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Giuseppe Lombardo, Valentina Villari, Norberto Liborio Micali, Nancy Leone, Cristina Labate, Maria Penelope De Santo, Marco Lombardo
Keratoconus is the primary cause of corneal transplantation in young adults worldwide. Riboflavin/UV-A corneal cross-linking may effectively halt the progression of keratoconus if an adequate amount of riboflavin enriches the corneal stroma and is photo-oxidated by UV-A light for generating additional cross-linking bonds between stromal proteins and strengthening the biomechanics of the weakened cornea. Here we reported a UV-A theranostic prototype device for performing corneal cross-linking with the ability to assess corneal intrastromal concentration of riboflavin and to estimate treatment efficacy in real time...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Eduardo Chagas Silva, Pramuditha L Abhayawardhana, Anatoliy V Lygin, Clark L Robertson, Mei Liu, Zhijun Liu, Raymond W Schneider
Although previous research showed that the purple symptom of Cercospora leaf blight (CLB) is associated with lower biomass of Cercospora cf. flagellaris and lower concentrations of cercosporin, a reactive oxygen species producer, as compared to blighted leaves, the hypothesis that the purple symptom is a plant reaction to the pathogen has never been tested. In this study, we demonstrated that high levels of coumestrol (COU) were associated with purple symptoms of CLB and that COU has strong antioxidant activity...
February 16, 2018: Phytopathology
Yasuhiro Maruoka, Tadanobu Nagaya, Kazuhide Sato, Fusa Ogata, Shuhei Okuyama, Peter L Choyke, Hisataka Kobayashi
Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a new target-cell specific cancer treatment that induces highly selective necrotic/immunogenic cell death after systemic administration of a photo-absorber antibody conjugate and subsequent NIR light exposure. However, the depth of NIR light penetration in tissue (approximately 2 centimeters) with external light sources, limits the therapeutic effects of NIR-PIT. Interstitial light exposure using cylindrical diffusing optical fibers can overcome this limitation...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Tessa Buckle, Danny M van Willigen, Silvia J Spa, Albertus W Hensbergen, Steffen van der Wal, Clarize M de Korne, Mick M Welling, Henk G van der Poel, James C H Hardwick, Fijs W B van Leeuwen
Objectives: The potential of (receptor-mediated) fluorescence-based image-guided surgery tracers is generally linked to the near-infrared emission profile and good manufacturing production (GMP) availability of fluorescent dyes. Surprisingly, little is known about the critical interaction between the structural composition of the dye and the pharmacokinetics of the tracers. In this study, a bimodal/hybrid tracer design was used to systematically and quantitatively evaluate the influence of elongation of the polymethine chain in a fluorescent cyanine (Cy) dye on the imaging potential of a targeted (RGD-based) tracer...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Marc Yeste, Miriam Castillo-Martín, Sergi Bonet, Joan E Rodríguez-Gil
Light irradiation has been demonstrated to exert positive effects on gametes, and particularly on sperm. In effect, a high number of studies conducted in several species, including humans, mice, pigs, cattle and sheep, and using different light sources (such as lasers and light-emitting diodes) have demonstrated that photo-stimulation increases sperm motility. In addition, other works have shown that sperm fertilizing ability both in vitro and in vivo can be increased following light irradiation; there are also some evidences pointing out to an extend of lifespan of preserved semen...
February 9, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Kaushik Natarajan, Parth Bhatt, Pankaj Yadav, Kavita Pandey, Brijesh Tripathi, Manoj Kumar
Hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanostructures have been extensively studied as photo-anodes for the conversion of sunlight into chemical fuels by water splitting. A number of factors limit the photo-activity of pristine hematite nanostructures, including poor electrical conductivity and long penetration depth of light. Previous studies have shown that use of tin (Sn) as an n-type dopant can substantially enhance the photoactivity of hematite photoanodes by modifying their morphological, optical and electrical properties...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Phongsaphak Sittimart, Asanlaya Duangrawa, Peeradon Onsee, Sakmongkon Teakchaicum, Adison Nopparuchikun, Nathaporn Promros
n-Type nanocrystalline FeSi2/p-type Si heterojunctions were formed by using facing-target direct- current sputtering at room temperature. The J-V characteristic results revealed that the reverse leakage current is large and the response under illumination of near-infrared light is very weak. The capacitance-voltage-frequency (C-V-f) and conductance-voltage-frequency (G-V-f) measurements were carried out at room temperature in order to estimate the series resistance (Rs) by using the Nicollian-Brews method and the density of interface state (Nss) by using the Hill-Coleman method...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Soumen Chandra, Karunamay Majee, Triveni Kumar Mahto, Sumanta Kumar Padhi, Sumanta Kumar Sahu
Anatase hierarchical TiO2 microsphere/carbon dots composite (HTM/CDs) was fabricated by a facile method for active visible light photocatalysis. The phase, morphology, microstructure and optical properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electronmicroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV-VIS diffuse reflectance spectroscopy respectively. Under visible light illumination, the fabricated HTM/CDs composite was exhibited an enhanced photo catalytic activity compared to that of pure hierarchical TiO2 microspheres (HTM)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Hui Li, Xiang-Feng Wu, Yang Sun, Ze-Hua Zhao, Chen-Xu Zhang, Fan-Fan Jia, Han Zhang, Mai-Tuo Yu, Xin-Yue Yang
Zn2SnO4-reduced graphene oxide photocatalysts were synthesized by using SnCl4 5H2O, Zn(NO3)2 · 6H2O and graphene oxide via hydrothermal process. The structure, morphology, specific surface area and photo response of the as-prepared nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, Brunauer-emmett-teller surface area measurement and Photoluminescence emission spectra. Experimental results showed that the Zn2SnO4 nanoparticles, with 20-30 nm a size range, were uniformly dispersed on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
M Myilsamy, M Mahalakshmi, N Subha, V Murugesan
Gallium doped mesoporous TiO2 with different weight percentages were synthesized by sol-gel method using Pluronic P123 as the structure directing template. The physico-chemical properties of all the synthesized catalysts were determined by XRD, TEM, SEM-EDAX, N2 adsorption-desorption studies, XPS, UV-vis DRS, FT-IR and photoluminescence spectroscopy. 1.0 wt% Ga-TiO2 exhibited the highest photocatalytic efficiency among all the synthesized materials under visible light due to the high surface area, reduced band gap and suppressed electron-hole recombination...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Faye Mishna, Cheryl Regehr, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Joanne Daciuk, Gwendolyn Fearing, Melissa Van Wert
AIM: Information and communication technologies (ICTs) offer immense benefits for university students including enhancing engagement and connections with others and promoting self-directed and interactive learning. Perceived anonymity and the absence of social cues, however, may contribute to risk of interpersonal aggression. While extensive research examines bullying in child and adolescent educational settings, this study addresses a gap regarding post-secondary environments. METHODS: An internet-based survey was provided to 5004 university students to examine the nature, extent and consequences of cyber-aggression...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
Jakub Mesicek, Kamil Kuca
The optimal light dose, heat generation, consequent heat spread, and an accurate thermal damage model, are key components of effective laser therapies. Recent advances in nanotechnology offer numerous possibilities on how to increase the efficacy of hyperthermia for tumour treatments. Gold nanoparticles are a promising candidate towards the achievement of this goal owing to their properties for efficiently converting light to heat. In this review, we summarise the numerical tools that are available for theoretical studies of gold-nanoparticle-mediated photo-thermal therapy...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Reza Abazari, Ali Reza Mahjoub
A visible light-driven amine-functionalized Al-based MOF # @ y x Sm 2 O 3 -ZnO nanocomposite (NH 2 -MOF # @ y x Sm 2 O 3 -ZnO NCP) was synthesized as an effective photocatalyst for AMX degradation in the presence of ultrasound, in which # is MOF synthesis conditions from MOF I to MOF XII and x and y stand for the weight percentages of Sm 2 O 3 -to-ZnO and Sm 2 O 3 -ZnO-to-MOF, respectively. The β-lactam antibiotic AMX, which is widely used for treating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections in both animals and humans, was employed as a model pollutant...
February 15, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Nancy Pizarro, Gaspar Prado, Marianela Saldías, Catalina Sandoval-Altamirano, Andrés Vega
The reaction of 2,5-dibromopyrazine with N-Lithium pyrazolate in a 1:2 ratio leads to a mixture of 2-bromo-5-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyrazine (I) and 2,5-di(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyrazine (II). The structures of I and II are highly planar. Two absorption bands can be observed for the compounds in the UV-Vis region, having ε in the order of 10 4 M -1 cm -1 . TD-DFT computed results support the nature of the lower energy absorptions as π pyrazine →π* pyrazine transitions, including an additional intraligand charge transfer transition for I (π pyrazol →π* pyrazine )...
February 15, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Sijie Liu, Wenbo Xiao, Mianzeng Zhong, Longfei Pan, Xiaoting Wang, Huixiong Deng, Jian Liu, Jingbo Li, Zhongming Wei
Photodetectors with high polarization sensitivity are in great demand in advanced optical communication. Here, we demonstrate that the photodetectors based on titanium trisulfide (TiS3) show extremely sensitive to polarized light (from visible to infrared), due to its reduced in-plane structural symmetry. By the density functional theory (DFT) calculation, TiS3 has direct bandgap with 1.13 eV. The highest photo-responsivity reaches 2500 A/W. What's more, in-plane optical selection caused by strong anisotropy leads to that the photo-responsivity ratio for different directions of polarization can reach 4:1...
February 15, 2018: Nanotechnology
Ni Cheng, Yong Chen, Jie Yu, Jing-Jing Li, Yu Liu
Using coumarin-modified diphenylalanine (CO-FF) and gamma-cyclodextrin (gamma-CD) as building blocks, one-dimensional nanofibers with several nanometers in width and tens of micrometers in length were successfully constructed. Through the photo-dimerization of coumarin units in CO-FF/gamma-CD complexes, the resultant nanofibers could cross-linked to organic 2D thin films with a lateral dimension of tens of micrometers and a thickness of nanometers. The resultant thin films exhibited a sig-nificant fluorescence enhancement for twisted intramolecular charge-transfer (TICT) molecules and effective removal of pollut-ant from water through filtration...
February 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yoshihiko Watanabe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Nature
A Soleimani, S H Rasta, T Banaei, A Asgharsharghi Bonab
Introduction: The aim of the present study was to determine burn intensity in retinal laser photocoagulation based on laser parameters; wavelength, power, beam size and pulse duration, using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), fundus camera, physical eye model and computer simulation in a clinical study. Materials and Methods: Participants were 10 adult patients between 50-80 years with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. A multicolor-photo coagulator with 532 nm green and 672 nm red for retina photocoagulation in diabetic retinopathy was used to investigate the participants...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Paul Jie Wen Tern, Julia Gass
Melanin in the nail bed in patients with skin type VI has been suggested to afford some protection against photo-onycholysis. We report a case of a 16-year-old male patient with skin type VI with onycholysis following PUVA treatment for hypopigmented mycosis fungoides. Symptoms resolved with the application of topical steroid.
February 2018: Clinical Case Reports
T M Puvirajesinghe, Z L Zhi, R V Craster, S Guenneau
Graphene oxide (GO) is increasingly used for controlling mass diffusion in hydrogel-based drug delivery applications. On the macro-scale, the density of GO in the hydrogel is a critical parameter for modulating drug release. Here, we investigate the diffusion of a peptide drug through a network of GO membranes and GO-embedded hydrogels, modelled as porous matrices resembling both laminated and 'house of cards' structures. Our experiments use a therapeutic peptide and show a tunable nonlinear dependence of the peptide concentration upon time...
February 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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