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Hong Tao, Yiran Cai, Liang Shi, Junfang Tang, Zhidong Liu, Zitong Wang, Lianqi Bai, Zhe Liu
BACKGROUND: Recent research into lung cancer-related driver genes has identified a distinctive molecular subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) - anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive NSCLC. We evaluated the clinical features and survival rates of ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma patients who had undergone surgery but had not received ALK inhibitor therapy, along with the characteristics of patients with distant metastases. METHODS: Clinical data of 40 patients with ALK-positive, postsurgical lung adenocarcinoma were retrospectively analyzed...
October 24, 2016: Thoracic Cancer
Nikolaus Rieber, Roel P Gazendam, Alexandra F Freeman, Amy P Hsu, Amanda L Collar, Janyce A Sugui, Rebecca A Drummond, Chokechai Rongkavilit, Kevin Hoffman, Carolyn Henderson, Lily Clark, Markus Mezger, Muthulekha Swamydas, Maik Engeholm, Rebecca Schüle, Bettina Neumayer, Frank Ebel, Constantinos M Mikelis, Stefania Pittaluga, Vinod K Prasad, Anurag Singh, Joshua D Milner, Kelli W Williams, Jean K Lim, Kyung J Kwon-Chung, Steven M Holland, Dominik Hartl, Taco W Kuijpers, Michail S Lionakis
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a life-threatening mycosis that only affects patients with immunosuppression, chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, transplantation, or congenital immunodeficiency. We studied the clinical, genetic, histological, and immunological features of 2 unrelated patients without known immunodeficiency who developed extrapulmonary invasive aspergillosis at the ages of 8 and 18. One patient died at age 12 with progressive intra-abdominal aspergillosis. The other patient had presented with intra-abdominal candidiasis at age 9, and developed central nervous system aspergillosis at age 18 and intra-abdominal aspergillosis at age 25...
October 20, 2016: JCI Insight
Kemal Can Tertemiz, Aylin Ozgen Alpaydin, Volkan Karacam
INTRODUCTION: Many extrathoracic malignancies can metastasize to lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes. Whether mediastinal lesions are metastasis in these patients changes staging, prognosis, and treatment strategy. In this study, we aimed to find out the contribution of EBUS-TBNA to the diagnosis in cases with extrathoracic malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who had been previously diagnosed as extrapulmonary solid organ malignancy and in whom mediastinal or hilar lymphadenopathy developed during their follow-up and EBUS-TBNA was applied for diagnostic purposes were retrospectively included in this study...
October 21, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Maritza Samayoa-Peláez, Nancy Ayala, Zaida E Yadon, Einar Heldal
Objective To assess whether the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) guidelines for culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) in Guatemala were successfully implemented, particularly in cases of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) or previously treated TB, by documenting notification rates by department (geographic area), disease type and category, and culture and DST results. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study that merged and linked all patients registered by the NTP and the National Reference Laboratory in 2013, eliminating duplicates...
January 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Begoña Santiago-García, Daniel Blázquez-Gamero, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, Jesús Ruíz-Contreras, Jose M Bellón, Maria A Muñoz-Fernández, María J Mellado-Peña
BACKGROUND: Children are at higher risk of tuberculosis (TB) dissemination and extrapulmonary disease, contributing greatly to TB-associated morbidity and long-term sequelae. However, there are very few studies that assess the impact and clinical spectrum of pediatric extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) in low-prevalence regions. METHODS: Children <18 years of age diagnosed with TB in Madrid region (2005-2013) were reviewed. We compared the epidemiology, clinical characteristics and the performance of diagnostic tests in childhood extrapulmonary and pulmonary disease...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Amin S I Banaga, Nihad K Siddiq, Randa T Alsayed, Rasha Babiker, Khalifa Elmusharaf
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem in the developing countries. There are limited data about the prevalence of TB patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) in Sudan. The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence and presentation of TB among Sudanese maintenance HD patients. This is a hospital-based descriptive study. The participants of the study are all HD patients distributed in 13 HD centers in Khartoum and Khartoum North Provinces in Sudan. All patients attended the HD centers from November 1, 2014 to February 1, 2015, were interviewed by a questionnaire focused on personal and clinical data...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Ranjana Arora, Lisa Armitige, Audrey Wanger, Robert L Hunter, Shen-An Hwang
Trehalose 6,6'dimycolate (TDM) is a glycolipid found in nearly pure form on the surface of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). This manuscript investigated the production of TDM, growth rate and colony morphology of multiple strains of MTB, each of which had been isolated from both pulmonary (sputum) and extrapulmonary sites of multiple patients. Since sputum contains MTB primarily from cavities and extrapulmonary biopsies are typically granulomas, this provided an opportunity to compare the behavior of single strains of MTB that had been isolated from cavities and granulomas...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Aichurek Soultanova, Zbigniew Mikulski, Uwe Pfeil, Veronika Grau, Wolfgang Kummer
Members of the calcitonin peptide family-calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), adrenomedullin (AM), and adrenomedullin2/intermedin (IMD)-exert modulatory effects upon monocytes and macrophages of various extrapulmonary origins. Utilizing the rat alveolar macrophage (AMφ) cell line NR8383, we here set out to determine to which extent these three peptides and their receptors are differentially regulated in AMφ and what specific effects they have on AMφ key functions. LPS treatment differentially up-regulated expression of the peptides and receptors...
2016: PloS One
Jennifer K Roe, Niclas Thomas, Eliza Gil, Katharine Best, Evdokia Tsaliki, Stephen Morris-Jones, Sian Stafford, Nandi Simpson, Karolina D Witt, Benjamin Chain, Robert F Miller, Adrian Martineau, Mahdad Noursadeghi
BACKGROUND. Novel rapid diagnostics for active tuberculosis (TB) are required to overcome the time delays and inadequate sensitivity of current microbiological tests that are critically dependent on sampling the site of disease. Multiparametric blood transcriptomic signatures of TB have been described as potential diagnostic tests. We sought to identify the best transcript candidates as host biomarkers for active TB, extend the evaluation of their specificity by comparison with other infectious diseases, and to test their performance in both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB...
October 6, 2016: JCI Insight
Padmavali Palange, Rahul Narang, Venkataramana Kandi
BACKGROUND: Laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis has undergone a rapid change during last few years and a number of techniques for culture as well as molecular diagnosis have been used with their respective advantages and disadvantages. Sporadic studies have also reported the isolation of M. tuberculosis on standard blood agar (BA), which at one time was not considered as a suitable medium for mycobacterial culture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the routine use of 5% sheep BA in a mycobacteriology laboratory by comparing isolation rates and time for isolation of mycobacteria from pulmonary and extrapulmonary samples with those on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium...
August 30, 2016: Curēus
Preeti Sule, Ronak Tilvawala, Parnia Behinaein, Grant K Walkup, Jeffrey D Cirillo
Although tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide and diagnostic methods have been in place for more than 100 years, diagnosis remains a challenge. The main problems with diagnosis relate to the time needed to obtain a definitive result, difficulty in obtaining sputum, the primary clinical material used, and the ability of the causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to cause disease in nearly any tissue within the body. In order to decrease incidence of TB, discovery of a novel interventions will be required, since current technologies have only been able to control numbers of infections, not reduce them...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Yohsuke Nagayoshi, Kazuko Yamamoto, Satoru Hashimoto, Keiko Hisatomi, Seiji Doi, Seiji Nagashima, Hirokazu Kurohama, Masahiro Ito, Takahiro Takazono, Shigeki Nakamura, Taiga Miyazaki, Shigeru Kohno
We herein report the first case of pulmonary metastasis with lepidic growth that originated from cholangiocarcinoma. A 77-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to exertional dyspnea and liver dysfunction. Computed tomography showed widespread infiltration and a ground-glass opacity in the lung and dilation of the intrahepatic bile duct. The pulmonary lesion progressed rapidly, and the patient died of respiratory failure. Cholangiocarcinoma and lepidic pulmonary metastasis were pathologically diagnosed by an autopsy...
2016: Internal Medicine
Xu Qian, Duc T M Nguyen, Yaojun Li, Jianxin Lyu, Edward A Graviss, Tony Y Hu
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for methods that can rapidly and accurately assess therapeutic responses in patients with active tuberculosis (TB) in order to predict treatment outcomes. Exposure to bacterial pathogens can rapidly activate the plasma contact system, triggering the release of bradykinin (BK) and its metabolite desArg(9)-bradykinin (DABK) to induce inflammation and innate immune responses. We hypothesized that serum BK and DABK levels might act as sensitive immune response signatures for changes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) burden, and therefore examined how serum levels of these markers corresponded with anti-TB therapy in a small cohort of active TB cases...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
James Benjamin Gleason, Basheer Tashtoush, Jinesh Mehta, Edward Savage, Felipe Martinez, Atul C Mehta
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis refers to Mycobacterium tuberculosis involving organs other than the lungs (eg, pleura, lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, abdomen, skin, joints and bones, or meninges). In non-HIV-endemic areas, where reactivation is the predominant mechanism of tuberculosis, pleural involvement occurs in 4% of cases. We present an extremely rare case of a 62-year-old immunocompetent patient with pleural tuberculosis confirmed by surgical pleural biopsies, who presented with a large mediastinal mass and evidence of pulmonary artery invasion on CT scanning and endobronchial ultrasonography imaging, highlighting a unique and malignant-like character of the disease...
October 2016: Chest
Kathrin Zürcher, Marcel Zwahlen, Marie Ballif, Hans L Rieder, Matthias Egger, Lukas Fenner
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) mortality declined in the northern hemisphere over the last 200 years, but peaked during the Russian (1889) and the Spanish (1918) influenza pandemics. We studied the impact of these two pandemics on TB mortality. METHODS: We retrieved historic data from mortality registers for the city of Bern and countrywide for Switzerland. We used Poisson regression models to quantify the excess pulmonary TB (PTB) mortality attributable to influenza...
2016: PloS One
Nicola Casali, Agnieszka Broda, Simon R Harris, Julian Parkhill, Timothy Brown, Francis Drobniewski
BACKGROUND: A large isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis outbreak centred on London, United Kingdom, has been ongoing since 1995. The aim of this study was to investigate the power and value of whole genome sequencing (WGS) to resolve the transmission network compared to current molecular strain typing approaches, including analysis of intra-host diversity within a specimen, across body sites, and over time, with identification of genetic factors underlying the epidemiological success of this cluster...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Grace Hofmann, Lutana Haan, Jeff Anderson
Esophageal balloons are used in the respiratory monitoring of critical care patients. After the esophageal pressure is measured, the corresponding pleural pressure in the thorax can be projected, enabling lung-thorax compliance to be partitioned into chest-wall compliance and lung compliance. The esophageal balloon allows determination of transpulmonary pressures and a correspondingly individually tailored approach to respiratory care, such as patient-specific titration of positive end-expiratory pressure for patients with extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome...
October 2016: Critical Care Nurse
M El Amrani, M Asserraji, A Bahadi, D El Kabbaj, M Benyahia
Chronic uremia puts patients at increased risk of infectious complications, in particular, tuberculosis. In this prospective study, we analyzed the clinical, paraclinical, and therapeutic features as well as outcome for all patients on chronic hemodialysis with tuberculosis from January 2010 through August 2012. Sixty-one patients were admitted for bacterial infections, 23% of them for tuberculosis. Fever was present in 71% of cases, and CRP elevated in all cases. The tuberculin skin test was positive in only 2 of 9 cases, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in 2 of 10 cases...
August 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Wolfgang Bernhard
Lung surfactant is a complex with a unique phospholipid and protein composition. Its specific function is to reduce surface tension at the pulmonary air-liquid interface. The underlying Young-Laplace equation, applying to the surface of any geometrical structure, is the more important the smaller its radii are. It therefore applies to the alveoli and bronchioli of mature lungs, as well as to the tubules and saccules of immature lungs. Surfactant comprises 80% phosphatidylcholine (PC), of which dipalmitoyl-PC, palmitoyl-myristoyl-PC and palmitoyl-palmitoleoyl-PC together are 75%...
September 29, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Faiza Mougari, Lorenzo Guglielmetti, Laurent Raskine, Isabelle Sermet-Gaudelus, Nicolas Veziris, Emmanuelle Cambau
Mycobacterium abscessus is an emerging mycobacteria that is responsible for lung diseases and healthcare-associated extrapulmonary infections. Recent findings support its taxonomic status as a single species comprising 3 subspecies designated abscessus, bolletii and massiliense. We performed a review of English-language publications investigating all three of these subspecies. Areas covered: Worldwide, human infections are often attributable to environmental contamination, although the isolation of M. abscessus in this reservoir is very rare...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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