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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792326/common-principles-of-molecular-electronics-and-nanoscale-electrochemistry
#1
Paulo Roberto Bueno
The merging of nanoscale electronics and electrochemistry can potentially modernize the way electronic devices are currently engineered or constructed. It is well known that the greatest challenges will involve not only miniaturizing and improving the performance of mobile devices, but also manufacturing reliable electrical vehicles, and engineering more efficient solar panels and energy storage systems. These are just a few examples of how technological innovation is dependent on both electrochemical and electronic elements...
May 24, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790974/crisprcasfinder-an-update-of-crisrfinder-includes-a-portable-version-enhanced-performance-and-integrates-search-for-cas-proteins
#2
David Couvin, Aude Bernheim, Claire Toffano-Nioche, Marie Touchon, Juraj Michalik, Bertrand Néron, Eduardo P C Rocha, Gilles Vergnaud, Daniel Gautheret, Christine Pourcel
CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) arrays and their associated (Cas) proteins confer bacteria and archaea adaptive immunity against exogenous mobile genetic elements, such as phages or plasmids. CRISPRCasFinder allows the identification of both CRISPR arrays and Cas proteins. The program includes: (i) an improved CRISPR array detection tool facilitating expert validation based on a rating system, (ii) prediction of CRISPR orientation and (iii) a Cas protein detection and typing tool updated to match the latest classification scheme of these systems...
May 22, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789886/gcttca-as-a-novel-motif-for-regulating-mesocarp-specific-expression-of-the-oil-palm-elaeis-guineensis-jacq-stearoyl-acp-desaturase-gene
#3
Farah Hanan Abu Hanifiah, Siti Nor Akmar Abdullah, Ashida Othman, Noor Azmi Shaharuddin, Halimi Mohd Saud, Hasnul Abdul Hakim Hasnulhadi, Umaiyal Munusamy
TAAAAT and a novel motif, GCTTCA found in the oil palm stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD1) promoter are involved in regulating mesocarp-specific expression. Two key fatty acid biosynthetic genes, stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD1), and acyl-carrier protein (ACP3) in Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) showed high level of expression during the period of oil synthesis in the mesocarp [12-19 weeks after anthesis (w.a.a.)] and kernel (12-15 w.a.a.). Both genes are expressed in spear leaves at much lower levels and the expression increased by 1...
May 22, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789474/design-of-a-novel-mems-microgripper-with-rotatory-electrostatic-comb-drive-actuators-for-biomedical-applications
#4
Luis A Velosa-Moncada, Luz Antonio Aguilera-Cortés, Max A González-Palacios, Jean-Pierre Raskin, Agustin L Herrera-May
Primary tumors of patients can release circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to flow inside of their blood. The CTCs have different mechanical properties in comparison with red and white blood cells, and their detection may be employed to study the efficiency of medical treatments against cancer. We present the design of a novel MEMS microgripper with rotatory electrostatic comb-drive actuators for mechanical properties characterization of cells. The microgripper has a compact structural configuration of four polysilicon layers and a simple performance that control the opening and closing displacements of the microgripper tips...
May 22, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789467/the-present-and-future-of-whole-genome-sequencing-wgs-and-whole-metagenome-sequencing-wms-for-surveillance-of-antimicrobial-resistant-microorganisms-and-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-across-the-food-chain
#5
REVIEW
Elena A Oniciuc, Eleni Likotrafiti, Adrián Alvarez-Molina, Miguel Prieto, Jesús A Santos, Avelino Alvarez-Ordóñez
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance is a critical step within risk assessment schemes, as it is the basis for informing global strategies, monitoring the effectiveness of public health interventions, and detecting new trends and emerging threats linked to food. Surveillance of AMR is currently based on the isolation of indicator microorganisms and the phenotypic characterization of clinical, environmental and food strains isolated. However, this approach provides very limited information on the mechanisms driving AMR or on the presence or spread of AMR genes throughout the food chain...
May 22, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789017/leveraging-routine-clinical-materials-and-mobile-technology-to-assess-cbt-fidelity-the-innovative-methods-to-assess-psychotherapy-practices-imapp-study
#6
Shannon Wiltsey Stirman, Luana Marques, Torrey A Creed, Cassidy A Gutner, Robert DeRubeis, Paul G Barnett, Eric Kuhn, Michael Suvak, Jason Owen, Dawne Vogt, Booil Jo, Sonja Schoenwald, Clara Johnson, Kera Mallard, Matthew Beristianos, Heidi La Bash
BACKGROUND: Identifying scalable strategies for assessing fidelity is a key challenge in implementation science. However, for psychosocial interventions, the existing, reliable ways to test treatment fidelity quality are often labor intensive, and less burdensome strategies may not reflect actual clinical practice. Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) provide clinicians with a set of effective core elements to help treat a multitude of disorders, which, evidence suggests, need to be delivered with fidelity to maximize potential client impact...
May 22, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787932/initial-data-on-adsorption-of-cs-and-sr-to-the-surfaces-of-microplastics-with-biofilm
#7
Mathew P Johansen, Emily Prentice, Tom Cresswell, Nick Howell
The adsorption of radiocesium and radiostrontium onto a range of natural materials has been well quantified, but not for the new media of environmental plastics, which may have enhanced adsorption due to surface-weathering and development of biofilms. Microplastic samples were deployed in freshwater, estuarine and marine conditions, then characterised using infrared spectroscopy to document changes to the plastic surface (vs interior). Synchrotron elemental mapping data revealed surfaces that were well-covered by accumulation of reactive water solutes and sulphur, but, in contrast, had highly discrete coverage of elements such as Fe and Ti, indicating adhered mineral/clay-associated agglomerates that may increase overall adsorption capacity...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783941/a-transposable-element-annotation-pipeline-and-expression-analysis-reveal-potentially-active-elements-in-the-microalga-tisochrysis-lutea
#8
Jérémy Berthelier, Nathalie Casse, Nicolas Daccord, Véronique Jamilloux, Bruno Saint-Jean, Grégory Carrier
BACKGROUND: Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences known as drivers of genome evolution. Their impacts have been widely studied in animals, plants and insects, but little is known about them in microalgae. In a previous study, we compared the genetic polymorphisms between strains of the haptophyte microalga Tisochrysis lutea and suggested the involvement of active autonomous TEs in their genome evolution. RESULTS: To identify potentially autonomous TEs, we designed a pipeline named PiRATE (Pipeline to Retrieve and Annotate Transposable Elements, download: https://doi...
May 22, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779148/in-vitro-virulence-characteristics-of-rare-serovars-of-salmonella-enterica-isolated-from-sand-lizards-lacerta-agilis-l
#9
Joanna Mokracka, Sylwia Krzymińska, Danił Ałtunin, Dariusz Wasyl, Ryszard Koczura, Krzysztof Dudek, Monika Dudek, Zofia Anna Chyleńska, Anna Ekner-Grzyb
The aim of this study was to estimate virulence potential of Salmonella enterica strains colonizing the gut of free-living sand lizards (Lacerta agilis L.). The strains belonged to three Salmonella serovars: Abony, Schleissheim, and Telhashomer. Adhesion and invasion abilities of the strains were determined in quantitative assays using the gentamicin protection method. Induction of apoptosis was assessed using HeLa cell monolayers. PCR assays were used for detection of 26 virulence genes localised within mobile elements: pathogenicity islands, virulence plasmids, and prophage sequences...
May 19, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778012/reactive-oxygen-species-ros-activity-of-ambient-fine-particles-pm-2-5-measured-in-seoul-korea
#10
Jieun Park, Eun Ha Park, James J Schauer, Seung-Muk Yi, Jongbae Heo
Substantial increase in level of particulate matter has raised concerns in South Korea recently. Ambient particulate matter is classified as Group I carcinogen (IARC, 2013) and multiple epidemiological studies has demonstrated adverse health effects due to exposure of particulate matter. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) which has a diameter <2.5 μm is likely to penetrate deeply into lung and is known to be eliciting adverse health effects. A number of epidemiological studies have been conducted on adverse health effects of PM-related diseases and mortality rate, yet particulate matter (PM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity at the cellular level has not been actively studied in Korea...
May 16, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777960/utility-of-cement-injection-to-stabilize-split-depression-tibial-plateau-fracture-by-minimally-invasive-methods-a-finite-element-analysis
#11
D Belaid, T Vendeuvre, A Bouchoucha, F Brémand, C Brèque, P Rigoard, A Germaneau
BACKGROUND: Treatment for fractures of the tibial plateau is in most cases carried out by stable fixation in order to allow early mobilization. Minimally invasive technologies such as tibioplasty or stabilization by locking plate, bone augmentation and cement filling (CF) have recently been used to treat this type of fracture. The aim of this paper was to determine the mechanical behavior of the tibial plateau by numerically modeling and by quantifying the mechanical effects on the tibia mechanical properties from injury healing...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775460/genus-wide-comparison-of-pseudovibrio-bacterial-genomes-reveal-diverse-adaptations-to-different-marine-invertebrate-hosts
#12
Anoop Alex, Agostinho Antunes
Bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudovibrio have been frequently found in association with a wide variety of marine eukaryotic invertebrate hosts, indicative of their versatile and symbiotic lifestyle. A recent comparison of the sponge-associated Pseudovibrio genomes has shed light on the mechanisms influencing a successful symbiotic association with sponges. In contrast, the genomic architecture of Pseudovibrio bacteria associated with other marine hosts has received less attention. Here, we performed genus-wide comparative analyses of 18 Pseudovibrio isolated from sponges, coral, tunicates, flatworm, and seawater...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774045/transposon-derived-non-coding-rnas-and-their-function-in-plants
#13
REVIEW
Jungnam Cho
Transposable elements (TEs) are often regarded as harmful genomic factors and indeed they are strongly suppressed by the epigenetic silencing mechanisms. On the other hand, the mobilization of TEs brings about variability of genome and transcriptome which are essential in the survival and evolution of the host species. The vast majority of such controlling TEs influence the neighboring genes in cis by either promoting or repressing the transcriptional activities. Although TEs are highly repetitive in the genomes and transcribed in specific stress conditions or developmental stages, the trans -acting regulatory roles of TE-derived RNAs have been rarely studied...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772393/unexpected-mechanisms-of-resistance-in-dutch-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-collected-during-fourteen-years-of-surveillance
#14
P D Croughs, C H W Klaassen, J van Rosmalen, D M Maghdid, S A Boers, J P Hays, W H F Goessens
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important causes of infection in the intensive care unit. It is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics and easily acquires additional resistance genes via horizontal gene transfer of mobile genetic elements. In the present study, 1,528 P. aeruginosa isolates, obtained from a Dutch national surveillance program between the years 1998 and 2011, were analyzed for the presence of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) genes blaCTX-M , blaSHV , blaTEM , blaBEL , blaPER , blaVEB , blaOXA-10 and metallo-β-Lactamase (MBL) genes blaIMP , blaVIM and blaNDM ...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771354/methylation-guide-rna-evolution-in-archaea-structure-function-and-genomic-organization-of-110-c-d-box-srna-families-across-six-pyrobaculum-species
#15
Lauren M Lui, Andrew V Uzilov, David L Bernick, Andrea Corredor, Todd M Lowe, Patrick P Dennis
Archaeal homologs of eukaryotic C/D box small nucleolar RNAs (C/D box sRNAs) guide precise 2'-O-methyl modification of ribosomal and transfer RNAs. Although C/D box sRNA genes constitute one of the largest RNA gene families in archaeal thermophiles, most genomes have incomplete sRNA gene annotation because reliable, fully automated detection methods are not available. We expanded and curated a comprehensive gene set across six species of the crenarchaeal genus Pyrobaculum, particularly rich in C/D box sRNA genes...
May 16, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769568/cu-cu-2-o-nanocomposite-films-as-a-p-type-modified-layer-for-efficient-perovskite-solar-cells
#16
You-Jyun Chen, Ming-Hsien Li, Jung-Chun-Andrew Huang, Peter Chen
Cu/Cu2 O films grown by ion beam sputtering were used as p-type modified layers to improve the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with an n-i-p heterojunction structure. The ratio of Cu to Cu2 O in the films can be tuned by the oxygen flow ratio (O2 /(O2  + Ar)) during the sputtering of copper. Auger electron spectroscopy was performed to determine the elemental composition and chemical state of Cu in the films. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed that the valence band maximum of the p-type Cu/Cu2 O matches well with the perovskite...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766687/structured-illumination-to-spatially-map-chromatin-motions
#17
Keith Bonin, Amanda Smelser, Naike Salvador Moreno, George Holzwarth, Kevin Wang, Preston Levy, Pierre-Alexandre Vidi
We describe a simple optical method that creates structured illumination of a photoactivatable probe and apply this method to characterize chromatin motions in nuclei of live cells. A laser beam coupled to a diffractive optical element at the back focal plane of an excitation objective generates an array of near diffraction-limited beamlets with FWHM of 340  ±  30  nm, which simultaneously photoactivate a 7  ×  7 matrix pattern of GFP-labeled histones, with spots 1.70  μm apart. From the movements of the photoactivated spots, we map chromatin diffusion coefficients at multiple microdomains of the cell nucleus...
May 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765367/detection-of-bacteriophage-particles-containing-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-the-sputum-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#18
Maryury Brown-Jaque, Lirain Rodriguez Oyarzun, Thais Cornejo-Sánchez, Maria T Martín-Gómez, Silvia Gartner, Javier de Gracia, Sandra Rovira, Antonio Alvarez, Joan Jofre, Juan J González-López, Maite Muniesa
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic disease in which the bacterial colonization of the lung is linked to an excessive inflammatory response that leads to respiratory failure. The microbiology of CF is complex. Staphylococcus aureus is the first bacterium to colonize the lungs in 30% of pediatric CF patients, and 80% of adult patients develop a chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, but other microorganisms can also be found. The use of antibiotics is essential to treat the disease, but antibiotic performance is compromised by resistance mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763462/the-annotation-of-repetitive-elements-in-the-genome-of-channel-catfish-ictalurus-punctatus
#19
Zihao Yuan, Tao Zhou, Lisui Bao, Shikai Liu, Huitong Shi, Yujia Yang, Dongya Gao, Rex Dunham, Geoff Waldbieser, Zhanjiang Liu
Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is a highly adaptive species and has been used as a research model for comparative immunology, physiology, and toxicology among ectothermic vertebrates. It is also economically important for aquaculture. As such, its reference genome was generated and annotated with protein coding genes. However, the repetitive elements in the catfish genome are less well understood. In this study, over 417.8 Megabase (MB) of repetitive elements were identified and characterized in the channel catfish genome...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761848/preparative-free-flow-electrophoresis-a-versatile-technology-complementing-gradient-centrifugation-in-the-isolation-of-highly-purified-cell-organelles
#20
REVIEW
Markus Islinger, Robert Wildgruber, Alfred Völkl
Free-flow electrophoresis (FFE) exploits differences in the overall charge of bio-particles separating cells, organelles, macromolecules, ions etc. according to their distinct electrophoretic mobility and isoelectric point (pI) values. Indeed, around a neutral pH organelles usually exhibit a negative surface charge, migrating in an electric field from the cathode towards the anode. Since its introduction more than five decades ago by Barrollier et al. (1958) and Hannig (1961), FFE has become an established analytical and preparative separation method for the isolation of a variety of organelles...
May 15, 2018: Electrophoresis
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