keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Mobile elements

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647607/bioaccessibility-and-risk-assessment-of-essential-and-non-essential-elements-in-vegetables-commonly-consumed-in-swaziland
#1
Robert Londi Mnisi, Peter P Ndibewu, Lihle D Mafu, Gabriel C Bwembya
The green leafy vegetables (Mormodica involucrate, Bidens pilosa and Amaranthus spinosus) are economic; seasonal; locally grown and easily available; easy to propagate and store; highly nutritious food substances that form an important component of diets. This study applies a physiology based extraction technique (PBET) to mimic digestion of these vegetables to determine the fraction of essential (Fe and Zn) and non-essential elements (Cd, Cr and Pb) that are made available for absorption after ingestion. Prior to the application of the PBET, the vegetables were cooked adopting indigenous Swazi cooking methods...
June 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646222/effects-of-chemical-alternation-on-damage-accumulation-in-concentrated-solid-solution-alloys
#2
Mohammad W Ullah, Haizhou Xue, Gihan Velisa, Ke Jin, Hongbin Bei, William J Weber, Yanwen Zhang
Single-phase concentrated solid-solution alloys (SP-CSAs) have recently gained unprecedented attention due to their promising properties. To understand effects of alloying elements on irradiation-induced defect production, recombination and evolution, an integrated study of ion irradiation, ion beam analysis and atomistic simulations are carried out on a unique set of model crystals with increasing chemical complexity, from pure Ni to Ni80Fe20, Ni50Fe50, and Ni80Cr20 binaries, and to a more complex Ni40Fe40Cr20 alloy...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645197/pht%C3%AE-promoted-mobilization-of-non-conjugative-resistance-plasmids-from-enterococcus-faecium-to-enterococcus-faecalis
#3
Laura Di Sante, Gianluca Morroni, Andrea Brenciani, Carla Vignaroli, Alberto Antonelli, Marco Maria D'Andrea, Andrea Di Cesare, Eleonora Giovanetti, Pietro E Varaldo, Gian Maria Rossolini, Francesca Biavasco
Objectives: : To analyse the recombination events associated with conjugal mobilization of two multiresistance plasmids, pRUM 17i48 and pLAG (formerly named pDO1-like), from Enterococcus faecium 17i48 to Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2. Methods: : The plasmids from two E. faecalis transconjugants (JH-4T, tetracycline resistant, and JH-8E, erythromycin resistant) and from the E. faecium donor (also carrying a pHTβ-like conjugative plasmid, named pHTβ 17i48 ) were investigated by several methods, including PCR mapping and sequencing, S1-PFGE followed by Southern blotting and hybridization, and WGS...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645177/mobile-genetic-elements-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-movement-for-change
#4
Ana Cehovin, Steven B Lewis
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhoeae, possesses several mobile genetic elements (MGEs). The MGEs such as transposable elements mediate intra-chromosomal rearrangements, while plasmids and the gonococcal genetic island are involved in inter-chromosomal gene transfer. Additionally, gonococcal MGEs serve as hotspots for recombination and integration of other genetic elements such as bacteriophages, contribute to gene regulation or spread genes through gonococcal populations by horizontal gene transfer...
June 22, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644125/exploiting-crispr-cas-to-manipulate-enterococcus-faecalis-populations
#5
Karthik Hullahalli, Marinelle Rodrigues, Kelli L Palmer
CRISPR-Cas provides a barrier to horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes. It was previously observed that functional CRISPR-Cas systems are absent from multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterococcus faecalis, which only possess an orphan CRISPR locus, termed CRISPR2, lacking cas genes. It was of interest to investigate how the interplay between CRISPR-Cas genome defense and antibiotic selection for mobile genetic elements shapes E. faecalis populations. Here, we demonstrate that CRISPR2 can be reactivated for genome defense in MDR strains...
June 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642863/friends-enemies-endogenous-retroviruses-are-major-transcriptional-regulators-of-human-dna
#6
REVIEW
Anton A Buzdin, Vladimir Prassolov, Andrew V Garazha
Endogenous retroviruses are mobile genetic elements hardly distinguishable from infectious, or "exogenous," retroviruses at the time of insertion in the host DNA. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are not rare. They gave rise to multiple families of closely related mobile elements that occupy ~8% of the human genome. Together, they shape genomic regulatory landscape by providing at least ~320,000 human transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) located on ~110,000 individual HERV elements. The HERVs host as many as 155,000 mapped DNaseI hypersensitivity sites, which denote loci active in the regulation of gene expression or chromatin structure...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642606/transposable-elements-in-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Kathleen H Burns
Transposable elements give rise to interspersed repeats, sequences that comprise most of our genomes. These mobile DNAs have been historically underappreciated - both because they have been presumed to be unimportant, and because their high copy number and variability pose unique technical challenges. Neither impediment now seems steadfast. Interest in the human mobilome has never been greater, and methods enabling its study are maturing at a fast pace. This Review describes the activity of transposable elements in human cancers, particularly long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1)...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642191/new-aspects-in-free-flap-surgery-mini-perforator-flaps-and-extracorporeal-flap-perfusion
#8
Klaus-Dietrich Wolff
BACKGROUND: The scope of microvascular tissue transfer in the Head and Neck reaches from coverage of simple soft tissue defects to complex 3-D reconstructions using multiple or chimeric flaps. This paper summarises the presentation given at the Congress of the French Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Marseille 2017. It was the aim of our work to add further elements to this wide spectrum of reconstructive possibilities. METHODS: For patients with small intraoral soft tissue defects in whom the use of a radial forearm flap would not be justified because of its donor site morbidity, but who nevertheless would take a benefit from a small free flap, we used mini-perforator flaps from the lower leg...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642158/genetic-diversity-of-environmental-vibrio-cholerae-o1-strains-isolated-in-northern-vietnam
#9
Taichiro Takemura, Kazunori Murase, Fumito Maruyama, Tran Thi Luong, Atsushi Ota, Ichiro Nakagawa, Nguyen Dong Tu, Ngo Tu Cuong, Nguyen Thi Hang, Asako Tokizawa, Masatomo Morita, Makoto Ohnishi, Nguyen Binh Minh, Tetsu Yamashiro
Cholera epidemics have been recorded periodically in Vietnam during the seventh cholera pandemic. Since cholera is a water-borne disease, systematic monitoring of environmental waters for Vibrio cholerae presence is important for predicting and preventing cholera epidemics. We conducted monitoring, isolation, and genetic characterization of V. cholerae strains in Nam Dinh province of Northern Vietnam from Jul 2013 to Feb 2015. In this study, four V. cholerae O1 strains were detected and isolated from 110 analyzed water samples (3...
June 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642157/genome-comparisons-of-two-taiwanese-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-st59-clones-support-the-multi-origin-theory-of-ca-mrsa
#10
Ye Feng, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Chih-Jung Chen, Chyi-Liang Chen, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
Sequence type (ST) 59 is an epidemic lineage of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in Asia. Two ST59 clones are prevalent in Taiwan: the Taiwan clone (TW) causes severe infections, whereas the Asian-Pacific clone (AP) is usually commensal. In this study, we sequenced the genome and transcriptome of the representative strains of these two clones and found their differences to focus on three mobile genetic elements: TW carries SCCmec Type VT, Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-encoding prophage ΦSa2, whereas AP carries SCCmec Type IV and staphylokinase (SAK)-encoding prophage ΦSa3...
June 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641931/transfer-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#11
REVIEW
Jakob Haaber, José R Penadés, Hanne Ingmer
Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen with remarkable adaptive powers. Antibiotic-resistant clones rapidly emerge mainly by acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes from other S. aureus strains or even from other genera. Transfer is mediated by a diverse complement of mobile genetic elements and occurs primarily by conjugation or bacteriophage transduction, with the latter traditionally being perceived as the primary route. Recent work on conjugation and transduction suggests that transfer by these mechanisms may be more extensive than previously thought, in terms of the range of plasmids that can be transferred by conjugation and the efficiency with which transduction occurs...
June 19, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638400/integration-of-cadmium-accumulation-subcellular-distribution-and-physiological-responses-to-understand-cadmium-tolerance-in-apple-rootstocks
#12
Jiangtao Zhou, Huixue Wan, Jiali He, Deguo Lyu, Huifeng Li
Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential and highly toxic element causing agricultural problems. However, little information is available about the variation in Cd tolerance among apple rootstocks and its underlying physiological regulation mechanisms. This study investigated Cd accumulation, subcellular distribution, and chemical forms as well as physiological changes among four apple rootstocks exposed to either 0 or 300 μM CdCl2. The results showed that variations in Cd tolerance existed among these rootstocks. Cd exposure caused decline in photosynthesis, chlorophyll and biomass in four apple rootstocks, which was less pronounced in M...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638383/non-canonical-glucocorticoid-receptor-transactivation-of-gilz-by-alcohol-suppresses-cell-inflammatory-response
#13
Hang Pong Ng, Scott Jennings, Jack Wang, Patricia E Molina, Steve Nelson, Guoshun Wang
Acute alcohol exposure suppresses cell inflammatory response. The underlying mechanism has not been fully defined. Here we report that alcohol was able to activate glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling in the absence of glucocorticoids (GCs) and upregulated glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (gilz), a prominent GC-responsive gene. Such a non-canonical activation of GR was not blocked by mifepristone, a potent GC competitor. The proximal promoter of gilz, encompassing five GC-responsive elements (GREs), was incorporated and tested in a luciferase reporter system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637205/evolution-and-comparative-genomics-of-paqu-like-conjugative-plasmids-in-vibrio-species
#14
Ruichao Li, Lianwei Ye, Marcus Ho Yin Wong, Zhiwei Zheng, Edward Wai Chi Chan, Sheng Chen
Objectives: To investigate a set of MDR conjugative plasmids found in Vibrio species and characterize the underlying evolution process. Methods: pAQU-type plasmids from Vibrio species were sequenced using both Illumina and PacBio platforms. Bioinformatics tools were utilized to analyse the typical MDR regions and core genes in the plasmids. Results: The nine pAQU-type plasmids ranged from ∼160 to 206 kb in size and were found to harbour as many as 111 core genes encoding conjugative, replication and maintenance functions...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637173/crystallographic-analyses-illustrate-significant-plasticity-and-efficient-recoding-of-meganuclease-target-specificity
#15
Rachel Werther, Jazmine P Hallinan, Abigail R Lambert, Kyle Havens, Mark Pogson, Jordan Jarjour, Roberto Galizi, Nikolai Windbichler, Andrea Crisanti, Tony Nolan, Barry L Stoddard
The retargeting of protein-DNA specificity, outside of extremely modular DNA binding proteins such as TAL effectors, has generally proved to be quite challenging. Here, we describe structural analyses of five different extensively retargeted variants of a single homing endonuclease, that have been shown to function efficiently in ex vivo and in vivo applications. The redesigned proteins harbor mutations at up to 53 residues (18%) of their amino acid sequence, primarily distributed across the DNA binding surface, making them among the most significantly reengineered ligand-binding proteins to date...
June 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636328/structural-dynamics-of-native-like-ions-in-the-gas-phase-results-from-tandem-ion-mobility-of-cytochrome-c
#16
Samuel J Allen, Rachel M Eaton, Matthew F Bush
Ion mobility (IM) is a gas-phase separation technique that is used to determine the collision cross sections of native-like ions of proteins and protein complexes, which are in turn used as restraints for modeling the structures of those analytes in solution. Here, we evaluate the stability of native-like ions using tandem IM experiments implemented using Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM). In this implementation of tandem IM, ions undergo a first dimension of IM up to a switch that is used to selectively transmit ions of a desired mobility...
June 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635264/cadmium-accumulation-risk-in-vegetables-and-rice-in-southern-china-insights-from-solid-solution-partitioning-and-plant-uptake-factor
#17
Yang Yang, Meie Wang, Weiping Chen, Yanling Li, Chi Peng
Solid-solution partitioning coefficient (Kd) and plant uptake factor (PUF) largely determine the solubility and mobility of soil Cd to food crops. A four-year regional investigation was conducted in contaminated vegetable and paddy fields of southern China to quantify the variability in Kd and PUF. The distributions of Kd and PUF characterizing transfers of Cd from soil to vegetable and rice are probabilistic in nature. Dynamics in soil pH and soil Zn greatly affected the variations of Kd. In addition to soil pH, soil organic matter had a major influence on PUF variations in vegetables...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633403/structured-populations-of-sulfolobus-acidocaldarius-with-susceptibility-to-mobile-genetic-elements
#18
Rika E Anderson, Angela Kouris, Christopher H Seward, Kate M Campbell, Rachel J Whitaker
The impact of a structured environment on genome evolution can be determined through comparative population genomics of species that live in the same habitat. Recent work comparing three genome sequences of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius suggested that highly structured, extreme, hot spring environments do not limit dispersal of this thermoacidophile, in contrast to other co-occurring Sulfolobus species. Instead, a high level of conservation among these three S. acidocaldarius genomes was hypothesized to result from rapid, global-scale dispersal promoted by low susceptibility to viruses that sets S...
June 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631335/the-mobile-dso-gene-sso-element-in-rolling-circles-plasmids-of-staphylococci-reflects-the-evolutionary-history-of-its-resistance-gene
#19
Trudy M Wassenaar, Adriana Cabal
The qacC and lnuA genes of Staphylococcus species were recently proposed to comprise a mobile element when residing on rolling-circle plasmids. Here we present other examples of resistance genes on staphylococcal rolling-circle plasmids, including fosB producing resistance to fosfomycin, cat resulting in resistance to chloramphenicol, and cadB for resistance to the toxic heavy metal cadmium. For three of these genes (qacC, lnuA and fosB) evidence was obtained that the genes have spread between different plasmid backgrounds...
June 20, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630130/how-a-genetically-stable-extremophile-evolves-modes-of-genome-diversification-in-the-archaeon-sulfolobus-acidocaldarius
#20
Dominic Mao, Dennis W Grogan
In order to analyze in molecular terms how Sulfolobus genomes diverge, damage-induced mutations and natural polymorphisms (PMs) were identified in laboratory constructs and wild-type isolates, respectively, of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Among wild-type isolates drawn from one local population, pairwise nucleotide divergence averaged 4 x 10(-6), which is about 0.15% of the corresponding divergence reported for Sulfolobus islandicus The most variable features of wild-type S. acidocaldarius genomes were homopolymer (mononucleotide) tracts and longer tandem repeats, consistent with the spontaneous mutations that occur under laboratory conditions...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
keyword
keyword
114455
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"