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Brain receptors

L A Paes, O H Della Torre, T B Henriques, M P de Mello, E H R V Celeri, P Dalgalarrondo, G Guerra Júnior, A Dos Santos Júnior
Serotonin 2C receptors (5HT2C) are involved in serotonin-driven dynamic equilibrium adjustments responsible for homeostatic stability in brain structures that modulate behavior and emotions. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the serotonin 2C receptor gene (HTR2C) have been associated with several neurological and mental disorders, including abnormalities in cognitive and emotional processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the rs6318 SNP of the HTR2C gene and behavioral characteristics exhibited by children and adolescents based on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/6-18) inventory...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Theis H Ipsen, Filip S Polli, Kristi A Kohlmeier
Nicotine exposure during gestation is associated with a higher risk of adverse behavioral outcomes including a heightened liability for dependency to drugs of abuse, which can exhibit drug-specificity influenced by gender. This enhanced liability suggests that nicotine use during pregnancy alters neural development in circuits involved in motivation and reward learning. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is critical in motivated behaviors and we hypothesized that gestational exposure to nicotine could alter the development of excitatory circuits in this nucleus...
June 20, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Tsung-Yun Wong, Ming-Shian Tsai, Lih-Ching Hsu, Shu-Wha Lin, Pi-Hui Liang
Apigenin, a flavone abundant in parsley and celery, is known to act on several CNS receptors, but its very poor water solubility (< 0.001 mg/mL) impedes its absorption in vivo and prevents clinical use. Herein, apigenin was directly conjugated with glycine, L-phenylalanine, and L-lysine to give the corresponding carbamate derivatives, all of which were much more soluble than apigenin itself (0.017, 0.018, and 0.13 mg/mL, respectively). The Lys-apigenin carbamate 10 had a temporary sedative effect on the mice within five minutes of intraperitoneal administration (single dose of 0...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sellamani Muthulakshmi, Pourmohammadi Fallah Hamideh, Hamid R Habibi, Kannan Maharajan, Krishna Kadirvelu, Venkataramana Mudili
In the present study, we aimed to assess the adverse effects of zearalenone (ZEA) at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μg l-1 ) on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis associated reproductive function using zebrafish model. ZEA was exposed to female zebrafish for 21 days to assess growth indices such as condition factor, hepatosomatic index, gonadosomatic index and caspase 3 activity. Further, expression of estrogen receptor (ER) α and CYP19a1b genes in the brain, ERα and vitellogenin (Vtg) genes in the liver and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, luteinizing hormone receptor, ERα, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), 17-βHSD and CYP19a1 genes in the ovary were also investigated...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Anna Sanecka, Nagisa Yoshida, Elizabeth Motunrayo Kolawole, Harshil Patel, Brian D Evavold, Eva-Maria Frickel
T cell receptor-major histocompatibility complex (TCR-MHC) affinities span a wide range in a polyclonal T cell response, yet it is undefined how affinity shapes long-term properties of CD8 T cells during chronic infection with persistent antigen. Here, we investigate how the affinity of the TCR-MHC interaction shapes the phenotype of memory CD8 T cells in the chronically Toxoplasma gondii- infected brain. We employed CD8 T cells from three lines of transnuclear (TN) mice that harbor in their endogenous loci different T cell receptors specific for the same Toxoplasma antigenic epitope ROP7...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jacob R Greenmyer, Robert A Gaultney, Catherine A Brissette, John A Watt
The Lyme disease causing bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi has an affinity for the central nervous system (CNS) and has been isolated from human cerebral spinal fluid by 18 days following Ixodes scapularis tick bite. Signaling from resident immune cells of the CNS could enhance CNS penetration by B. burgdorferi and activated immune cells through the blood brain barrier resulting in multiple neurological complications, collectively termed neuroborreliosis. The ensuing symptoms of neurological impairment likely arise from a glial-driven, host inflammatory response to B...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yuan Gao, Ming-Yang Zhang, Tao Wang, Yan-Yan Fan, Lin-Sheng Yu, Guang-Hua Ye, Zu-Feng Wang, Cheng Gao, Hao-Chen Wang, Cheng-Liang Luo, Lu-Yang Tao
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokine family and an extracellular ligand for the orphan IL-1 receptor ST2. Accumulated evidence shows that the IL-33/ST2 axis plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) diseases and injury, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the roles and molecular mechanisms of the IL-33/ST2 axis after TBI remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-33/ST2 signaling in mouse TBI-induced brain edema and neurobehavioral deficits, and further exploited underlying mechanisms, using salubrinal (SAL), the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inhibitor and anti-ST2L...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Megan M Wickens, Debra A Bangasser, Lisa A Briand
Alterations in glutamate, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, are implicated in several psychiatric diseases. Many of these psychiatric diseases display epidemiological sex differences, with either males or females exhibiting different symptoms or disease prevalence. However, little work has considered the interaction of disrupted glutamatergic transmission and sex on disease states. This review describes the clinical and preclinical evidence for these sex differences with a focus on two conditions that are more prevalent in women: Alzheimer's disease and major depressive disorder, and three conditions that are more prevalent in men: schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Ruiqing Ni, Linjing Mu, Simon Ametamey
Cannabinoid receptor CB2 (CB2 R) is upregulated on activated microglia and astrocytes in the brain under inflammatory conditions and plays important roles in many neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and ischemic stroke. The advent of positron emission tomography (PET) using CB2 R radiotracers has enabled the visualization of CB2 R distribution in vivo in animal models of central nervous system inflammation, however translation to humans has been less successful...
June 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Paschalis Efstathopoulos, Filip Andersson, Philippe A Melas, Liu L Yang, J Carlos Villaescusa, Joëlle Rȕegg, Tomas J Ekström, Yvonne Forsell, Maria Rosaria Galanti, Catharina Lavebratt
The disruption of key epigenetic processes during critical periods of brain development can increase an individual's vulnerability to psychopathology later in life. For instance, DNA methylation in the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in adulthood is known to be associated with early-life adversities and has been suggested to mediate the development of stress-related disorders. However, the association between NR3C1 methylation and the emergence of internalizing symptoms in childhood and adolescence has not been studied extensively...
June 19, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Arturo Hernandez, J Patrizia Stohn
Thyroid hormones (THs) influence multiple processes in the developing and adult central nervous system, and their local availability needs to be maintained at levels that are tailored to the requirements of their biological targets. The local complement of TH transporters, deiodinase enzymes, and receptors is critical to ensure specific levels of TH action in neural cells. The type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO3) inactivates THs and is highly present in the developing and adult brain, where it limits their availability and action...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
S Narita, Y Onozawa, E Yoshihara, D Nishizawa, M Numajiri, K Ikeda, K Iwahashi
OBJECTIVE: The N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (GluN2B) is involved in regulation of anxiety and depression and nervous activity in the brain. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the GluN2B gene ( GRIN2B ) are associated with human mental function and behaviour. We investigated whether four GRIN2B polymorphisms (rs7301328, rs1806201, rs1805247, and rs1805502) affect characterisation of personality traits. METHODS: In 248 young people, GRIN2B polymorphisms were analysed, and personality traits were assessed using the Neuroticism Extraversion Openness-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)...
June 2018: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
Richard M Kostrzewa, Karolina Wydra, Malgorzata Filip, Cynthia Crawford, Sanders A McDougall, Russell W Brown, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Kjell Fuxe, Raul R Gainetdinov
Abnormality of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) function, often observed as D2R supersensitivity (D2RSS), is a commonality of schizophrenia and related psychiatric disorders in humans. Moreover, virtually all psychotherapeutic agents for schizophrenia target D2R in brain. Permanent D2RSS as a feature of a new animal model of schizophrenia was first reported in 1991, then behaviorally and biochemically characterized over the next 15-20 years. In this model of schizophrenia characterized by production of D2RSS in ontogeny, there are demonstrated alterations of signaling processes; as well as functional links between the biologic template of the animal model; and ability of pharmacotherapeutics to modulate or reverse biological and behavioral modalities towards normality...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Cindy Barrientos, Daniel Knowland, Mingche M J Wu, Varoth Lilascharoen, Kee Wui Huang, Robert C Malenka, Byung Kook Lim
BACKGROUND: The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a brain region implicated in pathological motivated behaviors such as drug addiction and is composed predominantly of two discrete populations of neurons, dopamine receptor-1- and dopamine receptor-2-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs and D2-MSNs, respectively). It is unclear whether these populations receive inputs from different brain areas and whether input regions to these cell types undergo distinct structural adaptations in response to the administration of addictive drugs such as cocaine...
May 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
N Wu, G Yang
This study aims to evaluate the effect of sildenafil on pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with chronic left heart failure. Twenty patients with PH and left heart failure were divided into treatment group (10 cases, with an oral dose of sildenafil 75 mg daily for 8 weeks) and control group (10 cases, with treatment of cardiac glycosides, diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin II receptor blocker and beta-blockers). Left ventricular systolic function (LVEF), the pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PH), the left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS), the left atrium diameter (LAD) and the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVD) were measured by echocardiography, the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was also calculated...
May 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Yun Shi, Yong Wang, Huafeng Wei
Dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor antagonist, is primarily known as the only clinically acceptable and effective treatment for malignant hyperthermia (MH). Inhibition of ryanodine receptor (RyR) by dantrolene decrease the abnormal calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) or endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where RyR is located on. Recently, emerging researchs on dissociated cells, brains slices, live animal models and patients demonstrate that altered RyR expression and function can also play a vital role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
June 19, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Syeda Mehpara Farhat, Touqeer Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Aluminum (Al) causes neurodegeneration and its toxic effects on cholinergic system in the brain is well documented. However, it is unknown whether and how Al changes oscillation patterns, driven by the cholinergic system, in the hippocampus. OBJECTIVE: We studied acute effects of Al on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs)-mediated modulation of persistent gamma oscillations in the hippocampus. METHOD: The field potential recording was done in CA3 area of acute hippocampal slices...
June 19, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Cécile Baldy, Stéphanie Fournier, Samuel Boisjoly-Villeneuve, Marie-Ève Tremblay, Richard Kinkead
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of the study? Does neonatal stress, in the form of neonatal maternal separation, influence the maturation of microglial density, morphology, and neuronal signalling in medullary regions regulating cardio-respiratory function in rat pups? What is the main finding and its importance? Using Iba-1 immunohistochemistry, we show that neonatal maternal separation augments microglial density and the proportion of cells with an amoeboid morphology in the medulla...
June 19, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Martin Barth, Andreas Dunzinger, Irina Wimmer, Johanna Winkler, Hans Rittmannsberger, Michael Nader, Robert Pichler
BACKGROUND: More than 50% of patients with major depressive episode (MDE) fail to respond to initial treatment with first line pharmacological therapy. Altered receptor and serotonin transporter function are considered to be associated with mental disorders. Our investigation aimed on the density of the HT1A receptor in mesiotemporal cortex (MTC) and raphe measured by F18-Mefway in patients with MDD. METHODS: Patients with untreated clinically suspected major depressive episode were recruited from June 2012 to May 2014...
June 14, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
J Prius-Mengual, M Pérez-Rodríguez, Y Andrade-Talavera, A Rodríguez-Moreno
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are involved in synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity in different brain regions, and they modulate glutamate release at different presynaptic sites. Here, we studied whether non-postsynaptic NMDARs, putatively presynaptic (preNMDARs), are tonically active at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses, and if they modulate glutamate release. We found that when postsynaptic NMDARs are blocked by MK801, D-AP5 depresses evoked and spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission, indicating that preNMDARs are tonically active at CA3-CA1 synapses, facilitating glutamate release...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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