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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141727/point-of-care-ultrasound-for-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-in-india-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-presumptive-tuberculosis-patients
#1
Stefan F Weber, Kavitha Saravu, Tom Heller, Rajagopal Kadavigere, Shashidhar Vishwanath, Stephan Gehring, Sabine Bélard, And Pocus Eti Study Group
Diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is challenging. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated EPTB is applied in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at evaluating the applicability of POCUS for diagnosing EPTB in HIV-positive and HIV-negative presumptive tuberculosis (TB) patients in India, a country of moderate relative TB and HIV burden. Presumptive TB patients at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India, prospectively underwent POCUS evaluating for pericardial, pleural and ascitic effusion, abdominal lymphadenopathy, and hepatic and splenic microabscesses...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140996/childhood-tuberculosis-is-associated-with-decreased-abundance-of-t-cell-gene-transcripts-and-impaired-t-cell-function
#2
Cheryl Hemingway, Maurice Berk, Suzanne T Anderson, Victoria J Wright, Shea Hamilton, Hariklia Eleftherohorinou, Myrsini Kaforou, Greg M Goldgof, Katy Hickman, Beate Kampmann, Johan Schoeman, Brian Eley, David Beatty, Sandra Pienaar, Mark P Nicol, Michael J Griffiths, Simon J Waddell, Sandra M Newton, Lachlan J Coin, David A Relman, Giovanni Montana, Michael Levin
The WHO estimates around a million children contract tuberculosis (TB) annually with over 80 000 deaths from dissemination of infection outside of the lungs. The insidious onset and association with skin test anergy suggests failure of the immune system to both recognise and respond to infection. To understand the immune mechanisms, we studied genome-wide whole blood RNA expression in children with TB meningitis (TBM). Findings were validated in a second cohort of children with TBM and pulmonary TB (PTB), and functional T-cell responses studied in a third cohort of children with TBM, other extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) and PTB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138740/pediatric-pulmonary-hemorrhage-vs-extrapulmonary-bleeding-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-hemoptysis
#3
Michael Vaiman, Baruch Klin, Noa Rosenfeld, Ibrahim Abu-Kishk
Introduction: Hemoptysis is an important symptom which causes a major concern, and warrants immediate diagnostic attention. The authors compared a group of patients with pediatric pulmonary hemorrhage with pediatric patients diagnosed with extrapulmonary bleeding focusing on differences in etiology, outcome and differential diagnosis of hemoptysis. Methods: We performed the retrospective analysis of medical charts of 134 pediatric patients admitted to the Emergency Department because of pulmonary and extrapulmonary hemorrhage and were diagnosed with suspected hemoptysis or developed hemoptysis (ICD10-CM code R04...
2017: Central Asian Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137108/tuberculosis-presenting-as-isolated-bronchonodal-fistula-in-a-patient-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-case-report
#4
Kyungsoo Bae, Kyung Nyeo Jeon, Ho Cheol Kim, Young Sun Suh, Gi Dong Lee, Ju-Young Kim, Dae Hyun Song
RATIONALE: Lymph node is a preferred site for extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB). In the thorax, mediastinal tuberculous lymph nodes can erode adjacent structures such as heart, aorta, and esophagus, forming fistula, and causing fatal consequences. However, tuberculous bronchonodal fistula as a complication of lymph node TB in adults is rarely known in terms of imaging or clinical findings. Here, a case of isolated tuberculous bronchonodal fistula appearing as the first presentation of TB in a 74-year-old male with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is reported...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132117/an-extrapulmonary-manifestation-of-lymphangioleiomyomatosis-a-rare-case-report
#5
L Volkan Tümay, Osman Serhat Güner, Abdullah Zorluoğlu
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare and fatal disease which occurs almost exclusively in young women. The disease often affects lungs and most of the patients die from respiratory failure. It is often initially misdiagnosed as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The most common presentations of pulmonary LAM (P-LAM) include dyspnea and coughing. Chylothorax and spontaneous pneumothorax may be seen in advanced cases. Although rare, it may present with extrapulmonary LAM (E-LAM). Renal angiomyolipomas and abdominal lymphadenopathies (LAPs) are common in E-LAM cases...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128024/mycobacterial-infections-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#6
REVIEW
Tahuanty Pena, Julia Klesney-Tait
Mycobacterial infections are uncommon in solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients but carry significant morbidity and mortality. Donor screening strategies for tuberculosis should be emphasized in high-risk populations. Both tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections can have pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations of infections. Recommended treatment regimens typically involve multiple drugs with significant adverse effects and drug interactions.
December 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127136/tuberculosis-epididymitis-complicated-by-a-cutaneous-fistula
#7
Scott A Weisenberg, Qingwei Robert Yan
A 63-year-old man developed scrotal swelling that became bilateral over 2 months. His symptoms persisted after treatment for epididymitis, and he developed a scrotal fistula with drainage. Mycobacterium tuberculosis grew from the urine and fistula. His symptoms resolved and fistula closed with medical therapy. His case highlights the importance of early recognition, diagnosis and treatment of this form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis.
November 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121953/risk-of-tuberculosis-among-alabama-children-and-adolescents-treated-with-tumor-necrosis-factor-inhibitors-a-retrospective-study
#8
Matthew L Stoll, James Aaron Grubbs, Timothy Beukelman, Melissa L Mannion, Traci W Jester, Randy Q Cron, Marilyn J Crain
BACKGROUND: Tumor Necrosis Factor inhibitors (TNFi) have dramatically improved the outlook for patients with inflammatory arthritides and bowel disease (IBD), but are associated with increased infection risks, including tuberculosis (TB). Pediatric inflammatory diseases are uncommon, and the risk of TB in children taking TNFi remains unclear. The objective of this study was to report the incidence of TB disease among TNFi recipients at a single pediatric medical center serving most of Alabama compared to that of the general population of Alabama children...
November 9, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121474/outcomes-following-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-lobectomy-versus-open-lobectomy-for-early-stage-lung-cancer-in-older-adults
#9
Nicole Ezer, Minal Kale, Keith Sigel, Sameer Lakha, Grace Mhango, Emily Goodman, Daniel Nicastri, Scott Swanson, Alfred Neugut, Juan P Wisnivesky
RATIONALE: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and open lobectomy are both standard of care for treatment of early stage NSCLC because of equivalent long-term survival. OBJECTIVE: To evaluated whether the improved peri-operative outcomes associated with VATS are explained by differences in case volume and specialty training. METHODS: We analyzed the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare linked registry to identify stage I-II NSCLC in patients above 65 years of age...
November 9, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114398/multi-system-manifestations-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-a-young-patient
#10
Ibrahim Al Busaidi, Mohammed Al-Amin, Shadin Ibrahim, Abdullah Balkhair, Zied Gaifer
Introduction.Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a small cell-wall-lacking bacterium that belongs to the mycoplasma (Mollicutes) prokaryote micro-organisms. It is a common cause of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections in all age groups. Respiratory illness is the most common manifestation of M. pneumoniae infection; however, extrapulmonary involvement may be present or predominant. The skin, mucus membranes, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, haematopoietic system, kidneys and musculoskeletal system are the most commonly involved extrapulmonary sites...
September 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109879/legionnaires-disease-complicated-with-rhabdomyolysis-and-acute-kidney-injury-in-an-aids-patient
#11
Karan Seegobin, Satish Maharaj, Cherisse Baldeo, Julio Perez Downes, Pramod Reddy
Objective: To present a case of an uncommon triad of Legionella pneumonia, rhabdomyolysis, and renal failure, with review of the relevant literature. Case: A 51-year-old with a history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and hypertension presented with fever, cough, and shortness of breath over four days. Chest X-ray showed consolidation in left lower lung field; urine was positive for Legionella antigen and myoglobin; creatine kinase was 51092U/L; creatine was 6...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103698/development-of-a-multilocus-sequence-typing-scheme-for-rhodococcus-equi
#12
Fabien Duquesne, Emilie Houssin, Corinne Sévin, Lucille Duytschaever, Jackie Tapprest, David Fretin, Laurent Hébert, Claire Laugier, Sandrine Petry
Rhodococcus equi causes pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections in animals and humans, with endemic situations and significant young foal mortality in stud farms worldwide. Despite its economic impact in the horse-breeding industry, the broad geographic and host distribution, global diversity and population structure of R. equi remain poorly characterised. In this context, we developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme using 89 clinical and environmental R. equi of various origins and eight Rhodococcus sp...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100513/ghrelin-therapy-improves-lung-and-cardiovascular-function-in-experimental-emphysema
#13
Nazareth de Novaes Rocha, Milena Vasconcellos de Oliveira, Cássia Lisboa Braga, Gabriela Guimarães, Lígia de Albuquerque Maia, Gisele de Araújo Padilha, Johnatas Dutra Silva, Christina Maeda Takiya, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Pedro Leme Silva, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco
BACKGROUND: Emphysema is a progressive disease characterized by irreversible airspace enlargement followed by a decline in lung function. It also causes extrapulmonary effects, such as loss of body mass and cor pulmonale, which are associated with shorter survival and worse clinical outcomes. Ghrelin, a growth-hormone secretagogue, stimulates muscle anabolism, has anti-inflammatory effects, promotes vasodilation, and improves cardiac performance. Therefore, we hypothesized that ghrelin might reduce lung inflammation and remodelling as well as improve lung mechanics and cardiac function in experimental emphysema...
November 3, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093415/a-case-of-paraneoplastic-cerebellar-degeneration-and-lambert-eaton-myasthenic-syndrome-associated-with-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-oropharynx
#14
Junji Takasugi, Munehisa Shimamura, Toru Koda, Toshihiro Kishikawa, Atsushi Hanamoto, Hidenori Inohara, Kazuaki Sato, Eiichi Morii, Masakatsu Motomura, Manabu Sakaguchi, Yuji Nakatsuji, Hideki Mochizuki
Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (PCD-LEMS) are usually associated with small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). PCD-LEMS with extrapulmonary non-SCLC tumors; however, has not been previously reported. A 78-year-old man presented with dysarthria, dysphagia, staggering gait, and lower extremity muscle fatigue. He was diagnosed with PCD-LEMS associated with neuroendocrine carcinoma of the oropharynx, based on the histological findings of the biopsy, the existence of antibodies against P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels, and an incremental response of the compound muscle action potentials during repetitive nerve stimulation tests...
November 1, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089034/rapid-diagnosis-of-new-and-relapse-tuberculosis-by-quantification-of-a-circulating-antigen-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-the-greater-houston-metropolitan-area
#15
Jia Fan, Hedong Zhang, Duc T Nguyen, Christopher J Lyon, Charles D Mitchell, Zhen Zhao, Edward A Graviss, Ye Hu
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated immune defects inhibit tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, promote development of extrapulmonary TB and paucibacillary pulmonary TB cases with atypical radiographic features, and increase TB relapse rates. We therefore assessed the diagnostic performance of a novel assay that directly quantitates serum levels of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) virulence factor 10-kDa culture filtrate protein (CFP-10) to overcome limitations associated with detecting Mtb bacilli in sputum or tissue biopsies...
November 1, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081806/pancreatic-tuberculosis-with-vascular-involvement-and-peritoneal-dissemination-in-a-young-man
#16
Meng Zhu, Ning Zhang, Wei Tao, Zhitao Wang, Shuixiang He
Pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) is an extremely rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis even in endemic areas that masquerades as a mass or inflammation because of lack of typical clinical manifestations and radiologic features and therefore usually misdiagnosed as a pancreatic malignancy or pancreatitis. Here we present a 23-year-old young man with pancreatic tuberculosis mimicking pancreatic head carcinoma A man who suffered from upper abdominal pain and nausea for half a month was admitted to our hospital...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074153/is-repeat-pulmonary-metastasectomy-indicated-for-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#17
Neel P Chudgar, Murray F Brennan, Kay See Tan, Rodrigo R Munhoz, Sandra P D'Angelo, Manjit S Bains, James Huang, Bernard J Park, Prasad S Adusumilli, William D Tap, David R Jones
BACKGROUND: Because recurrence is high after pulmonary metastasectomy (PM) for soft tissue sarcoma (STS), repeat PM is commonly performed. Our objective was to define the selection criteria for repeat PM among patients experiencing recurrence and to identify factors associated with survival. METHODS: We reviewed a prospectively maintained database of 539 patients undergoing PM for STS. Characteristics of the primary tumor, metastatic disease, treatment, and recurrence were examined...
October 24, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067986/modelling-of-cerebral-tuberculosis-in-balb-c-mice-using-clinical-strain-from-patients-with-cns-tuberculosis-infection
#18
Aliabbas A Husain, Umesh Datta Gupta, Pushpa Gupta, Amit R Nayak, Nitin H Chandak, Hatim F Daginawla, Lokendra Singh, Rajpal Singh Kashyap
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Central nervous system (CNS) infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is the most severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) due to a high level of mortality and morbidity. Limited studies are available on CNS-TB animal model development. The present study describes the development of a murine model of CNS-TB using a clinical strain (C3) isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of CNS-TB patients. METHODS: Groups of mice were infected by the intravenous route with MTB C3 strain isolated from the CSF of CNS-TB patients...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065149/outcomes-of-an-hiv-cohort-after-a-decade-of-comprehensive-care-at-newlands-clinic-in-harare-zimbabwe-tenart-cohort
#19
Tinei Shamu, Cleophas Chimbetete, Sandra Shawarira-Bote, Tinashe Mudzviti, Ruedi Luthy
BACKGROUND: Data on long-term outcomes of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa are few. We describe outcomes of patients commenced on ART at Newlands Clinic between 2004 and 2006 after ≥10 years of comprehensive care including, psychosocial, adherence and food support. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, patient data from an electronic medical record collected during routine care were analysed. We describe baseline characteristics, virological and clinical outcomes, attrition rates, and treatment adverse effects until November 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063595/pulmonary-anatomy-and-a-case-of-unilateral-aplasia-in-a-common-snapping-turtle-chelydra-serpentina-developmental-perspectives-on-cryptodiran-lungs
#20
E R Schachner, J C Sedlmayr, R Schott, T R Lyson, R K Sanders, M Lambertz
The common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) is a well studied and broadly distributed member of Testudines; however, very little is known concerning developmental anomalies and soft tissue pathologies of turtles and other reptiles. Here, we present an unusual case of unilateral pulmonary aplasia, asymmetrical carapacial kyphosis, and mild scoliosis in a live adult C. serpentina. The detailed three-dimensional (3D) anatomy of the respiratory system in both the pathological and normal adult C. serpentina, and a hatchling are visualized using computed tomography (CT), microCT, and 3D digital anatomical models...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
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