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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914288/the-use-of-red-mud-as-an-immobiliser-for-metal-metalloid-contaminated-soil-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Yumei Hua, Kate V Heal, Wolfgang Friesl-Hanl
This review focuses on the applicability of red mud as an amendment for metal/metalloid-contaminated soil. The varying properties of red muds from different sources are presented as they influence the potentially toxic element (PTE) concentration in amended soil. Experiments conducted worldwide from the laboratory to the field scale are screened and the influencing parameters and processes in soils are highlighted. Overall red mud amendment is likely to contribute to lowering the PTE availability in contaminated soil...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913634/comparative-analysis-highlights-variable-genome-content-of-wheat-rusts-and-divergence-of-the-mating-loci
#2
Christina A Cuomo, Guus Bakkeren, Hala Badr Khalil, Vinay Panwar, David Joly, Rob Linning, Sharadha Sakthikumar, Xiao Song, Xian Adiconis, Lin Fan, Jonathan M Goldberg, Joshua Z Levin, Sarah Young, Qiandong Zeng, Yehoshua Anikster, Myron Bruce, Meinan Wang, Chuntao Yin, Brent McCallum, Les J Szabo, Scot Hulbert, Xiaming Chen, John P Fellers
Three members of the Puccinia genus, P. triticina (Pt), P. striiformis f.sp. tritici (Pst), and P. graminis f.sp. tritici (Pgt), cause the most common and often most significant foliar diseases of wheat. While similar in biology and life cycle, each species is uniquely adapted and specialized. The genomes of Pt and Pst were sequenced and compared to that of Pgt to identify common and distinguishing gene content, to determine gene variation among wheat rust pathogens, other rust fungi and basidiomycetes, and to identify genes of significance for infection...
December 2, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912841/plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-two-decades-on
#3
REVIEW
José Manuel Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús Machuca, María Eliecer Cano, Jorge Calvo, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Alvaro Pascual
After two decades of the discovery of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), three different mechanisms have been associated to this phenomenon: target protection (Qnr proteins, including several families with multiple alleles), active efflux pumps (mainly QepA and OqxAB pumps) and drug modification [AAC(6')-Ib-cr acetyltransferase]. PMQR genes are usually associated with mobile or transposable elements on plasmids, and, in the case of qnr genes, are often incorporated into sul1-type integrons. PMQR has been found in clinical and environmental isolates around the world and appears to be spreading...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908844/quittr-the-design-of-a-video-game-to-support-smoking-cessation
#4
Ivan Bindoff, Kristy de Salas, Gregory Peterson, Tristan Ling, Ian Lewis, Lindsay Wells, Peter Gee, Stuart G Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Smoking is recognized as the largest, single, preventable cause of death and disease in the developed world. While the majority of smokers report wanting to quit, and many try each year, smokers find it difficult to maintain long-term abstinence. Behavioral support, such as education, advice, goal-setting, and encouragement, is known to be beneficial in improving the likelihood of succeeding in a quit attempt, but it remains difficult to effectively deliver this behavioral support and keep the patient engaged with the process for a sufficient duration...
December 1, 2016: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903531/dream-plays-an-important-role-in-platelet-activation-and-thrombogenesis
#5
Kyungho Kim, Alan Tseng, Andrew Barazia, Joseph E Italiano, Jaehyung Cho
Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a transcriptional repressor, is known to modulate pain responses. However, it is unknown whether DREAM is expressed in anucleate platelets and plays a role in thrombogenesis. By using intravital microscopy with DREAM-null mice and their bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrated that both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell DREAM are required for platelet thrombus formation following laser-induced arteriolar injury. In a FeCl3-induced thrombosis model, we found that compared to WT control and non-hematopoietic DREAM knockout (KO) mice, DREAM KO control and hematopoietic DREAM KO mice showed a significant delay in time to occlusion...
November 30, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902938/functional-components-of-the-bacterial-czccba-efflux-system-reduce-cadmium-uptake-and-accumulation-in-transgenic-tobacco-plants
#6
Andrea Nesler, Giovanni DalCorso, Elisa Fasani, Anna Manara, Gian Pietro Di Sansebastiano, Emanuele Argese, Antonella Furini
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic trace element released into the environment by industrial and agricultural practices, threatening the health of plants and contaminating the food/feed chain. Biotechnology can be used to develop plant varieties with a higher capacity for Cd accumulation (for use in phytoremediation programs) or a lower capacity for Cd accumulation (to reduce Cd levels in food and feed). Here we generated transgenic tobacco plants expressing components of the Pseudomonas putida CzcCBA efflux system. Plants were transformed with combinations of the CzcC, CzcB and CzcA genes, and the impact on Cd mobilization was analysed...
November 27, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902436/exploring-the-parameters-of-post-segregation-killing-using-heterologous-expression-of-secreted-toxin-barnase-and-antitoxin-barstar-in-an-e-coli-case-study
#7
Dorien S Coray, Brigitta Kurenbach, Jack A Heinemann
Post-segregational killing (PSK) is a phenotype determined by plasmids using a toxin and an antitoxin (TA) gene pair. Loss of the genes depletes the cell's reserve of antitoxin and allows the toxin to act upon the cell. PSK benefits mobile elements when it increases reproductive success relative to other mobile competitors. A side effect of PSK is that plasmids become refractory to displacement from the cell during growth as a monoculture. Most PSK systems use a cytoplasmic toxin, but the external toxins of bacteriocins also have a PSK-like effect...
November 16, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902415/inversion-of-correia-repeat-enclosed-elements-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#8
Firat Elbeyioglu, Sabrina B Roberts, Russell Spencer-Smith, Madhuri Pulijala, Marta A Zelewska, Jean-Christophe Nebel, Lori As Snyder
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is capable of causing gonorrhoea and more complex diseases in the human host. Within the gonococcal genome are over 100 copies of the IS-like Correia Repeat Enclosed Element, which has been predicted to be mobile within the neisserial genomes. Although there is evidence of ancestral movement of these elements, no previous study has provided evidence for current mobilisation. The Correia Repeat Enclosed Element has the ability to alter gene expression and regulation in many ways: by insertional mutagenesis; by introducing promoter elements; by generating mRNA processing sites, and by association with ncRNAs...
November 16, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902383/detection-of-isaba1-in-association-with-a-novel-allelic-variant-of-the-%C3%AE-lactamase-adc-82-and-class-d-%C3%AE-lactamase-genes-mediating-carbapenem-resistance-among-the-clinical-isolates-of-mdr-a-baumannii
#9
Rajagopalan Saranathan, Rinki Kumari, Ramakrishnan Kalaivani, Sah Suresh, Anshu Rani, Shashikala Purty, Prashanth K
The objective of the present study is to investigate the diverse resistance determinants, their association with IS mobile elements and predilection of a particular clone for such associations in A. baumannii. Fifty-four consecutive isolates collected during 2011-2012 from a tertiary care hospital were subjected to susceptibility testing followed by PCR screening of commonly reported β-lactamases and 16S rRNA methyl transferase encoding genes. The integrity of RND efflux pump related genes in their respective operons was also investigated...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901312/female-white-footed-mice-peromyscus-leucopus-trade-off-offspring-skeletal-quality-for-self-maintenance-when-dietary-calcium-intake-is-low
#10
Christina M Schmidt, Wendy R Hood
During gestation and lactation in mammals, calcium and other minerals are transferred from female to offspring to support skeletal ossification. To meet mineral requirements, females commonly mobilize mineral from their own skeleton to augment dietary intake. Because the fitness costs of bone loss are expected to limit the amount of endogenous mineral that females transfer to their young, the amount of mineral allocated to offspring is predicted to be influenced by the availability of mineral in the female's diet...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900376/development-of-solid-state-emissive-o-carboranes-and-theoretical-investigation-of-the-mechanism-of-the-aggregation-induced-emission-behaviors-of-organoboron-element-blocks
#11
Kazuo Tanaka, Kenta Nishino, Shunichiro Ito, Honami Yamane, Kazumasa Suenaga, Kazushi Hashimoto, Yoshiki Chujo
This paper presents the aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties of o-carborane derivatives and proposes a potential strategy for constructing AIE-active organoboron complexes via the enhancement of freedom of intramolecular mobility. Initially, the optical properties of o-carborane derivatives with or without the fused ring structure at the C-C bond in o-carborane in which elongation should be induced by photo-excitation according to theoretical calculations were compared. Accordingly, it was shown that large mobility at the C-C bond in o-carborane should be responsible for the annihilation of emission in solution, leading to the AIE property...
November 30, 2016: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899587/temporal-self-regulation-of-transposition-through-host-independent-transposase-rodlet-formation
#12
Lauren E Woodard, Laura M Downes, Yi-Chien Lee, Aparna Kaja, Eyuel S Terefe, Matthew H Wilson
Transposons are highly abundant in eukaryotic genomes, but their mobilization must be finely tuned to maintain host organism fitness and allow for transposon propagation. Forty percent of the human genome is comprised of transposable element sequences, and the most abundant cut-and-paste transposons are from the hAT superfamily. We found that the hAT transposase TcBuster from Tribolium castaneum formed filamentous structures, or rodlets, in human tissue culture cells, after gene transfer to adult mice, and ex vivo in cell-free conditions, indicating that host co-factors or cellular structures were not required for rodlet formation...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899566/asymmetric-positioning-of-cas1-2-complex-and-integration-host-factor-induced-dna-bending-guide-the-unidirectional-homing-of-protospacer-in-crispr-cas-type-i-e-system
#13
K N R Yoganand, R Sivathanu, Siddharth Nimkar, B Anand
CRISPR-Cas system epitomizes prokaryote-specific quintessential adaptive defense machinery that limits the genome invasion of mobile genetic elements. It confers adaptive immunity to bacteria by capturing a protospacer fragment from invading foreign DNA, which is later inserted into the leader proximal end of CRIPSR array and serves as immunological memory to recognize recurrent invasions. The universally conserved Cas1 and Cas2 form an integration complex that is known to mediate the protospacer invasion into the CRISPR array...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898302/a-novel-sandwich-type-traveling-wave-piezoelectric-tracked-mobile-system
#14
Liang Wang, Chengyou Shu, Quan Zhang, Jiamei Jin
In this paper, a novel sandwich-type traveling wave piezoelectric tracked mobile system was proposed, designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated. The proposed system exhibits the advantages of simple structure, high mechanical integration, lack of electromagnetic interference, and lack of lubrication requirement, and hence shows potential application to robotic rovers for planetary exploration. The tracked mobile system is comprised of a sandwich actuating mechanism and a metal track. The actuating mechanism includes a sandwich piezoelectric transducer and two annular parts symmetrically placed at either end of the transducer, while the metal track is tensioned along the outer surfaces of the annular parts...
November 15, 2016: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896869/identifying-the-location-of-epidermal-growth-factor-responsive-element-involved-in-the-regulation-of-type-iib-sodium-phosphate-cotransporter-expression-in-porcine-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#15
T Xing, X Tan, Q Yu, T Yang, R Fang
Phosphate is an important mineral nutrient for both human and animals in growth and physiological functions; thus, much effort in the past has been made to clarify the mechanisms governing its absorption. Previous studies have found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits phosphate absorption in human intestinal cells via modulating the interaction of transcriptional factor c-myb with sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIb) gene promoter. This finding provoked our interest in determining the effect of EGF on NaPi-IIb gene expression in intestinal cells of pigs and the location of EGF-responsive element in the gene promoter...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895722/deciphering-fact-from-artifact-when-using-reporter-assays-to-investigate-the-roles-of-host-factors-on-l1-retrotransposition
#16
Pamela R Cook, G Travis Tabor
BACKGROUND: The Long INterspersed Element-1 (L1, LINE-1) is the only autonomous mobile DNA element in humans and has generated as much as half of the genome. Due to increasing clinical interest in the roles of L1 in cancer, embryogenesis and neuronal development, it has become a priority to understand L1-host interactions and identify host factors required for its activity. Apropos to this, we recently reported that L1 retrotransposition in HeLa cells requires phosphorylation of the L1 protein ORF1p at motifs targeted by host cell proline-directed protein kinases (PDPKs), which include the family of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)...
2016: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894878/functionally-conserved-rna-binding-and-protein-protein-interaction-properties-of-line-orf1p-in-an-ancient-clade-of-non-ltr-retrotransposons-of-entamoeba-histolytica
#17
Amit Kumar Gaurav, Jitender Kumar, Mridula Agrahari, Alok Bhattacharya, Vijay Pal Yadav, Sudha Bhattacharya
Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements found in most organisms. Their origin and evolution is not very well understood. Retrotransposons that lack long terminal repeats (non-LTR) have been classified based on their reverse transcriptase (RT) and endonuclease sequences into groups, of which R2 is the most ancient. Its members contain a single open reading frame (ORF) while there are two ORFs in the other groups, of which ORF2 contains the RT and endonuclease sequences. It is thought that ORF1 was added later to the single-ORF-containing elements, and codes for a protein with nucleic acid binding activity...
November 25, 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892853/structure-of-the-germline-genome-of-tetrahymenathermophila-and-relationship-to-the-massively-rearranged-somatic-genome
#18
Eileen P Hamilton, Aurélie Kapusta, Piroska E Huvos, Shelby L Bidwell, Nikhat Zafar, Haibao Tang, Michalis Hadjithomas, Vivek Krishnakumar, Jonathan H Badger, Elisabet V Caler, Carsten Russ, Qiandong Zeng, Lin Fan, Joshua Z Levin, Terrance Shea, Sarah K Young, Ryan Hegarty, Riza Daza, Sharvari Gujja, Jennifer R Wortman, Bruce W Birren, Chad Nusbaum, Jainy Thomas, Clayton M Carey, Ellen J Pritham, Cédric Feschotte, Tomoko Noto, Kazufumi Mochizuki, Romeo Papazyan, Sean D Taverna, Paul H Dear, Donna M Cassidy-Hanley, Jie Xiong, Wei Miao, Eduardo Orias, Robert S Coyne
The germline genome of the binucleated ciliate Tetrahymenathermophila undergoes programmed chromosome breakage and massive DNA elimination to generate the somatic genome. Here we present a complete sequence assembly of the germline genome and analyze multiple features of its structure and its relationship to the somatic genome, shedding light on the mechanisms of genome rearrangement as well as the evolutionary history of this remarkable germline/soma differentiation. Our results strengthen the notion that a complex, dynamic, and ongoing interplay between mobile DNA elements and the host genome have shaped Tetrahymena chromosome structure, locally and globally...
November 28, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892525/sxt-r391-integrative-and-conjugative-elements-in-proteus-species-reveal-abundant-genetic-diversity-and-multidrug-resistance
#19
Xinyue Li, Yu Du, Pengcheng Du, Hang Dai, Yujie Fang, Zhenpeng Li, Na Lv, Baoli Zhu, Biao Kan, Duochun Wang
SXT/R391 integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are self-transmissible mobile genetic elements that are found in most members of Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we determined fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs carried by Proteus isolates from food (4.2%) and diarrhoea patients (17.3%). BLASTn searches against GenBank showed that the fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs were closely related to that from different Enterobacteriaceae species, including Proteus mirabilis. Using core gene phylogenetic analysis, the fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs were grouped into six distinct clusters, including a dominant cluster and three clusters that have not been previously reported in Proteus isolates...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890615/egr2-is-a-gonadotropin-induced-survival-factor-that-controls-the-expression-of-ier3-in-ovarian-granulosa-cells
#20
Hanyong Jin, Miae Won, Eunkyoung Shin, Hong-Man Kim, Kangseok Lee, Jeehyeon Bae
Pituitary gonadotropins are key hormones that orchestrate the growth and development of ovarian follicles. However, limited information is available on intra-ovarian factors that mediate the actions of gonadotropins. In this study, we identified that the early growth response 2 gene (EGR2) is a gonadotropin-inducible gene in granulosa cells of rats and humans. Analysis of consensus EGR-binding elements (EBEs) showed that the immediate early response 3 gene (IER3) is a novel transcriptional target gene of EGR2 as confirmed by the luciferase assay, electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA), chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and western blot analysis...
November 24, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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