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Amanda Bonalume Cordeiro de Morais, Carmen Alicia Daza Bolaños, Ana Carolina Alves, Cássia Yumi Ikuta, Gustavo Henrique Batista Lara, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Rogério Giuffrida, Fernando Paganini Listoni, Mateus de Souza Ribeiro Mioni, Rodrigo Garcia Motta, Shinji Takai, Márcio Garcia Ribeiro
Mycobacterium species and the virulence-associated proteins (vapA, vapB, and vapN genes) of Rhodococcus equi isolated from 330 lymph nodes of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) intended for human consumption were investigated. Thirty-six (10.9%) R. equi strains were isolated; 3.3% (n = 11/330) were from white-lipped peccary lymph nodes, and 7.6% (25/330) were from collared peccary lymph nodes. Among the 11 isolates of R. equi from the white-lipped peccaries, 90...
March 15, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Alain Bruno Tagne Nouemssi
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to represent an important public health challenge in the world and the USA, especially given its association with HIV infection and population migration. Cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis represents the most common extrapulmonary presentation of TB in the USA. Considerations for other causes of neck mass often contribute to delay in diagnosis. In this report, we describe the case of a 41-year-old man who presented with painful swelling of the neck and was diagnosed with tuberculous lymphadenitis, complicated by HIV therapy-associated immune reconstitution syndrome...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Ahmed A Aljohaney
OBJECTIVES: To determine the mortality rates and predictors among patients hospitalized with active tuberculosis (TB) at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) in Jeddah. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 291 active TB patients hospitalized in KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from December 2011 to December 2016. Medical records were collected and evaluated using a dedicated data extraction sheet. The records included demographics, clinical, radiological, laboratory, and drug resistance data...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Waiel Abusnina, Eric Yiman Auyoung, Mohammed Megri, Toni Pacioles
Small cell carcinomas (SCCs) are aggressive neoplasms commonly associated with a pulmonary origin. However, albeit rare, extrapulmonary SCC can occur in a variety of sites with an incidence in North America approximated to be 0.1% to 0.4%. Among these sites, approximately 10% of extrapulmonary SCC cases occur in the prostate and are associated with a poor mortality with a median survival of 10 months. Because of the rarity of the prostatic SCC, there is no formal treatment protocol. In this case report, we present a patient who was diagnosed with SCC in the prostate as primary origin...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Morgan Bowling, Tyler Schmutzler, Sarah Glick
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a frequent cause of childhood pneumonia, and extrapulmonary manifestations may be noted at the time of infection. While M. pneumoniae has long been associated with Stevens-Johnson syndrome, a separate diagnostic entity, Mycoplasma pneumoniae- induced rash and mucositis (MIRM), has recently been proposed to better characterize the rash and severe mucositis that some patients exhibit. A subset of patients with MIRM will have mucositis without skin rash. Physicians should recognize this clinical entity and be familiar with treatment options for MIRM...
March 2018: Clinical Case Reports
Chi Yang, Shaojun Zhang, Lan Yao, Lin Fan
Objective To investigate the diagnostic efficacy of an interferon-γ release assay, T-SPOT® . TB, for diagnosing active tuberculosis (TB) and to identify risk factors for false-negative results. Methods This retrospective study enrolled consecutive patients with active TB and with non-TB respiratory diseases to evaluate the risk factors for false-negative results when using the T-SPOT® . TB assay for the diagnosis of active TB. Patients with active TB were categorized as having confirmed pulmonary TB, clinically diagnosed pulmonary TB or extrapulmonary TB (EPTB)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Jovana M Pavlović, Aleksandar D Pavlovic, Milica V Bulajić, Dragica P Pešut
A previously known association of tuberculosis (TB), now a global emergency, with diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic disease of increasing prevalence worldwide, has resurfaced. DM is a recognised TB risk factor and M. tuberculosis infection usually disturbs glycoregulation. We aimed to estimate DM prevalence among TB patients and to analyse clinical and radiologic manifestations of TB in this group. The cross-sectional study included 1017 patients discharged with a TB diagnosis from a tertiary level facility in a five-year period...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Tara Pereiro, Antonio Golpe, Tamara Lourido, Luis Valdés
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Archivos de Bronconeumología
Ioannis E Vasileiadis, Christos A Goudis, Pinelopi T Giannakopoulou, Tong Liu
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disorder that primarily affects the lungs and is characterized not only by local pulmonary, but also by systemic inflammation which promotes the development of extrapulmonary and cardiovascular co-morbidities. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers) are widely used drugs in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, with growing evidence suggesting potential benefits in COPD patients. The purpose of this review is to describe the correlation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with COPD pathophysiology and to present the latest data regarding the potential role of RAS blockers in COPD...
March 9, 2018: COPD
Ketema Tafess, Teresa Kisi Beyen, Adugna Abera, Geremew Tasew, Shimelis Mekit, Solomon Sisay, Legesse Tadesse, Gilman K H Siu
Background: Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) has been one of the major strategies to combat the epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) globally. This study aimed to evaluate TB treatment outcomes between September 2004 and July 2014 under the DOTS program at one of the largest public hospitals in Ethiopia. Methods: A retrospective data of TB patients registered at Asella Teaching Hospital between September 2004 and July 2014 were obtained from hospital registry...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Paulo Ranaivomanana, Mihaja Raberahona, Sedera Rabarioelina, Ysé Borella, Alice Machado, Mamy J De Dieu Randria, Rivo A Rakotoarivelo, Voahangy Rasolofo, Niaina Rakotosamimanana
Background: The primary site of infection for Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) is the alveolar macrophages. However, Mtb can disseminate into other organs and causes extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). The diagnosis of EPTB is challenging due to relatively inaccessible infectious sites that may be paucibacillary and with clinical symptoms varying by site that are similar to those seen in other diseases. Hence, we sought to identify the expression patterns of a variety of cytokines that may be specific to EPTB from in vitro infections and in the plasma of TB patients...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
E Calle, L A González, C H Muñoz, D Jaramillo, A Vanegas, G Vásquez
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are at higher risk of developing opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis (TB), especially extrapulmonary forms like osteoarticular TB, compared to the general population. However, tuberculous sacroiliitis has been scarcely reported in these patients. We present a 34-year-old woman with SLE who developed articular tuberculosis simultaneously affecting the right sacroiliac joint and the left knee. The patient was successfully treated with antituberculosis therapy for nine months...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
Chamara Dalugama, Indika Bandara Gawarammana
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a major health problem in the developing world. Diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis is delayed because the presentation is nonspecific. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis can present with various hematological manifestations, including pancytopenia. Pancytopenia could be due to hypersplenism, maturation arrest, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, or infiltration of the bone marrow by caseating or noncaseating granulomas causing reversible or irreversible fibrosis...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Phunsup Wongsurakiat, Sirapat Tulatamakit
Background We wanted to determine the impact of combined Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS) and a spot serum procalcitonin (PCT)-guided protocol to shorten the duration of antibiotic treatment in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), mainly caused by nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB). Methods Patients with VAP who received appropriate antibiotics for 7 days, temperature ⩽ 37.8°C, without shock, and CPIS ⩽ 6 were allocated to the PCT group or conventional group according to the treating physicians' decisions...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
Jinjing Tan, Xiaoguang Wu, Suting Chen, Meng Gu, Hairong Huang, Wentao Yue
BACKGROUND: Serological antibodies tests for tuberculosis (TB) are widely used in developing countries. They appear to have some advantages- faster, simple and could be used for extrapulmonary TB. However, most of current commercial TB serological tests are failed to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Improved serological biomarkers were essential. In this study, we present an approach using peptide array to discover new immunodiagnostic biomarkers based on immunodominant epitopes of TB antigens...
March 1, 2018: BMC Immunology
Bharat Bajantri, Binita Sapkota, Sindhaghatta Venkatram
BACKGROUND Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening disorder resulting in hemorrhage into the lungs due to a variety of reasons. The underlying etiology for DAH is broadly divided into immune and non-immune mediated causes. Rheumatological disorders account for a small number of cases. Although hemoptysis is one of the alarming symptoms of DAH, it is absent in a third of the cases. Diagnosis often requires a conglomerate of history, clinical, and laboratory investigation and radiological studies...
February 28, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Jessica Mak, Ayman Al Habeeb, Mona Al Kalabi, Afsaneh Alavi
Blastomyces dermatitidis is typically contracted through inhalation of the dimorphic conidia, resulting in pulmonary infection as well as extrapulmonary disease through hematogenous spread. Blastomycosis is considered one of the great mimickers in medicine, with verrucous cutaneous blastomycosis resembling skin malignancy and B dermatitidis pulmonary infections often confused with lung cancer. Cutaneous blastomycosis can also often mimic pyoderma gangrenosum and should be considered in the differential diagnosis in any suspected case...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
Devasahayam J Christopher, Sridevi Dinakaran, Richa Gupta, Prince James, Barney Isaac, Balamugesh Thangakunam
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) accounts for ~15% of all TB patients, and TB pleural effusion is the second most common site of EPTB. The diagnosis of pleural TB is challenging due to the pauci-bacillary nature of the disease. Histopathology of thoracoscopically obtained pleural biopsy provides the highest diagnostic yield. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) is a PCR test that can identify both Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin resistance. Currently, there is a lack of clarity regarding the value of Xpert on pleural tissue...
February 27, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Pedro Leme Silva, Fernanda Ferreira Cruz, Cynthia Dos Santos Samary, Lillian Moraes, Raquel Ferreira de Magalhães, Marcos Vinicius de S Fernandes, Rebeca Bose, Vitor B Pelegati, Hernandes F Carvalho, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Joshua Satalin, Louis Gatto, Penny Andrews, Nader Habashi, Gary Nieman, Patricia R M Rocco
OBJECTIVES: To compare a time-controlled adaptive ventilation strategy, set in airway pressure release ventilation mode, versus a protective mechanical ventilation strategy in pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome with similar mechanical impairment. DESIGN: Animal study. SETTING: Laboratory investigation. SUBJECTS: Forty-two Wistar rats. INTERVENTIONS: Pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome and extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome were induced by instillation of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide intratracheally or intraperitoneally, respectively...
February 26, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Azar Dokht Khosravi, Hossein Meghdadi, Ata A Ghadiri, Ameneh Alami, Amir Hossein Sina, Mehdi Mirsaeidi
The aim of this study was to analyze mutations occurring in the rpoB gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from clinical samples of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). Seventy formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples and fresh tissue samples from confirmed EPTB cases were analyzed. Nested PCR based on the rpoB gene was performed on the extracted DNAs, combined with cloning and subsequent sequencing. Sixty-seven (95.7%) samples were positive for nester PCR. Sequence analysis of the 81 bp region of the rpoB gene demonstrated mutations in 41 (61...
March 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
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