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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932981/the-spatial-distribution-and-accumulation-characteristics-of-heavy-metals-in-steppe-soils-around-three-mining-areas-in-xilinhot-in-inner-mongolia-china
#1
Yongfei Gao, Honglin Liu, Guixiang Liu
Metal deposition has become a major environmental problem in China due to its adverse effects on human and ecosystem health, particularly in Inner Mongolia, where frequent dust storms (due to steppe degradation and desertification) and soil pollution (associated with the increasing mining activities) have occurred in recent decades. To assess spatial distribution of heavy metals and the influences of mining activities on geochemical behavior of heavy metals in soils, soil samples with depth of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm at each site were collected from different directions in the vicinity of three mines (coal mine, gold mine, and fluorite mine) in a typical steppe zone of Inner Mongolia, China...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932624/staphylococci-on-ice-overlooked-agents-of-horizontal-gene-transfer
#2
REVIEW
Emily A Sansevere, D Ashley Robinson
Horizontal gene transfer plays a significant role in spreading antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes throughout the genus Staphylococcus, which includes species of clinical relevance to humans and animals. While phages and plasmids are the most well-studied agents of horizontal gene transfer in staphylococci, the contribution of integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) has been mostly overlooked. Experimental work demonstrating the activity of ICEs in staphylococci remained frozen for years after initial work in the 1980s that showed Tn916 was capable of transfer from Enterococcus to Staphylococcus...
2017: Mobile Genetic Elements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932623/proteomics-technique-opens-new-frontiers-in-mobilome-research
#3
COMMENT
Andrew D Davidson, David A Matthews, Kevin Maringer
A large proportion of the genome of most eukaryotic organisms consists of highly repetitive mobile genetic elements. The sum of these elements is called the "mobilome," which in eukaryotes is made up mostly of transposons. Transposable elements contribute to disease, evolution, and normal physiology by mediating genetic rearrangement, and through the "domestication" of transposon proteins for cellular functions. Although 'omics studies of mobilome genomes and transcriptomes are common, technical challenges have hampered high-throughput global proteomics analyses of transposons...
2017: Mobile Genetic Elements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932209/the-mobilome-a-major-contributor-to-escherichia-coli-stx2-positive-o26-h11-strains-intra-serotype-diversity
#4
Sabine Delannoy, Patricia Mariani-Kurkdjian, Hattie E Webb, Stephane Bonacorsi, Patrick Fach
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli of serotype O26:H11/H- constitute a diverse group of strains and several clones with distinct genetic characteristics have been identified and characterized. Whole genome sequencing was performed using Illumina and PacBio technologies on eight stx2-positive O26:H11 strains circulating in France. Comparative analyses of the whole genome of the stx2-positive O26:H11 strains indicate that several clones of EHEC O26:H11 are co-circulating in France. Phylogenetic analysis of the French strains together with stx2-positive and stx-negative E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931925/a-single-question-regarding-mobility-in-the-world-health-organization-quality-of-life-questionnaire-predicts-3-year-mortality-in-patients-receiving-chronic-hemodialysis
#5
Hsiu-Ho Wang, Miao-Chun Ho, Kuan-Yu Hung, Hui-Teng Cheng
Low quality of life, depression and poor quality of sleep are associated with increased mortality in hemodialysis patients. It is not clear which factor has the highest predictive power and what the core element is to explain the predictability. We thus conducted a prospective cohort study that included 151 hemodialysis adults. Three traits of interest were assessed by World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire, an abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF), Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire, and Athens Insomnia Scale, respectively...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930109/abcg2-regulatory-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-alter-in-vivo-enhancer-activity-and-expression
#6
Rachel J Eclov, Mee J Kim, Aparna Chhibber, Robin P Smith, Nadav Ahituv, Deanna L Kroetz
OBJECTIVES: The expression and activity of the breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) contributes toward the pharmacokinetics of endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. The effect of genetic variation on the activity of cis-regulatory elements and nuclear response elements in the ABCG2 locus and their contribution toward ABCG2 expression have not been investigated systematically. In this study, the effect of genetic variation on the in-vitro and in-vivo enhancer activity of six previously identified liver enhancers in the ABCG2 locus was examined...
September 18, 2017: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929030/genomic-analysis-of-p-elements-in-natural-populations-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Casey M Bergman, Shunhua Han, Michael G Nelson, Vladyslav Bondarenko, Iryna Kozeretska
The Drosophila melanogaster P transposable element provides one of the best cases of horizontal transfer of a mobile DNA sequence in eukaryotes. Invasion of natural populations by the P element has led to a syndrome of phenotypes known as P-M hybrid dysgenesis that emerges when strains differing in their P element composition mate and produce offspring. Despite extensive research on many aspects of P element biology, many questions remain about the genomic basis of variation in P-M dysgenesis phenotypes across populations...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928211/the-crispr-spacer-space-is-dominated-by-sequences-from-species-specific-mobilomes
#8
Sergey A Shmakov, Vassilii Sitnik, Kira S Makarova, Yuri I Wolf, Konstantin V Severinov, Eugene V Koonin
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR-Cas) systems store the memory of past encounters with foreign DNA in unique spacers that are inserted between direct repeats in CRISPR arrays. For only a small fraction of the spacers, homologous sequences, called protospacers, are detectable in viral, plasmid, and microbial genomes. The rest of the spacers remain the CRISPR "dark matter." We performed a comprehensive analysis of the spacers from all CRISPR-cas loci identified in bacterial and archaeal genomes, and we found that, depending on the CRISPR-Cas subtype and the prokaryotic phylum, protospacers were detectable for 1% to about 19% of the spacers (~7% global average)...
September 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928035/molecular-analysis-of-three-clostridium-difficile-strain-genomes-isolated-from-pig-farm-related-samples
#9
I Martín-Burriel, S Andrés-Lasheras, F Harders, R C Mainar-Jaime, B Ranera, P Zaragoza, V Falceto, Y Bolea, E Kuijper, R Bolea, A Bossers, M Chirino-Trejo
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic spore-forming bacillus that usually causes gastrointestinal disorders in man and other animal species. Most of the strains isolated from animals are toxigenic being the virulent ribotype (RT) 078 predominant in several animal species. Although C. difficile is pathogenic to both humans and animals, there is no direct evidence of zoonosis. Deep genome sequencing provides sufficient resolution to analyse which strains found in animals might be related to human pathogens. So far, there are only a few fully sequenced genomes of C...
September 16, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927807/arsenic-and-trace-elements-in-soil-water-grapevine-and-onion-in-j%C3%A3-chal-argentina
#10
Iván Funes Pinter, M Victoria Salomon, Raúl Gil, Leandro Mastrantonio, Rubén Bottini, Patricia Piccoli
Contamination by trace elements (TE) is an increasing concern worldwide. In some areas, crop production could be limited by the presence of metals and metalloids, so it is important to determine their concentrations and mobility. The region of Jáchal, province of San Juan, Argentina, has good growing conditions for onion and grapevine production, but their quality and yield are affected by high TE concentration in soils and water. Soils, water, grapevine and onion were sampled and TE content determined. In soils elevated As, B, Cr, Hg, and Tl concentrations were detected (506±46, 149±3, 2714±217, 16±7, and 12±3μgg(-1), respectively, for maximum values measured), and physicochemical properties of the soil promotes these elements mobility...
September 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927705/evaluation-of-aluminium-mobilization-from-its-soil-mineral-pools-by-simultaneous-effect-of-aspergillus-strains-acidic-and-chelating-exometabolites
#11
Filip Polák, Martin Urík, Marek Bujdoš, Peter Uhlík, Peter Matúš
This contribution investigates aluminium mobilization from main aluminium pools in soils, phyllosilicates and oxyhydroxides, by acidic and chelating exometabolites of common soil fungi Aspergillus niger and A. clavatus. Their exometabolites' acidity as well as their ability to extract aluminium from solid mineral phases differed significantly during incubation. While both strains are able to mobilize aluminium from boehmite and aluminium oxide mixture to some extent, A. clavatus struggles to mobilize any aluminium from gibbsite...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927347/impact-of-spinal-rod-stiffness-on-porcine-lumbar-biomechanics-finite-element-model-validation-and-parametric-study
#12
Martin Brummund, Vladimir Brailovski, Yvan Petit, Yann Facchinello, Jean-Marc Mac-Thiong
A three-dimensional finite element model of the porcine lumbar spine (L1-L6) was used to assess the effect of spinal rod stiffness on lumbar biomechanics. The model was validated through a comparison with in vitro measurements performed on six porcine spine specimens. The validation metrics employed included intervertebral rotations and the nucleus pressure in the first instrumented intervertebral disc. The numerical results obtained suggest that rod stiffness values as low as 0.1 GPa are required to reduce the mobility gradient between the adjacent and instrumented segments and the nucleus pressures across the porcine lumbar spine significantly...
September 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926098/distinct-mechanisms-of-regulation-of-the-itga6-and-itgb4-genes-by-runx1-in-myeloid-cells
#13
Jessica L Phillips, Phillippa C Taberlay, Alexandra M Woodworth, Kristine Hardy, Kate H Brettingham-Moore, Joanne L Dickinson, Adele F Holloway
Integrins are transmembrane adhesion receptors that play an important role in hematopoiesis by facilitating interactions between hematopoietic cells and extracellular matrix components of the bone marrow and hematopoietic tissues. These interactions are important in regulating the function, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, as well as their homing and mobilization in the bone marrow. Not surprisingly altered expression and function of integrins plays a key role in the development and progression of cancer including leukemias...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925769/how-to-effectively-design-and-create-a-concept-mobile-application-to-aid-in-the-management-of-type-1-diabetes-in-adolescents
#14
Victoria McCulloch, Sarah Hope, Brian Loranger, Paul Rea
Diabetes is one of the most prevalent chronic health conditions in the world; with a range of diabetes-related mobile applications available to the public to aid in glycaemic control and self-management. Statistically, adherence to medication is extremely low in adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM), therefore, this paper focuses on the research and design of an interactive and educational concept mobile application aimed at early to mid-adolescents to aid in their understanding of T1DM. As visual elements are an essential part of the design, this research outlines how visual components were designed specifically for adolescents with T1DM...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924051/the-stress-regulatory-transcription-factors-msn2-and-msn4-regulate-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-budding-yeast
#15
Praveen Kumar Rajvanshi, Madhuri Arya, Ram Rajasekharan
The transcription factors multicopy suppressor of SNF1 mutation (Msn) Msn2 and Msn4 bind the stress-response element in gene promoters in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the roles of Msn2/4 in primary metabolic pathways such as fatty acid β-oxidation are unclear. Here, in silico analysis revealed that the promoters of most genes involved in the biogenesis, function, and regulation of the peroxisome contain Msn2/4 binding sites. We also found that transcript levels of MSN2/MSN4 are increased in glucose-depletion conditions and that during growth in nonpreferred carbon sources, Msn2 is constantly localized to the nucleus in wildtype cells...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923604/study-on-the-excision-and-integration-mediated-by-class-1-integron-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#16
Qun Lin, Pusheng Xu, Jiaowu Li, Jinhua Huang, Yin Chen, Shuhuan Deng
As a novel antibiotic resistance mobile element, integron was recognized as a primary source of antibiotic genes among Gram-positive organisms for its excision and integration of exogenous genes. In this study, Streptococcus pneumoniae was subjected to investigate the excision and integration of class 1 integron with eight different plasmids. As the results indicated, excision in both att site and gene cassettes were successfully observed, which was further confirmed by integration assays and PCR amplification...
September 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920939/imaging-and-tuning-polarity-at-srtio3-domain%C3%A2-walls
#17
Yiftach Frenkel, Noam Haham, Yishai Shperber, Christopher Bell, Yanwu Xie, Zhuoyu Chen, Yasuyuki Hikita, Harold Y Hwang, Ekhard K H Salje, Beena Kalisky
Electrostatic fields tune the ground state of interfaces between complex oxide materials. Electronic properties, such as conductivity and superconductivity, can be tuned and then used to create and control circuit elements and gate-defined devices. Here we show that naturally occurring twin boundaries, with properties that are different from their surrounding bulk, can tune the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface 2DEG at the nanoscale. In particular, SrTiO3 domain boundaries have the unusual distinction of remaining highly mobile down to low temperatures, and were recently suggested to be polar...
September 18, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917733/stabilization-of-gas-phase-uranyl-complexes-enables-rapid-speciation-using-electrospray-ionization-and-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry
#18
Austen L Davis, Brian H Clowers
Significant challenges exist when characterizing f-element complexes in solution using traditional approaches such as electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques as they do not always capture information for lower abundance species. However, provided a metal-complex with sufficient stability, soft ionization techniques such as electrospray offer a means to quantify and probe the characteristics of such systems using mass spectrometry. Unfortunately, the gas-phase species observed in ESI-MS systems do not always reflect the solution phase distributions due to the inherent electrochemical mechanism of the electrospray process, ion transfer from ambient to low pressures conditions, and other factors that are related to droplet evaporation...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916968/hmgb-proteins-and-arthritis
#19
REVIEW
Noboru Taniguchi, Yasuhiko Kawakami, Ikuro Maruyama, Martin Lotz
The high-mobility group box (HMGB) family includes four members: HMGB1, 2, 3 and 4. HMGB proteins have two functions. In the nucleus, HMGB proteins bind to DNA in a DNA structure-dependent but nucleotide sequence-independent manner to function in chromatin remodeling. Extracellularly, HMGB proteins function as alarmins, which are endogenous molecules released upon tissue damage to activate the immune system. HMGB1 acts as a late mediator of inflammation and contributes to prolonged and sustained systemic inflammation in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis...
September 15, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916861/predictors-of-adherence-to-enhanced-recovery-pathway-elements-after-laparoscopic-colorectal-surgery
#20
Juan Mata, Julio F Fiore, Nicolo Pecorelli, Barry L Stein, Sender Liberman, Patrick Charlebois, Liane S Feldman
INTRODUCTION: Enhanced recovery pathways (ERP) include a bundle of evidence-based preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative interventions that together reduce morbidity and length of stay after colorectal surgery. Increased adherence with the bundle is associated with better postoperative outcomes, but adherence is lowest in the postoperative period. Identifying risk factors for lower adherence may help design quality improvement strategies. The aim of this study was to estimate the extent to which patient, procedural, and organizational factors predict adherence to postoperative ERP elements in laparoscopic colorectal surgery...
September 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
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