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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223486/serum-borne-bioactivity-caused-by-pulmonary-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes-induces-neuroinflammation-via-blood-brain-barrier-impairment
#1
Mario J Aragon, Lauren Topper, Christina R Tyler, Bethany Sanchez, Katherine Zychowski, Tamara Young, Guy Herbert, Pamela Hall, Aaron Erdely, Tracy Eye, Lindsey Bishop, Samantha A Saunders, Pretal P Muldoon, Andrew K Ottens, Matthew J Campen
Pulmonary exposure to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) causes indirect systemic inflammation through unknown pathways. MWCNTs translocate only minimally from the lungs into the systemic circulation, suggesting that extrapulmonary toxicity may be caused indirectly by lung-derived factors entering the circulation. To assess a role for MWCNT-induced circulating factors in driving neuroinflammatory outcomes, mice were acutely exposed to MWCNTs (10 or 40 µg/mouse) via oropharyngeal aspiration. At 4 h after MWCNT exposure, broad disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was observed across the capillary bed with the small molecule fluorescein, concomitant with reactive astrocytosis...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217593/validity-of-tuberculous-pleuritis-diagnosed-in-a-resource-constrained-setting-in-dindigul-district-of-tamil-nadu
#2
Baranidharan Chennaiyan, Arun N Bhatt, Roopa Kancherla, Cijoy K Kuriakose, Anand Vimal Dev, George A Philip
CONTEXT: Majority of the Indians live in rural areas where resource constrained settings depend on cheaper and less invasive tests to diagnose extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The decline in prevalence of TB in the country could affect the validity of the diagnosis. The aim was to measure validity of the pleural fluid study of proteins, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and cell counts in diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a 300 bedded secondary care hospital in rural Tamil Nadu...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212163/multiple-organ-dysfunction-in-children-mechanically-ventilated-for-acute-respiratory-failure
#3
Scott L Weiss, Lisa A Asaro, Heidi R Flori, Geoffrey L Allen, David Wypij, Martha A Q Curley
OBJECTIVES: The impact of extrapulmonary organ dysfunction, independent from sepsis and lung injury severity, on outcomes in pediatric acute respiratory failure is unclear. We sought to determine the frequency, timing, and risk factors for extrapulmonary organ dysfunction and the independent association of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome with outcomes in pediatric acute respiratory failure. DESIGN: Secondary observational analysis of the Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure cluster-randomized prospective clinical trial conducted between 2009 and 2013...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207938/comparison-of-clinical-and-pathological-features-of-lung-lesions-of-systemic-igg4-related-disease-and-idiopathic-multicentric-castleman-s-disease
#4
Yasuhiro Terasaki, Shinichro Ikushima, Shoko Matsui, Akira Hebisawa, Yasunori Ichimura, Shinyu Izumi, Masuo Ujita, Machiko Arita, Keisuke Tomii, Youko Komase, Isoko Owan, Tetsuji Kawamura, Yasuo Matsuzawa, Miho Murakami, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Hiroshi Kimura, Masashi Bando, Norihiro Nishimoto, Yoshinori Kawabata, Yuh Fukuda, Takashi Ogura
AIMS: The lung lesion (IgG4-L) of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a condition that occurs together with IgG4-RD and often mimics the lung lesion (iMCD-L) of idiopathic multicentric Castleman's disease (iMCD). Because no clinical and pathological studies had previously compared features of these diseases, we undertook this comparison with clinical and histological data. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nine patients had IgG4-L (high levels of serum IgG4 and of IgG4(+) cells in lung specimens; typical extrapulmonary manifestations)...
February 16, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203124/when-diarrhea-can-become-deadly-legionnaires-disease-complicated-by-bowel-obstruction
#5
Wesley Prichard, Laurel Fick
Legionnaires' disease may present with a broad spectrum of illnesses and nonspecific extrapulmonary symptoms including diarrhea. To our knowledge, bowel obstruction has not been reported as a manifestation of Legionella. We present a unique case of Legionnaires' disease contributing to a small bowel obstruction.
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202343/endobronchial-brachytherapy-for-metastasis-from-extrapulmonary-malignancies-as-an-effective-treatment-for-palliation-of-symptoms
#6
E Donovan, E Timotin, T Farrell, B Donde, S Puksa, R Sur
PURPOSE: Endobronchial metastasis (EBM) originating from primary cancers outside the lung is rare. External beam radiotherapy is often attempted for control of symptoms with variable effectiveness and retreatment is challenging if symptoms recur. There is limited documentation of high-dose-rate brachytherapy for EBM in the literature. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A prospective database was created from 2006 to 2015. Patients with EBM who received high-dose-rate brachytherapy were included...
February 12, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197023/genitourinary-sarcoidosis-an-essential-review-for-the-practicing-clinician
#7
REVIEW
Norman L Block, Bruce R Kava
INTRODUCTION: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease that commonly involves the lungs, but may also present with extrapulmonary manifestations. Genitourinary (GU) tract involvement has been traditionally thought to be rare, but that view may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease due to the often, silent presentation thereof. METHODS: The literature pertaining to sarcoidosis from the general systemic point of view, etiology and therapy and with regard to specific organs was reviewed by identifying key words in a PubMed search...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190872/upper-airway-obstruction-requiring-emergent-tracheostomy-secondary-to-laryngeal-sarcoidosis-a-case-report
#8
Changwan Ryu, Erica L Herzog, Hongyi Pan, Robert Homer, Mridu Gulati
BACKGROUND Laryngeal sarcoidosis is a rare extrapulmonary manifestation of sarcoidosis, accounting for 0.33-2.1% of cases. A life-threatening complication of laryngeal sarcoidosis is upper airway obstruction. In this report we describe our experience in the acute and chronic care of a patient who required an emergent tracheostomy, with the aim to provide further insight into this difficult to manage disease. CASE REPORT A 37-year-old African American female with a 10-year history of stage 1 sarcoidosis presented with severe dyspnea...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187753/survival-of-people-living-with-hiv-who-defaulted-from-tuberculosis-treatment-in-a-cohort-recife-brazil
#9
R Cunha, M Maruza, U R Montarroyos, I Coimbra, D de B Miranda-Filho, M de F Albuquerque, H R Lacerda, Raa Ximenes
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a serious public health problem worldwide. It is the leading cause of death amongst people living with HIV, and default from tuberculosis (TB) treatment in people living with HIV increases the probability of death. The aim of this study was to estimate the survival probability of people living with HIV who default treatment for TB compared to those who complete the treatment. METHODS: This was a longitudinal cohort study of people living with HIV, from June 2007 to December 2013 with two components: a retrospective (for those who started tuberculosis treatment before 2013 for whom failure (death) or censoring occurred before 2013), and prospective (those who started tuberculosis treatment at any time between 2007 and June 2013 and for whom death or censoring occurred after the beginning of 2013), at two referral hospitals for people living with HIV (Correia Picanço Hospital - HCP and at Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz - HUOC), in Recife/PE...
February 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185617/mycobacterium-kansasii
#10
James C Johnston, Leslie Chiang, Kevin Elwood
The incidence of Mycobacterium kansasii varies widely over time and by region, but this organism remains one of the most clinically relevant isolated species of nontuberculous mycobacteria. In contrast to other common nontuberculous mycobacteria, M. kansasii is infrequently isolated from natural water sources or soil. The major reservoir appears to be tap water. Infection is likely acquired through the aerosol route, with low infectivity in regions of endemicity. Human-to-human transmission is thought not to occur...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182705/low-implementation-of-xpert-mtb-rif-among-hiv-tb-co-infected-adults-in-the-international-epidemiologic-databases-to-evaluate-aids-iedea-program
#11
Kate Clouse, Meridith Blevins, Mary Lou Lindegren, Marcel Yotebieng, Dung Thi Nguyen, Alfred Omondi, Denna Michael, Djimon Marcel Zannou, Gabriela Carriquiry, April Pettit
OBJECTIVE: Xpert MTB/RIF is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the initial tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic test in individuals suspected of HIV-associated TB. We sought to evaluate field implementation of Xpert among a cohort of HIV/TB co-infected individuals, including availability, utilization and outcomes. DESIGN: Observational cohort study (patient-level data) and cross-sectional study (site-level Xpert availability data). METHODS: Data were collected at 30 participating International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) sites in 18 countries from January 2012-January 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178199/combined-use-of-delamanid-and-bedaquiline-to-treat-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Giovanni Battista Migliori, Emanuele Pontali, Giovanni Sotgiu, Rosella Centis, Lia D'Ambrosio, Simon Tiberi, Marina Tadolini, Susanna Esposito
The new drugs delamanid and bedaquiline are increasingly being used to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). The World Health Organization, based on lack of evidence, recommends their use under specific conditions and not in combination. No systematic review has yet evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of delamanid and bedaquiline used in combination. A search of peer-reviewed, scientific evidence was carried out, aimed at evaluating the efficacy/effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of delamanid and bedaquiline-containing regimens in individuals with pulmonary/extrapulmonary disease, which were bacteriologically confirmed as M/XDR-TB...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166920/tuberculosis-the-great-imitator-a-usual-disease-with-unusual-presentations
#13
Sujata Jetley, Zeeba S Jairajpuri, Mukta Pujani, Sabina Khan, Safia Rana
BACKGROUND: A number of infectious diseases have been referred to by the phrase 'The Great Imitator', of which the oldest is syphilis; others include Lyme disease, nocardiosis, etc. Tuberculosis has been described as the second great imitator as it can imitate various other disease processes. An awareness of the atypical clinical manifestations of tuberculosis is important, especially in regions where tuberculosis continues to be a major public health problem, such as India. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) constitutes about 15-20% of all cases of tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients and accounts for more than 50% of the cases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166913/novel-risk-factors-and-early-detection-of-anti-tubercular-treatment-induced-liver-injury-looking-beyond-american-thoracic-society-guidelines
#14
Muzamil Latief, Waseem Raja Dar, Najeebullah Sofi, Imtiyaz Ahmad Dar, Basharat Kasana, Moomin Hussain, Faheem Arshad, Bashir Ahmad Shah, Parvaiz Ahmad Koul
INTRODUCTION: ATT remains the standard treatment for tuberculosis. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has been a long-standing concern in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) infection. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the occurrence and risk factors of DILI in patients on ATT by regular clinical and biochemical monitoring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 200 patients, in whom ATT was started, were enrolled in the study. None of the patients with established risk factor for DILI as recognized by ATS guidelines was included in our study population...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166377/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-transplant-recipients-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Moises A Huaman, Robert Brawley, David Ashkin
Transplant recipients are at increased risk of tuberculosis (TB). We describe a case of pulmonary and vertebral multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in a kidney transplant patient who required neurosurgical intervention and unfortunately developed fatal nosocomial complications. Thirteen transplant recipients with MDR-TB were previously reported in the literature (1 hematopoietic cell transplant, 1 heart transplant, 1 lung transplant, 1 heart-lung ransplant, and 9 kidney transplant recipients). Extrapulmonary disease, severe treatment complications, and deaths were observed in patients who developed MDR-TB after transplantation...
February 6, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165320/cutaneous-cryptococcosis-in-a-patient-taking-fingolimod-for-multiple-sclerosis-here-come-the-opportunistic-infections
#16
Adam F Carpenter, Shikha J Goodwin, Peter F Bornstein, Andrew J Larson, Christine K Markus
BACKGROUND: Fingolimod is an oral disease-modifying therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, which acts by sequestering lymphocytes within lymph nodes. OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of extrapulmonary cryptococcosis in a patient taking fingolimod. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 47-year-old man developed a non-healing skin lesion approximately 16 months after starting treatment with fingolimod. Biopsy revealed cryptococcosis...
February 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164036/primary-extrapulmonary-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-an-immunocompetent-child-presenting-with-pleural-effusion
#17
Sankalp Yadav, Gautam Rawal
The developing countries are having a number of public health issues. The situation in these resource-limited countries is scary due to the huge burden of infectious diseases like tuberculosis (TB). The latest reports from the WHO shows a high number of drug resistant cases even in the pediatric age groups. Also, the lack of suspicion of drug resistant TB (DR-TB) in the pediatric cases, especially in the absence of a past or family history may lead to delay in diagnosis and flaring-up of the disease. We herein present the very first case of the primary multidrug-resistant TB in an HIV negative child who presented with the left sided pleural effusion...
January 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159178/legionnaire-s-disease-a-clinical-diagnostic-approach
#18
REVIEW
Burke A Cunha, Cheston B Cunha
Legionnaire's disease is a nonzoonotic atypical pneumonia caused by Legionella sp that occurs sporadically or in outbreaks. Legionnaire's disease pneumonia is accompanied by several extrapulmonary clinical and laboratory findings. Rather than testing all pneumonias for Legionnaire's disease, the clinical challenge is to recognize the diagnostic significance of Legionnaire's disease's. The pretest probability of Legionnaire's disease is increased if several characteristic extrapulmonary findings are present...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159174/antimicrobial-therapy-for-legionnaire-s-disease-antibiotic-stewardship-implications
#19
REVIEW
Cheston B Cunha, Burke A Cunha
Legionnaire's disease is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Although no single clinical feature is diagnostic, if characteristic extrapulmonary findings are present a presumptive clinical syndromic diagnosis is possible. Depending on geographic location, season, and physician awareness, Legionnaire's disease may be included in the differential diagnosis of CAP. Some antibiotics effective against Legionella sp are also effective in treating the typical bacterial causes of CAP. From an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) perspective, monotherapy is preferred to double-drug therapy...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148803/m-gene-reassortment-in-h9n2-influenza-virus-promotes-early-infection-and-replication-contribution-to-rising-virus-prevalence-in-chickens-in-china
#20
Juan Pu, Honglei Sun, Yi Qu, Chenxi Wang, Weihua Gao, Junda Zhu, Yipeng Sun, Yuhai Bi, Yinhua Huang, Kin-Chow Chang, Jie Cui, Jinhua Liu
: Segment reassortment and base mutagenesis of influenza A viruses are the primary routes to the rapid evolution of high fitness virus genotypes. We recently described a predominant G57 genotype of avian H9N2 viruses that caused country-wide outbreaks in chickens in China during 2010-2013 which led to the zoonotic emergence of H7N9 viruses. One of the key features of the G57 genotype is the substitution of the earlier BJ/94-like M gene with the G1-like M gene of quail origin. We report here on the functional significance of the G1-like M gene in H9N2 viruses in conferring increased infection severity and infectivity in primary chicken embryonic fibroblasts and chickens...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
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