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Mobile elements

Zhuofeng Yu, Pinjing He, Liming Shao, Hua Zhang, Fan Lü
Since municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill harbours miscellaneous wastes, pollutants and microorganisms, it gradually becomes a huge potential reservoir for breeding antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of ARGs associated with various mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in MSW landfill leachates. The relationship of ARGs with leachate characteristics was also studied to explore the influence of landfill age. Seven sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine and sulfaquinoxaline), three encoded ARGs (sul-I, sul-II and sul-III) and four types of MGEs (plasmids, transposons, integrons and insertion sequences) were quantified in leachates with landfill ages ranging from 3 months-6 years...
October 18, 2016: Water Research
Jinhu Huang, Jiale Ma, Kexin Shang, Xiao Hu, Yuan Liang, Daiwei Li, Zuowei Wu, Lei Dai, Li Chen, Liping Wang
Streptococcus suis is a previously neglected, newly emerging multidrug-resistant zoonotic pathogen. Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) play a key role in intra- and interspecies horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants. Although, previous studies showed the presence of several MGEs, a comprehensive analysis of AMR-associated mobilome as well as their interaction and evolution has not been performed. In this study, we presented the AMR-associated mobilome and their insertion hotspots in S...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
T Koiava, D Gonçalves, J Palmeira, K Arobelidze, M Tediashvili, L Akhvlediani, H Ferreira
Research describing the epidemiology of antibiotic resistant microbes is vital to the proactive development of new antimicrobial agents. In the last years, CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have emerged worldwide and have replaced classical TEM and SHV-type ESBLs in many countries. CTX-M-15 is currently the most frequent, with a pandemic distribution, and its rapid spread is facilitated by incorporation of resistance genes in mobile genetic elements. The ESBL is efficacious in Gram-negative bacteria and thus closely associated with nosocomial environments, often colonizing the intestines, particularly in older and dependent patients...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Sayani Mitra, Silke Schicktanz
BACKGROUND: During a commercial surrogacy arrangement, the event of embryo transfer can be seen as the formal starting point of the arrangement. However, it is common for surrogates to undergo a failed attempt at pregnancy conception or missed conception after an embryo transfer. This paper attempts to argue that such failed attempts can be understood as a loss. It aims to reconstruct the experiences of loss and grief of the surrogates and the intended parents as a consequence of their collective failure to conceive a surrogate pregnancy...
September 19, 2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
Pierre Dehoux, Jean Christophe Marvaud, Amr Abouelleil, Ashlee M Earl, Thierry Lambert, Catherine Dauga
BACKGROUND: Clostridium bolteae and Clostridium clostridioforme, previously included in the complex C. clostridioforme in the group Clostridium XIVa, remain difficult to distinguish by phenotypic methods. These bacteria, prevailing in the human intestinal microbiota, are opportunistic pathogens with various drug susceptibility patterns. In order to better characterize the two species and to obtain information on their antibiotic resistance genes, we analyzed the genomes of six strains of C...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Ranjan Basak, Naveen Kumar Nair, Indraneel Mittra
There is extensive literature to show that nucleic acids can be taken up by cells under experimental conditions and that foetal DNA can be detected in maternal tissues. The uptaken DNA can integrate into host cell genomes and can be transcribed and translated into proteins. They can also cause chromosomal damage and karyotype alterations. Cell-free nucleic acids (cfNAs)-based non-invasive DNA diagnostic techniques are being extensively researched in the field of cancer with the potential to advance new prognostic parameters and direct treatment decisions...
October 12, 2016: Mutation Research
Michael R Gillings, Ian T Paulsen, Sasha G Tetu
Antibiotic resistance arises as a consequence of complex interactions among genes, mobile elements, and their bacterial hosts, coupled with the intense selection pressures imposed by humans in an attempt to control bacterial growth. Understanding the evolution of resistance requires an understanding of interacting cellular and genetic components. Here, we review how DNA analysis has helped reconstruct the origins of the mosaic, multiresistant mobile elements that have spread through pathogens in the last 60 years...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Johan Kreuger, Paul O'Callaghan
Here we report on a technical difficulty we encountered while optimizing genotyping strategies to identify mice derived from Exoc3l2tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi embryonic stem cells obtained from the Knockout Mouse Project Repository. The Exoc3l2tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi construct encodes a "knockout-first" design with loxP sites that confer conditional potential (KO1st). We designed primers that targeted wild-type sequences flanking the most downstream element of the construct, an 80 base pair synthetic loxP region, which BLAST alignment analysis reveals is an element common to over 10,000 conditional gene-targeting mouse models...
2016: PloS One
Piers Mook, Jacquelyn McCormick, Manpreet Bains, Lauren A Cowley, Marie A Chattaway, Claire Jenkins, Amy Mikhail, Gwenda Hughes, Richard Elson, Martin Day, Rohini Manuel, Jayshree Dave, Nigel Field, Gauri Godbole, Timothy Dallman, Paul Crook
In England in 2015, Shigella sonnei isolates from men who have sex with men produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases and exhibited macrolide resistance. Whole-genome sequencing showed a close relationship among the isolates, which harbored a plasmid that was previously identified in a shigellosis outbreak among this population but has acquired a mobile element.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ke Yuan, Sang Soo Lee, Vincent De Andrade, Neil C Sturchio, Paul Fenter
The mobility of toxic elements, such as lead (Pb) can be attenuated by adsorption, incorporation, and precipitation on carbonate minerals in subsurface environments. Here, we report a study of the bulk transformation of single-crystal calcite (CaCO3) into polycrystalline cerussite (PbCO3) through reaction with acidic Pb-bearing solutions. This reaction began with the growth of a cerussite shell on top of calcite surfaces followed by the replacement of the remaining calcite core. The external shape of the original calcite was preserved by a balance between calcite dissolution and cerussite growth controlled by adjusting the Pb(2)(+) concentration and pH...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Vivian M Nguyen, Nathan Young, Steven J Cooke
Scholars across all disciplines have long been interested in how knowledge moves within and beyond their community of peers. In conservation and natural resource management, however, we are lagging behind. Rapid environmental changes and calls for sustainable management practices mean that we urgently need to be using the best knowledge possible in forming decisions, policies, and practices to protect biodiversity and sustainably manage vulnerable natural resources. While the conservation literature on knowledge exchange (KE) and knowledge mobilization (KMb) has grown in recent years, much of it is based on context-specific case studies...
October 21, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Katariina Pärnänen, Antti Karkman, Manu Tamminen, Christina Lyra, Jenni Hultman, Lars Paulin, Marko Virta
Antibiotic resistance genes are ubiquitous in the environment. However, only a fraction of them are mobile and able to spread to pathogenic bacteria. Until now, studying the mobility of antibiotic resistance genes in environmental resistomes has been challenging due to inadequate sensitivity and difficulties in contig assembly of metagenome based methods. We developed a new cost and labor efficient method based on Inverse PCR and long read sequencing for studying mobility potential of environmental resistance genes...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Brian G Alberding, Adam J Biacchi, Angela R Hight Walker, Edwin J Heilweil
Tin(II) monosulfide (SnS) is a semiconductor material with an intermediate band gap, high absorption coefficient in the visible range, and earth abundant, non-toxic constituent elements. For these reasons, SnS has generated much interest for incorporation into optoelectronic devices, but little is known concerning the charge carrier dynamics, especially as measured by optical techniques. Here, as opposed to prior studies of vapor deposited films, phase-pure colloidal SnS was synthesized by solution chemistry in three size regimes, ranging from nanometer- to micron-scale (SnS small nanoparticles, SnS medium 2D nanosheets, and SnS large 2D μm-sheets), and evaluated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS); an optical, non-contact probe of the photoconductivity...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
Li Wang, Lei Liu, Dong Liu, Zhe Yin, Jiao Feng, Defu Zhang, Haihong Fang, Yefeng Qiu, Weijun Chen, Ruisheng Yang, Jinglin Wang, Yunzhi Fa, Dongsheng Zhou
The purpose of this study was to characterize mechanisms of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance in Shigella boydii. S. boydii strain 2246 with resistance to ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and azithromycin was isolated from a human case of watery diarrhea in a Chinese public hospital. Resistance in strain 2246 to ceftriaxone and azithromycin was attributable to the presence of blaCTX-M-14, and erm(B) and mph(A), respectively, which were co-located on a multidrug-resistant (MDR) plasmid p2246-CTXM. p2246-CTXM represented a novel IncFII-type MDR plasmid with a very complex chimera structure...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Félix LaRoche-Johnston, Caroline Monat, Benoit Cousineau
BACKGROUND: Group II introns are catalytically active RNA and mobile retroelements present in certain eukaryotic organelles, bacteria and archaea. These ribozymes self-splice from the pre-mRNA of interrupted genes and reinsert within target DNA sequences by retrohoming and retrotransposition. Evolutionary hypotheses place these retromobile elements at the origin of over half the human genome. Nevertheless, the evolution and dissemination of group II introns was found to be quite difficult to infer...
October 20, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Jingqian Xie, Lu Zhao, Kai Liu, Fangjie Guo, Weiping Liu
The chirality of herbicides has been the focus of research. However, there is little information on the enantioseparation of amide herbicides with different chiral elements. In this study, the need for different chiral stationary phases (CSPs), mobile phases, temperatures and flow rates for the separation of napropamide, acetochlor and propisochlor was discussed in detail and compared to metolachlor. Resolution of C-chiral enantiomers was easier than that of axial-chiral enantiomers. Metolachlor and acetochlor could achieve baseline separation only on AY-H and AS-H columns, respectively...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Nuria Roldan, Thomas K M Nyholm, J Peter Slotte, Jesús Pérez-Gil, Begoña García-Álvarez
To allow breathing and prevent alveolar collapse, lung surfactant (LS) develops a complex membranous system at the respiratory surface. LS is defined by a specific protein and lipid composition, including saturated and unsaturated phospholipid species and cholesterol. Surfactant protein C (SP-C) has been suggested to be an essential element for sustaining the presence of cholesterol in surfactant without functional impairment. In this work, we used a fluorescent sterol-partitioning assay to assess the effect of the surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C on cholesterol distribution in membranes...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Dilraj S Grewal, Tamer H Mahmoud
A 54-year-old male developed symptomatic scleral buckle exposure 16 years after placement and presented with large conjunctival defects with fibrosed edges. Following surgical removal of the buckle elements, primary conjunctival closure could not be achieved due to significant wound tension despite undermining the conjunctival edges to mobilize the conjunctiva. A dehydrated amniotic membrane graft (Ambio5; IOP Ophthalmics, Costa Mesa, CA) was placed on the scleral bed and secured in place with fibrin sealant (TISSEEL; Baxter International, Westlake Village, CA)...
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Dan Li, Jie Hong, Weibiao Cao
We have shown that NOX5-S may mediate the acid-induced decrease in cell apoptosis. However, mechanisms of NOX5-S-dependent decrease in cell apoptosis are not fully understood. In this study we found that silencer of death domain (SODD) was significantly increased in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) tissues, EA cell lines FLO and OE33, and a dysplastic cell line CP-B. Strong SODD immunostaining was significantly higher in low-grade dysplasia (66.7%), high-grade dysplasia (81.2%) and EA (71.2%) than in Barrett's mucosa (10...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Irena Malinowska, Agnieszka Wronka, Wiesława Ferenc
New 19 complexes of carboxylates with transition and rare elements as central ions and their ligands were characterized by chromatographic analyses. The parameter of relative lipophilicity (RM0 ) of the tested compounds was determined experimentally by the reversed-phase high-performance thin layer chromatography method with the mixtures of various organic modifiers (ACN, acetone, dioxane) and water as a mobile phase. The extrapolated RM0 values were compared with the logP values calculated from the molecular structures of tested solutes...
October 18, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
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