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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037977/toxocariasis-in-humans-in-africa-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Felix Lötsch, Rieke Vingerling, Rene Spijker, Martin Peter Grobusch
BACKGROUND: Toxocariasis is a globally distributed zoonosis. The most important definitive hosts are dogs, whereas humans serve as paratenic hosts. Transmission to humans occurs by accidental ingestion of eggs, e.g. by consumption of contaminated fruit or vegetables. Although exposure to Toxocara is usually considered as relatively benign, it is implicated in a range of neurological, ophthalmologic and other organ-specific conditions, some of them with grave consequences. This review provides an overview on the epidemiology, presentation and risk factors of exposure to Toxocara in Africa...
October 13, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035863/sero-detection-of-toxocara-canis-infection-in-human-with-t-canis-recombinant-arginine-kinase-cathepsin-l-1-and-tes-26-antigens
#2
Anju Varghese, Opinder K Raina, Dinesh Chandra, Bijay R Mirdha, Naresh H Kelawala, Jayesh B Solanki, Niranjan Kumar, Reghu Ravindran, Anandanarayanan Arun, Ajayta Rialch, Hniang Lalrinkima, Rohan N Kelawala, Subhamoy Samanta
Three recombinant antigens viz. arginine kinase, cathepsin L-1 and TES-26 of Toxocara canis were expressed in Escherichia coli and evaluated for their potential in the detection of T. canis larval infection in human in immunoglobulin G-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (IgG-ELISA). Results of the IgG-ELISA with the above recombinant antigens were confirmed with commercially available IgG detection kit for T. canis infection used as a standard test. All three recombinant antigens were 100% sensitive in the detection of positive cases (n = 6) of T...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035857/humoral-response-of-mice-infected-with-toxocara-canis-following-different-infection-schemes
#3
Jan Novák, Lucie Panská, Tomáš Macháček, Libuše Kolářová, Petr Horák
The study was focused on the dynamics of humoral response to Toxocara canis excretory-secretory antigens (TES antigens) in mice experimentally infected by T. canis L3 larvae in different ways. In particular, we compared the effect of infection with two doses of 1000 larvae vs. repeated infections with a low number of larvae (daily infection with 10 larvae and weekly infection with 100 larvae in the course of 22 weeks). In ELISA, all infections, including both schemes with lower larval doses, elicited significant antibody response...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034414/occurrence-and-zoonotic-potential-of-endoparasites-in-cats-of-cyprus-and-a-new-distribution-area-for-troglostrongylus-brevior
#4
Anastasia Diakou, Dimitra Sofroniou, Angela Di Cesare, Panagiotis Kokkinos, Donato Traversa
The present study investigated for the first time the occurrence of pulmonary and intestinal parasites of cats in Cyprus. Cats from five districts of Cyprus (Lefkosia, Lemesos, Larnaka, Pafos and Ammochostos) were examined by classical parasitological methods and the identity of lungworm larvae, whenever present, was confirmed by PCR-coupled sequencing. A total of 185 cats, 48 living exclusively indoors and 137 with outdoor access, were included in the study. Parasites were found in 66 (35.7%) of the examined cats, i...
October 16, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027596/10-year-parasitological-examination-results-2003-to-2012-of-faecal-samples-from-horses-ruminants-pigs-dogs-cats-rabbits-and-hedgehogs
#5
Katharina Raue, Lea Heuer, Claudia Böhm, Sonja Wolken, Christian Epe, Christina Strube
The results of coproscopical examinations in domestic animals and hedgehogs carried out as routine diagnostics in the years 2003 to 2012 at the Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany, are presented. Of 3475 horse faecal samples, 30.1% contained stages of strongyles and 1.3% eggs of Strongyloides westeri and Parascaris equorum, respectively. The most frequently observed parasite stages in 1416 cattle faecal samples were Eimeria oocysts (21.3%) and strongyle eggs or larvae (15...
October 13, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020386/seroprevalence-of-antibodies-to-toxocara-species-in-the-united-states-and-associated-risk-factors-2011-2014
#6
Eugene W Liu, Holly M Chastain, Sun Hee Shin, Ryan Wiegand, Deanna Kruszon-Moran, Sukwan Handali, Jeffrey L Jones
Background: Toxocariasis results from infection with larval stages of a dog and cat intestinal nematode and causes human morbidity. The current US estimate of Toxocara exposure is 13.9% (NHANES III 1988-1994). Methods: We used a multiplex bead based assay (Tc-CTL-1MBA) with purified Toxocara canis antigen to estimate Toxocara antibody seroprevalence in serum of 13,509 persons six years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011-2014 and identified seropositivity risk factors...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016326/human-intestinal-parasite-burden-and-poor-sanitation-in-rural-alabama
#7
Megan L McKenna, Shannon McAtee, Patricia E Bryan, Rebecca Jeun, Tabitha Ward, Jacob Kraus, Maria E Bottazzi, Peter J Hotez, Catherine C Flowers, Rojelio Mejia
Hookworm infection affects 430 million people worldwide, causing iron deficiency, impaired cognitive development, and stunting in children. Because of the environmental conditions needed for the hookworm life-cycle, this parasite is endemic to resource-limited countries. Necator americanus was endemic in the southern United States before improvement of sewage disposal systems and eradication programs. With continued poverty, poor sanitation, and an environment suitable for the hookworm life-cycle in some regions of the southern United States, a current prevalence study using modern molecular diagnostics is warranted...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016316/toxocara-seroprevalence-and-associated-risk-factors-in-the-united-states
#8
Andrew N Berrett, Lance D Erickson, Shawn D Gale, Allison Stone, Bruce L Brown, Dawson W Hedges
Caused by the parasitic nematodes Toxocara canis and cati, toxocariasis in humans can result in covert toxocariasis, ocular toxocariasis, visceral larval migrans, and neurotoxocariasis. A common infection, toxocariasis exposure varies widely within and between countries, with a previous estimate of Toxocara seroprevalence using data from 1988 to 1994 in the United States of approximately 13%. Age, poverty, sex, educational attainment, ethnicity, and region have been associated with Toxocara seroprevalence. In this study, we sought to determine the seroprevalence of and factors associated with Toxocara seropositivity in the United States using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2011 to 2014 to provide a more recent estimate of Toxocara seroprevalence in the United States...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984036/a-cross-sectional-study-of-intestinal-parasitoses-in-dogs-and-children-of-the-periurban-area-of-la-plata-buenos-aires-argentina-zoonotic-importance-and-implications-in-public-health
#9
P Cociancic, M L Zonta, G T Navone
A cross-sectional study was performed between school term dates 2014 and 2015 to diagnose intestinal parasites in dogs and children living with them. The socio-environmental characteristics and hygiene practices of the children were also evaluated in terms of risk factors for parasitic infection of periurban neighbourhoods of La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Serial coproparasitological samples of 78 dogs and 211 children were analysed by means of concentration and flotation techniques. Socio-environmental variables and hygiene practices of children were evaluated through semi-structured questionnaires which were answered by every family...
October 5, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980560/-specific-immunoglobulins-g-and-m-in-blood-serum-in-retinoblastoma-and-pseudoretinoblastoma
#10
S V Saakyan, L A Katargina, G I Krichevskaya, E B Myakoshina, E V Denisova
Perinatal inflammatory retinal diseases and intrauterine retinal maldevelopments are mistaken for retinoblastoma as often as in 8-16% of cases. AIM: To analyze the infectious status in children with retinoblastoma and pseudoretinoblastoma at different ages. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 47 retinoblastoma suspects aged 4-69 months were enrolled. Pseudoretinoblastoma (inflammatory retinal diseases and intrauterine maldevelopments of the retina) was detected in 14 children (group 1), retinoblastoma - in 33 children (group 2)...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969828/examination-of-anonymous-canine-faecal-samples-provides-data-on-endoparasite-prevalence-rates-in-dogs-for-comparative-studies
#11
Barbara Hinney, Michaela Gottwald, Jasmine Moser, Bianca Reicher, Bhavapriya Jasmin Schäfer, Roland Schaper, Anja Joachim, Frank Künzel
Several endoparasites of dogs cannot only be detrimental to their primary host but might also represent a threat to human health because of their zoonotic potential. Due to their high dog population densities, metropolitan areas can be highly endemic for such parasites. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of endoparasites in dogs in the Austrian capital of Vienna by examining a representative number of canine faecal samples and to compare the prevalences with two neighbouring peri-urban and rural regions. In addition we analysed whether the density of dog populations and cleanliness of dog zones correlated with parasite occurrence...
October 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969780/experimental-transmission-of-toxocara-canis-from-blattella-germanica-and-periplaneta-americana-cockroaches-to-a-paratenic-host
#12
T González-García, M A Muñoz-Guzmán, H Sánchez-Arroyo, M G Prado-Ochoa, J A Cuéllar-Ordaz, F Alba-Hurtado
The present study assessed the capacity of Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana to disseminate and transmit infective phases of T. canis to rats, which were used as a model paratenic host. P. americana and B. germanica inoculated orally with T. canis larvated eggs shed eggs and larvae in their fecal matter during the first 6days post-inoculation. Larvae were recovered from the brain, lungs, kidneys and liver of rats that had been inoculated with either infected cockroaches or their feces. ELISAs of serum detected an increase of antibodies anti-T...
November 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948806/toxocara-spp-seronegativity-in-czech-patients-with-early-form-of-multiple-sclerosis-clinically-isolated-syndrome
#13
H Posová, Z Hrušková, E Havrdová, L Kolářová
BACKGROUND: Helminth infections were reported to slightly modulate the host immune system response and decrease the risk of an autoimmune disorder, but on the other hand any infection may activate the immune system and trigger autoimmune reaction. In this study, we aimed to measure eosinophil levels and antibodies against Toxocara spp. in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In total, 220 CIS patients and 62 MS patients were examined...
2017: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947905/urban-dog-parks-as-sources-of-canine-parasites-contamination-rates-and-pet-owner-behaviours-in-lisbon-portugal
#14
Ana Ferreira, Ana Margarida Alho, David Otero, Lídia Gomes, Rolf Nijsse, Paul A M Overgaauw, Luís Madeira de Carvalho
Dog parks represent a recent trend in western countries, enabling owners to spend quality time with their pets in a controlled environment. Despite their growing popularity, few studies have been performed to date on these parks to investigate dog intestinal parasitic infections and soil contamination. The present study examined 369 faecal and 18 soil samples collected from 3 dog parks in Greater Lisbon, Portugal. Additionally, 102 interviews were performed with dog owners to assess dog-walking behaviours and parasite risk...
2017: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927435/detection-and-quantification-of-spirocerca-lupi-by-hrm-qpcr-in-fecal-samples-from-dogs-with-spirocercosis
#15
Alicia Rojas, Gilad Segev, Alex Markovics, Itamar Aroch, Gad Baneth
BACKGROUND: Spirocerca lupi, the dog oesophageal nematode, causes a potentially fatal disease in domestic dogs, and is currently clinically diagnosed by coproscopy and oesophagoscopy. To date, a single molecular method, a semi-nested PCR, targeting the cox1 gene, has been developed to aid in the diagnosis of spirocercosis. The present study describes three novel high-resolution melt (HRM) quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting fragments of the ITS1, 18S and cytb loci of S. lupi. The performance of these molecular assays in feces was compared to fecal flotation and to the previously described cox1 gene semi-nested PCR in 18 fecal samples from dogs with clinical oesophageal spirocercosis diagnosed by oesophagoscopy...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926748/association-between-infection-burden-and-adult-height
#16
Dawson W Hedges, Andrew N Berrett, Lance D Erickson, Bruce L Brown, Shawn D Gale
Although highly heritable, adult height is also associated with numerous environmental factors, including exposure to infection. Particularly in developing regions of the world, infection burden appears to slow growth during childhood. Using a large database representative of the US population, we examined associations between adult height and leg length and an infection-burden index based on past exposure to Toxocara species, Toxoplasmosis gondii, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, herpes simplex virus 1, and herpes simplex virus 2...
September 2, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917315/protective-and-risk-factors-associated-with-the-presence-of-toxocara-spp-eggs-in-dog-hair
#17
Yslla Fernanda Fitz Balo Merigueti, Vamilton Alvares Santarém, Lívia Magosso Ramires, Aline da Silveira Batista, Layron Vinícus da Costa Beserra, Amábyle Lopes Nuci, Talita Mirella de Paula Esposte
Toxocariasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic zoonoses in the world. The disease is principally caused by the nematode Toxocara canis, whose definitive host is the dog. The transmission of toxocariasis to humans is mainly caused by accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs of the parasite, present in the soil. Studies have shown that dog hair has the capacity to harbor eggs of the parasite and represents a risk for transmission of the zoonosis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequency and factors associated with the contamination of dog hair by Toxocara spp...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915831/a-synoptic-overview-of-golden-jackal-parasites-reveals-high-diversity-of-species
#18
REVIEW
Călin Mircea Gherman, Andrei Daniel Mihalca
The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is a species under significant and fast geographic expansion. Various parasites are known from golden jackals across their geographic range, and certain groups can be spread during their expansion, increasing the risk of cross-infection with other carnivores or even humans. The current list of the golden jackal parasites includes 194 species and was compiled on the basis of an extensive literature search published from historical times until April 2017, and is shown herein in synoptic tables followed by critical comments of the various findings...
September 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914186/viral-and-parasitic-pathogen-burden-and-the-association-with-stroke-in-a-population-based-cohort
#19
Brad D Pearce, Anna Bracher, Jeffrey L Jones, Deanna Kruszon-Moran
Background Higher cumulative burden of viral and bacterial pathogens may increase the risk of stroke, but the contribution of parasitic infections in relation to cumulative pathogen burden and risk of stroke has rarely been examined. Aim To estimate the association of multiple persistent viral and parasitic infections with stroke in a representative sample of adults in the United States. Methods Serological evidence of prior infection was categorized as positive for 0-1, 2, 3, or 4-5 infections based on immunoglobulin G seropositivity to cytomegalovirus, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Toxocara spp...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912965/medically-important-parasites-carried-by-cockroaches-in-melong-subdivision-littoral-cameroon
#20
R J Atiokeng Tatang, H G Tsila, J Wabo Poné
Cockroaches have been recognized as mechanical vectors of pathogens that can infest humans or animals. A total of 844 adult cockroaches (436 males and 408 females) were caught. In the laboratory, cockroaches were first washed in saturated salt solution to remove ectoparasites and then rinsed with 70% alcohol, dried, and dissected for endoparasites. An overall transport rate of 47.39% was recorded. Six genera of parasites were identified. These were Ascaris (33.76%), Trichuris (11.97%), Capillaria (6.16%), Toxocara (4...
2017: Journal of Parasitology Research
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