor α-1A (ADRA1A) expression in human VENs, fork cells, and a minority of neighboring Layer 5 neurons...
December 1, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913408/neurophysiological-mechanisms-of-cortical-plasticity-impairments-in-schizophrenia-and-modulation-by-the-nmda-receptor-agonist-d-serine
#3
Joshua T Kantrowitz, Michael L Epstein, Odeta Beggel, Stephanie Rohrig, Jonathan M Lehrfeld, Nadine Revheim, Nayla P Lehrfeld, Jacob Reep, Emily Parker, Gail Silipo, Merav Ahissar, Daniel C Javitt
Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in cortical plasticity that affect sensory brain regions and lead to impaired cognitive performance. Here we examined underlying neural mechanisms of auditory plasticity deficits using combined behavioural and neurophysiological assessment, along with neuropharmacological manipulation targeted at the N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptor (NMDAR). Cortical plasticity was assessed in a cohort of 40 schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients relative to 42 healthy control subjects using a fixed reference tone auditory plasticity task...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913257/prodynorphin-and-kappa-opioid-receptor-mrna-expression-in-the-brain-relates-to-social-status-and-behavior-in-male-european-starlings
#4
Lauren V Riters, Melissa A Cordes, Sharon A Stevenson
Numerous animal species display behavioral changes in response to changes in social status or territory possession. For example, in male European starlings only males that acquire nesting sites display high rates of sexual and agonistic behavior. Past studies show that mu and delta opioid receptors regulate behaviors associated with social ascension or defeat. Opioids also act at kappa receptors, with dynorphin binding with the highest affinity; however, the role of these opioids in social behavior has not been well studied...
November 29, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913207/overexpression-of-stim1-in-neurons-in-mouse-brain-improves-contextual-learning-and-impairs-long-term-depression
#5
Łukasz Majewski, Filip Maciąg, Paweł M Boguszewski, Iga Wasilewska, Grzegorz Wiera, Tomasz Wójtowicz, Jerzy Mozrzymas, Jacek Kuznicki
STIM1 is an endoplasmic reticulum calcium sensor that is involved in several processes in neurons, including store-operated calcium entry. STIM1 also inhibits voltage-gated calcium channels, such as Cav1.2 and Cav3.1, and is thus considered a multifunctional protein. The aim of this work was to investigate the ways in which transgenic neuronal overexpression of STIM1 in FVB/NJ mice affects animal behavior and the electrophysiological properties of neurons in acute hippocampal slices. We overexpressed STIM1 from the Thy1...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913085/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-and-rasmussen-like-syndrome-an-association
#6
Kevin Gurcharran, Shefali Karkare
BACKGROUND: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an immune-mediated condition that has a broad spectrum of manifestations, including seizures, coma, psychosis, and focal neurological deficits. Although usually a diffuse process, unihemispheric involvement mimicking early stages of Rasmussen encephalitis can occur. Rasmussen's encephalitis is a unique syndrome characterized by progressive hemiplegia, drug-resistant focal epilepsy, cognitive decline, and hemispheric brain atrophy contralateral to the hemiplegia...
October 11, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912066/cell-type-specific-optical-recording-of-membrane-voltage-dynamics-in-freely-moving-mice
#7
Jesse D Marshall, Jin Zhong Li, Yanping Zhang, Yiyang Gong, François St-Pierre, Michael Z Lin, Mark J Schnitzer
Electrophysiological field potential dynamics are of fundamental interest in basic and clinical neuroscience, but how specific cell types shape these dynamics in the live brain is poorly understood. To empower mechanistic studies, we created an optical technique, TEMPO, that records the aggregate trans-membrane voltage dynamics of genetically specified neurons in freely behaving mice. TEMPO has >10-fold greater sensitivity than prior fiber-optic techniques and attains the noise minimum set by quantum mechanical photon shot noise...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911847/zika-virus-cell-tropism-in-the-developing-human-brain-and-inhibition-by-azithromycin
#8
Hanna Retallack, Elizabeth Di Lullo, Carolina Arias, Kristeene A Knopp, Matthew T Laurie, Carmen Sandoval-Espinosa, Walter R Mancia Leon, Robert Krencik, Erik M Ullian, Julien Spatazza, Alex A Pollen, Caleigh Mandel-Brehm, Tomasz J Nowakowski, Arnold R Kriegstein, Joseph L DeRisi
The rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its association with abnormal brain development constitute a global health emergency. Congenital ZIKV infection produces a range of mild to severe pathologies, including microcephaly. To understand the pathophysiology of ZIKV infection, we used models of the developing brain that faithfully recapitulate the tissue architecture in early to midgestation. We identify the brain cell populations that are most susceptible to ZIKV infection in primary human tissue, provide evidence for a mechanism of viral entry, and show that a commonly used antibiotic protects cultured brain cells by reducing viral proliferation...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911792/transcriptomics-and-neuroanatomy-of-the-clonal-raider-ant-implicate-an-expanded-clade-of-odorant-receptors-in-chemical-communication
#9
Sean K McKenzie, Ingrid Fetter-Pruneda, Vanessa Ruta, Daniel J C Kronauer
A major aim of sociogenomic research is to uncover common principles in the molecular evolution of sociality. This endeavor has been hampered by the small number of specific genes currently known to function in social behavior. Here we provide several lines of evidence suggesting that ants have evolved a large and novel clade of odorant receptor (OR) genes to perceive hydrocarbon-based pheromones, arguably the most important signals in ant communication. This genomic expansion is also mirrored in the ant brain via a corresponding expansion of a specific cluster of glomeruli in the antennal lobe...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911758/multimodal-imaging-for-dreadd-expressing-neurons-in-living-brain-and-their-application-to-implantation-of-ipsc-derived-neural-progenitors
#10
Bin Ji, Hiroyuki Kaneko, Takafumi Minamimoto, Haruhisa Inoue, Hiroki Takeuchi, Katsushi Kumata, Ming-Rong Zhang, Ichio Aoki, Chie Seki, Maiko Ono, Masaki Tokunaga, Satoshi Tsukamoto, Koji Tanabe, Ryong-Moon Shin, Takeharu Minamihisamatsu, Seiji Kito, Barry J Richmond, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi
: Chemogenetic manipulation of neuronal activities has been enabled by a designer receptor (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs, DREADD) that is activated exclusively by clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Here, we applied CNO as a functional reporter probe to positron emission tomography (PET) of DREADD in living brains. Mutant human M4 DREADD (hM4Di) expressed in transgenic (Tg) mouse neurons was visualized by PET with microdose [(11)C]CNO. Deactivation of DREADD-expressing neurons in these mice by nonradioactive CNO at a pharmacological dose could also be captured by arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911756/activation-of-group-ii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-promotes-ltp-induction-at-schaffer-collateral-ca1-pyramidal-cell-synapses-by-priming-nmda-receptors
#11
Nadia Rosenberg, Urs Gerber, Jeanne Ster
: It is well established that selective activation of group I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors induces LTD of synaptic transmission at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. In contrast, application of 1S,3R-ACPD, a mixed agonist at group I and group II mGlu receptors, induces LTP. Using whole-cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells and field recordings in the hippocampal CA1 region, we investigated the specific contribution of group II mGlu receptors to synaptic plasticity at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in acute slices of adult mice...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911748/actions-of-steroids-new-neurotransmitters
#12
Lauren M Rudolph, Charlotte A Cornil, Melinda A Mittelman-Smith, Jennifer R Rainville, Luke Remage-Healey, Kevin Sinchak, Paul E Micevych
Over the past two decades, the classical understanding of steroid action has been updated to include rapid, membrane-initiated, neurotransmitter-like functions. While steroids were known to function on very short time spans to induce physiological and behavioral changes, the mechanisms by which these changes occur are now becoming more clear. In avian systems, rapid estradiol effects can be mediated via local alterations in aromatase activity, which precisely regulates the temporal and spatial availability of estrogens...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911385/application-of-impermeable-barriers-combined-with-candidate-factor-soaked-beads-to-study-inductive-signals-in-the-chick
#13
Susan Wilde, Malcolm P Logan
The chick embryo provides a superb vertebrate model that can be used to dissect developmental questions in a direct way. Its accessibility and robustness following surgical intervention are key experimental strengths. Mica plates were the first barriers used to prevent chick limb bud initiation(1). Protocols that use aluminum foil as an impermeable barrier to wing bud or leg bud induction and or initiation are described. We combine this technique with bead placement lateral to the barrier to exogenously supply candidate endogenous factors that have been blocked by the barrier...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911307/a-high-cholesterol-diet-increases-27-hydroxycholesterol-and-modifies-estrogen-receptor-expression-and-neurodegeneration-in-rabbit-hippocampus
#14
Sylwia W Brooks, Ava C Dykes, Bernard G Schreurs
Hypercholesterolemia has been implicated in numerous health problems from cardiovascular disease to neurodegeneration. High serum cholesterol levels in midlife have been associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) later in life which suggests that the pathways leading to AD pathology might be activated decades before the symptoms of the disease are detected. Cholesterol-fed animals, particularly cholesterol-fed rabbits, exhibit brain pathology similar to the changes found in brains of AD patients...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911303/amylin-treatment-reduces-neuroinflammation-and-ameliorates-abnormal-patterns-of-gene-expression-in%C3%A2-the-cerebral-cortex-of-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#15
Erming Wang, Haihao Zhu, Xiaofan Wang, Adam Gower, Max Wallack, Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn, Neil Kowall, Wei Qiao Qiu
Our recent study has demonstrated that peripheral amylin treatment reduces the amyloid pathology in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models, and improves their learning and memory. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of amylin for AD was beyond reducing the amyloids in the brain, and have now directly tested the actions of amylin on other aspects of AD pathogenesis, especially neuroinflammation. A 10-week course of peripheral amylin treatment significantly reduced levels of cerebral inflammation markers, Cd68 and Iba1, in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910896/methylmercury-induces-the-expression-of-tnf-%C3%AE-selectively-in-the-brain-of-mice
#16
Miyuki Iwai-Shimada, Tsutomu Takahashi, Min-Seok Kim, Masatake Fujimura, Hitoyasu Ito, Takashi Toyama, Akira Naganuma, Gi-Wook Hwang
Methylmercury selectively damages the central nervous system (CNS). The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily includes representative cytokines that participate in the inflammatory response as well as cell survival, and apoptosis. In this study, we found that administration of methylmercury selectively induced TNF-α expression in the brain of mice. Although the accumulated mercury concentration in the liver and kidneys was greater than in the brain, TNF-α expression was induced to a greater extent in brain...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909828/the-dopamine-related-polymorphisms-bdnf-comt-drd2-drd3-and-drd4-are-not-linked-with-changes-in-csf-dopamine-levels-and-frequency-of-hiv-infection
#17
Anne Horn, C Scheller, S du Plessis, R Burger, G Arendt, J Joska, S Sopper, C M Maschke, M Obermann, I W Husstedt, J Hain, P Riederer, E Koutsilieri
We showed previously that higher levels in CSF dopamine in HIV patients are associated with the presence of the dopamine transporter (DAT) 10/10-repeat allele which was also detected more frequently in HIV-infected individuals compared to uninfected subjects. In the current study, we investigated further whether other genetic dopamine (DA)-related polymorphisms may be related with changes in CSF DA levels and frequency of HIV infection in HIV-infected subjects. Specifically, we studied genetic polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and dopamine receptors DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 genetic polymorphisms in uninfected and HIV-infected people in two different ethnical groups, a German cohort (Caucasian, 72 individuals with HIV infection and 22 individuals without HIV infection) and a South African cohort (Xhosan, 54 individuals with HIV infection and 19 individuals without HIV infection)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909097/induction-of-migraine-like-photophobic-behavior-in-mice-by-both-peripheral-and-central-cgrp-mechanisms
#18
Bianca N Mason, Eric A Kaiser, Adisa Kuburas, Maria-Cristina M Loomis, John A Latham, Leon F Garcia-Martinez, Andrew F Russo
: The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key player in migraine. While migraine can be treated using CGRP antagonists that act peripherally, the relevant sites of CGRP action remain unknown. To address the role of CGRP both within and outside the central nervous system, we used CGRP-induced light aversive behavior in mice as a measure of migraine-associated photophobia. Peripheral (intraperitoneal, IP) injection of CGRP resulted in light aversive behavior in wild-type CD1 mice similar to aversion previously seen following central (intracerebroventricular, ICV) injection...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909010/apoer2-controls-not-only-neuronal-migration-in-the-intermediate-zone-but-also-termination-of-migration-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex
#19
Yuki Hirota, Ken-Ichiro Kubo, Takahiro Fujino, Tokuo T Yamamoto, Kazunori Nakajima
Neuronal migration contributes to the establishment of mammalian brain. The extracellular protein Reelin sends signals to various downstream molecules by binding to its receptors, the apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and very low-density lipoprotein receptor and exerts essential roles in the neuronal migration and formation of the layered neocortex. However, the cellular and molecular functions of Reelin signaling in the cortical development are not yet fully understood. Here, to gain insight into the role of Reelin signaling during cortical development, we examined the migratory behavior of Apoer2-deficient neurons in the developing brain...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909009/association-of-protein-distribution-and-gene-expression-revealed-by-pet-and-post-mortem-quantification-in-the-serotonergic-system-of-the-human-brain
#20
A Komorowski, G M James, C Philippe, G Gryglewski, A Bauer, M Hienert, M Spies, A Kautzky, T Vanicek, A Hahn, T Traub-Weidinger, D Winkler, W Wadsak, M Mitterhauser, M Hacker, S Kasper, R Lanzenberger
Regional differences in posttranscriptional mechanisms may influence in vivo protein densities. The association of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging data from 112 healthy controls and gene expression values from the Allen Human Brain Atlas, based on post-mortem brains, was investigated for key serotonergic proteins. PET binding values and gene expression intensities were correlated for the main inhibitory (5-HT1A) and excitatory (5-HT2A) serotonin receptor, the serotonin transporter (SERT) as well as monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), using Spearman's correlation coefficients (rs) in a voxel-wise and region-wise analysis...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
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