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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531231/utility-of-th1-cell-immune-responses-for-distinguishing-active-tuberculosis-from-non-active-tuberculosis-a-case-control-study
#1
Lifan Zhang, Xinhe Cheng, Sainan Bian, Yanhua Song, Qiang Li, Mengqiu Gao, Yueqiu Zhang, Xiaochun Shi, Xiaoqing Liu
Currently available Interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) cannot reliably differentiate active TB (ATB) from non-active TB (non-ATB). A study was performed to evaluate the value of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) specific Th1 cell immune responses which test IFN-γ and IL-2 simultaneous for differentiating ATB from non-ATB. Forty-nine newly diagnosed inpatients with ATB (26 pulmonary TB and 23 extrapulmonary TB) were enrolled as the ATB group. Forty-five volunteers with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and twenty with evidence of previous TB were enrolled during the same period as the non-ATB group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530443/association-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-the-hepcidin-promoter-gene-with-susceptibility-to-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#2
Li Liang, Huijuan Liu, Jun Yue, Li-Rong Liu, Min Han, Liu-Lin Luo, Yan-Lin Zhao, Heping Xiao
BACKGROUND: Hepcidin is a 25-amino acid peptide produced by the liver in response to inflammation and iron overload. It is encoded by the hepcidin antimicrobial peptide (HAMP) gene and plays a key role in innate immunity. Previous studies have reported that a -582 A>G polymorphism in the HAMP promoter (HAMP-P) affects hepcidin expression, causing susceptibility to various bacterial and viral pathogens. However, it is not known whether the HAMP-P -582 A>G polymorphism is associated with tuberculosis (TB) susceptibility...
May 22, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526681/adoptive-transfer-of-phosphoantigen-specific-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-subset-attenuates-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-nonhuman-primates
#3
Arwa Qaqish, Dan Huang, Crystal Y Chen, Zhuoran Zhang, Richard Wang, Shengpu Li, Enzhuoa Yang, Yang Lu, Michelle H Larsen, William R Jacobs, Lixia Qian, James Frencher, Ling Shen, Zheng W Chen
The dominant Vγ2Vδ2 T cell subset recognizes phosphoantigen and exists only in humans and nonhuman primates. Despite the discovery of γδ T cells >30 y ago, a proof-of-concept study has not been done to prove the principle that the Vγ2Vδ2 T cell subset is protective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other infections. In this study, we used an adoptive cell-transfer strategy to define the protective role of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in a primate tuberculosis (TB) model. Vγ2Vδ2 T cells for adoptive transfer displayed central/effector memory and mounted effector functions, including the production of anti-M...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523369/-new-strategies-and-technologies-for-ablation-of-atrial-fibrillation-where-do-we-go
#4
A Metzner, J Riedl, K-H Kuck
Catheter-based ablation is an established treatment option for patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF). Pulmonary vein isolation is the established cornerstone of all ablation strategies. However, the rate of electrical reconduction of previously isolated pulmonary veins is high and associated with recurrence of AF. Novel and innovative mapping and ablation systems are being developed or are under clinical evaluation aiming for higher durability of pulmonary vein isolation. Additional ablation strategies for patients with recurrence of AF despite persistent isolation of the pulmonary veins are under evaluation...
May 18, 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523302/the-use-of-ebus-tbna-and-rose-in-the-diagnosis-of-lung-cancer
#5
Mărioara Şimon, Bogdan Pop, Iuliana Lăcrămioara Toma, Aletta Kinga Vallasek, Ioan Şimon
Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive method for diagnosing and staging of lung cancer. EBUS-TBNA obtained small specimens. Rapid on-site examination (ROSE) is a rapid, real-time examination method. The aim of our study is to evaluate the impact of ROSE on adequate specimen sampling, rapid results and high diagnostic rate. We present the experience of the Department of Bronchology, "Leon Daniello" Clinic of Pulmonology, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, with EBUS-TBNA as a tool for diagnostic of adenopathies of unknown etiology...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522316/mycobacteriological-characteristics-and-treatment-outcomes-in-extrapulmonary-mycobacterium-abscessus-complex-infection
#6
Suk Hyeon Jeong, Su-Young Kim, Hee Jae Huh, Chang-Seok Ki, Nam Yong Lee, Cheol-In Kang, Doo Ryeon Chung, Kyong Ran Peck, Sung Jae Shin, Won-Jung Koh
OBJECTIVES: Differentiation between Mycobacterium abscessus and M. massiliense and determination of the presence of inducible resistance to macrolide antibiotics are important factors in the management of patients with M. abscessus complex (MABC) infection. Unlike pulmonary MABC infection, little information on extrapulmonary MABC infection is available. METHODS: We performed molecular identification of clinical isolates and assessed the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of 20 consecutive patients with extrapulmonary MABC infections...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521313/amrubicin-monotherapy-for-patients-with-platinum-pretreated-non-gastrointestinal-non-pancreatic-extrapulmonary-neuroendocrine-carcinoma
#7
Takahiro Ebata, Tatsunori Shimoi, Tsukasa Ishiwata, Shunichiro Iwasawa, Seiko Bun, Mayu Yunokawa, Kan Yonemori, Yuichi Takiguchi, Kenji Tamura
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of amrubicin therapy for patients with non-gastrointestinal (GI) non-pancreatic extrapulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma (EP-NEC). METHODS: The medical records of patients from the 2 participating institutions were retrospectively reviewed. The eligibility criteria were: patients with non-GI non-pancreatic EP-NEC who received amrubicin monotherapy after platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients in whom the platinum-free interval (interval between the last day of platinum administration and the first subsequent documentation of disease progression) was 90 days or longer were classified into the platinum-sensitive group...
May 19, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513865/diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-hiv-co-infected-individuals-current-status-challenges-and-opportunities-for-the-future
#8
REVIEW
P Méndez-Samperio
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most important causes of death amongst people co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The diagnosis of TB remains challenging in HIV co-infected individuals, due to a high frequency of smear-negative disease and high rates of extrapulmonary TB. Accurate, ease of use, and rapid diagnosis of active TB is critical to the World Health Organization (WHO) End TB Strategy by 2050. Traditional laboratory techniques do not provide rapid and accurate results to effectively manage HIV co-infected patients...
May 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503236/impact-of-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-on-effects-of-targeted-therapy-for-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-patients-with-extrapulmonary-metastasis
#9
Jun Teishima, Shinya Ohara, Kousuke Sadahide, Shinsuke Fujii, Hiroyuki Kitano, Kohei Kobatake, Shunsuke Shinmei, Keisuke Hieda, Shogo Inoue, Tetsutaro Hayashi, Koji Mita, Akio Matsubara
INTRODUCTION: The aim of our present study was to investigate the impact of the pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) on the antitumour effects of targeted agents in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). METHODS: The NLRs in 283 cases of molecular targeted therapy for mRCC were measured before starting the prescription of the molecular targeted agent. The significance of pretreatment NLR on the site of metastatic organs and on progression-free survival (PFS) in each case was analyzed...
May 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500803/patients-delay-in-seeking-health-care-for-tuberculosis-diagnosis-in-east-gojjam-zone-northwest-ethiopia
#10
Mihret Asres, Molla Gedefaw, Amlsha Kahsay, Yemane Weldu
AbstractPatients' delay in seeking diagnosis is a major problem in the management of tuberculosis (TB). Relative to the burden of TB, there is lack of data on the magnitude of delays in seeking care and why patients fail to seek early care at health facilities in Ethiopia. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to July 2013 in East Gojjam Zone, Amhara, Ethiopia, to assess patients' delays and associated factors in TB patients. Using simple random sampling, 605 (327 male and 278 female) participants were recruited...
May 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495415/rhinovirus-from-bench-to-bedside
#11
REVIEW
Kelvin K W To, Cyril C Y Yip, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Rhinovirus has been neglected in the past because it was generally perceived as a respiratory virus only capable of causing mild common cold. Contemporary epidemiological studies using molecular assays have shown that rhinovirus is frequently detected in adult and pediatric patients with upper or lower respiratory tract infections. Severe pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications are increasingly recognized. Contrary to popular belief, some rhinoviruses can actually replicate well at 37 °C and infect the lower airway in humans...
May 8, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492778/sociodemographic-clinical-and-epidemiological-aspects-of-tuberculosis-treatment-abandonment-in-pernambuco-brazil-2001-2014
#12
Marcelo Luiz Medeiros Soares, Nathália Alves Castro do Amaral, Amanda Correia Paes Zacarias, Leila Karina de Novaes Pires Ribeiro
OBJECTIVE: to describe abandonment rates according to sociodemographic, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of new tuberculosis cases being treated in Pernambuco State, Brazil. METHODS: this is a descriptive ecological study using data from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases from 2001 to 2014; the abandonment rate was calculated by the Regional Administration on Health (GERES). RESULTS: of the 57,015 new cases, 6,474 (11...
April 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492125/influence-of-hiv-and-other-risk-factors-on-tuberculosis
#13
Sana Mahtab, David Coetzee
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) notification in South Africa has increased six-fold over the past two decades, mainly because of the HIV epidemic. OBJECTIVES: To describe the sociodemographic and outcome characteristics of TB patients, and to identify risk factors associated with TB treatment outcomes stratified by HIV status. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was used to analyse data from the Cape Town Metro East geographical service area (GSA) electronic TB register (ETR...
April 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489758/analysis-of-radioiodine-therapy-and-prognostic-factors-of-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-patients-with-pulmonary-metastasis-an-8-year-retrospective-study
#14
Renfei Wang, Yueqian Zhang, Jian Tan, Guizhi Zhang, Ruiguo Zhang, Wei Zheng, Yajing He
To assess the efficacy of radioiodine therapy (RIT) and investigate the prognostic factors for patients with pulmonary metastasis secondary to differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) through a retrospective study. A total of 80 patients with radioactive iodine-131 (I)-avid pulmonary metastasis from DTC treated with I from 2007 to 2014 at our institution entered the study. Treatment response was mainly measured by two parameters: serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels and post-therapeutic I whole-body scan (WBS). Treatment variables were assessed for statistical significance using the univariate and multivariate analyses...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487789/abdominopelvic-tuberculosis-with-a-frozen-section-analysis-consistent-with-ovarian-cancer
#15
Agrimaldo Martins-Filho, Paula Carolina Arvelos Crispim, Renata Margarida Etchebehere, Cristina da Cunha Hueb Barata de Oliveira, Eddie Fernando Candido Murta, Rosekeila Simões Nomelini
Pelvic tuberculosis is a type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The disease is accompanied by clinical and laboratory findings which may be unspecific and present aspects of other diseases, including gynecological malignancies. In this report, the authors presented a case of pelvic tuberculosis associated with peritoneal tuberculosis in a young woman exhibiting imaging and tumor markers consistent with ovarian neoplasm. An intraoperative frozen section analysis detected atypical cells that were suggestive of ovarian borderline or malignant epithelial neoplasia...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487695/regulatory-t-cells-and-pro-inflammatory-responses-predominate-in-children-with-tuberculosis
#16
Elizabeth Whittaker, Mark Nicol, Heather J Zar, Beate Kampmann
BACKGROUND: Following infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), children are more susceptible to develop disease particularly extrapulmonary disease than adults. The exact mechanisms required for containment of M.tb are not known, but would be important to identify correlates of protection. OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively analyze key immune responses to mycobacteria between HIV-negative children with extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) compared to children with pulmonary TB (PTB) or healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486756/complete-heart-block-complicating-the-acute-phase-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-bronchiolitis
#17
Ageliki A Karatza, Maria Kiaffas, Spyros Rammos
Respiratory syncytial virus is the most common pathogen causing lower respiratory tract infection in infants. In recent years, the importance of extrapulmonary complications and longterm sequelae including those involving the cardiovascular system has become apparent. We report on a 10 month old infant with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis, the acute phase of which was complicated by irreversible complete heart block, which was managed conservatively.
May 9, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485368/threading-an-elephant-through-the-eye-of-a-needle-where-are-platelets-made
#18
Ian Johnston, Vincent Hayes, Mortimer Poncz
There has been a long-standing controversy of whether megakaryocytes release platelets in the marrow or travel to the lungs and release platelets there. Using two-photon electron microscopy and orthotopic lung transplantation, Lefrançais et al. now document that platelet release occurs physiologically in the lungs of mice from extrapulmonary megakaryocytes and that this release accounts for ∼50% of total platelet production.
May 9, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485315/assessment-of-1-year-outcomes-in-survivors-of-severe-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-receiving-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-or-mechanical-ventilation-a-prospective-observational-study
#19
Zhi-Yong Wang, Tong Li, Chun-Ting Wang, Lei Xu, Xin-Jing Gao
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term outcomes of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). This study aimed to investigate the 1-year outcomes of these patients or patients receiving mechanical ventilation (MV) and compare their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) to the general population. METHODS: Severe ARDS survivors admitted to two ICUs in China between January 2012 and January 2014 were enrolled...
May 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483608/safety-and-effectiveness-of-clofazimine-for-primary-and-refractory-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infection
#20
Stacey L Martiniano, Brandie D Wagner, Adrah Levin, Jerry A Nick, Scott D Sagel, Charles L Daley
BACKGROUND: Clofazimine is an antimicrobial agent that has activity in vitro against mycobacteria. Increasingly, it has been used for the treatment of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), despite limited data supporting use in this setting. The objective of this study was to evaluate safety, tolerability, and clinical outcomes associated with clofazimine in patients with NTM infection. METHODS: Observational-cohort study of clofazimine used for pediatric and adult cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF patients with pulmonary and extrapulmonary NTM infection as part of a multidrug regimen from 2006-2014...
May 5, 2017: Chest
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