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Fengguang Guo, Martin S Forde, Stephen R Werre, Rosina C Krecek, Guan Zhu
To date, published epidemiological studies of parasitic infections in humans in the Caribbean region are very limited. Here, we report the seroprevalence of five parasitic pathogens, including Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Schistosoma mansoni, and Toxocara canis in 435 serum samples collected between 2008 and 2011 from pregnant women in ten Caribbean islands. We tested the serum samples for IgG antibodies against the five parasites by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
October 24, 2016: Parasitology Research
Do Yeh Yoon, Se Joon Woo
PURPOSE: To report a case of a choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to ocular toxocariasis treated with intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents. METHODS: A 66-year-old woman presented with decreased vision (20/40) and metamorphopsia in the right eye. Fundus examination revealed inferotemporal retinal whitish lesion and subretinal hemorrhage in the right eye. RESULTS: She was diagnosed with ocular toxocariasis based on the clinical features and positive serological anti-toxocara antibody test result...
October 24, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Steffen Rehbein, Martin Knaus, Yasmina Mallouk, Tatjana Breiltgens, Emanuele Brianti, Balázs Capári, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Michel Gau, Anja Joachim, Karl-Heinz Kaulfuß, Zvezdelina Kirkova, Joerg Lechner, Andrei D Mihalca, Rosamaria Mirabito, Saulius Petkevičius, Dhimitër Rapti, Enstela Shukullari, Michel Sedeilhan, Doris Dollhofer, Katrin Kley, Wilfried Lebon, Martin Visser, Philippe Jeannin
Afoxolaner (AFX) plus milbemycin oxime (MO) combination chewable tablets (NexGard Spectra®, Merial) were evaluated for safety and efficacy against naturally acquired nematode infections in domestic dogs in a multi-centre, positive control, blinded field study using a randomized block design based on the order of presentation for allocation. In total, 408 dogs confirmed positive for naturally acquired infections of intestinal nematodes by pre-treatment faecal examination were studied in ten countries in Europe (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Romania and Slovakia)...
October 22, 2016: Parasitology Research
Mirjam Duijvestijn, Lapo Mughini-Gras, Nancy Schuurman, Wim Schijf, Jaap A Wagenaar, Herman Egberink
Laboratory confirmation of the causative agent(s) of diarrhoea in puppies may allow for appropriate treatment. The presence of potential pathogens however, does not prove a causal relationship with diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to identify specific enteropathogens in ≤12 month old puppies with and without acute diarrhoea and to assess their associations with clinical signs, putative risk factors and pathogen co-occurrence. Faecal samples from puppies with (n=113) and without (n=56) acute diarrhoea were collected and screened for Canine Parvovirus (CPV), Canine Coronavirus (CCoV), Salmonella spp...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Agnieszka Antonowicz, Piotr Skrzypczyk, Beata Kępa, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
: Toxocariasis is a common zoonosis caused by infection with Toxocara canis or cati larvae. Ocular toxocariasis is one of the forms of infestation found in 1/1,000 - 1/10,000 children. Children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) are at high risk of infections, also parasitic infestations, which can, in turn, cause relapses of the disease. A CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 6-year-old boy with steroiddependent nephrotic syndrome. The disease started at age of 2, the boy had 9 relapses of INS, and was treated with oral prednisone, levamisole, and cyclophosphamide...
October 19, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Ricardo da Silva Raposo, Vamilton Alvares Santarém, Yslla Fernanda Fitz Balo Merigueti, Guita Rubinsky-Elefant, Letícia Maria de Lima Cerazo, Ludimilla Pereira, Bianca Pelegi Zampieri, Aristeu Vieira da Silva, Cecília Braga Laposy
Toxocariasis is a geohelminth zoonosis with worldwide distribution, mainly transmitted through the ingestion of embryonated eggs of nematodes of the Toxocara genus. The disease can also be transmitted to humans as a result of eating raw or undercooked meat of paratenic hosts, such as chickens. Here, we standardized an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for evaluating experimentally the kinetic and avidity index (AI) of IgY in broiler chickens infected with different doses of Toxocara canis eggs (G1:100; G2: 1000; and G3: 5000; n = 12 per group)...
October 13, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Whitni K Redman, Jay E Bryant, Gul Ahmad
AIM: This survey was carried out on the carcasses of 29 coyotes from Southeastern Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa to document the helminths present in the intestinal track of these carnivorous animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 29 adult coyote carcasses were generously donated in the autumn and winter (November-February) of 2014-2015 by trappers, fur buyers and hunters of Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa. The intestine of individual animals were examined for the recovery of helminth parasites as per the established procedures...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Brian Lassen, Marilin Janson, Arvo Viltrop, Kädi Neare, Pirje Hütt, Irina Golovljova, Lea Tummeleht, Pikka Jokelainen
We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14-18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T...
2016: PloS One
Rolf Nijsse, Lapo Mughini-Gras, Jaap A Wagenaar, Harm W Ploeger
BACKGROUND: To reduce environmental contamination with Toxocara canis eggs, the current general advice is to deworm all dogs older than six months on average four times a year. However, only a small proportion of non-juvenile household dogs actually shed T. canis eggs, and some dogs shed eggs more frequently than others. The identification of these frequent shedders and the associated risk factors is an important cornerstone for constructing evidence-based deworming regimens. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors associated with recurrence of periods of shedding Toxocara eggs in a cohort of household dogs older than six months...
October 4, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Angela Perri, Susann Heinrich, Shira Gur-Arieh, Jeffrey J Saunders
The study of fossil parasites can provide insight into the antiquity of host-parasite relationships and the origins and evolution of these paleoparasites. Here, a coprolite (fossilized feces) from the 1.2-million-year-old paleontological site of Haro River Quarry in northwestern Pakistan was analyzed for paleoparasites. Micromorphological thin sectioning and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) analysis confirms the coprolite belonged to a bone-eating carnivore, likely the extinct giant short-faced hyena (Pachycrocuta brevirostris)...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Márcia B Silva, Ana L M Amor, Leonardo N Santos, Alana A Galvão, Aida Y Oviedo V, Eduardo S Silva, Cynara Gomes Barbosa, Philip J Cooper, Camila A Figueiredo, Rita de Cassia Ribeiro, Neuza Maria Alcântara-Neves
In the present article, we provide shortly, data on risk factors for acquiring Toxocara spp. infection and investigate possible associations between this infection with atopy and asthma in school children of a small town and its semi-rural areas of Northeast Brazil. The data set are composed by demographic, social and home environment variables. The detection of anti-Toxocara spp. IgG and specific IgE to aeroallergens was determined by ELISA and ImmunocAP/Phadiatrope systems, respectively. The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled "Risk factors for Toxocara spp...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Gabriela Torres Mattos, Paula Costa Dos Santos, Paula de Lima Telmo, Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne, Carlos James Scaini
Human toxocariasis is a neglected parasitic disease worldwide. Researchers studying this disease use infectious strains of Toxocara for experiments. Health workers are at risk in the course of their daily routine and must adhere to biosafety standards while carrying out the activities. Researchers on biosafety concerning working with these parasites are insufficient. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of seroprevalence of Toxocara species among health-care research laboratory workers (professors, technicians, and students), and to investigate the risk factors of Toxocara infection associated with laboratory practices...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jolanta Zdybel, Jacek Karamon, Mirosław Różycki, Ewa Bilska-Zając, Teresa Kłapeć, Tomasz Cencek
Because traditional methods used for sewage sludge parasitological examinations have low sensitivity, a new, highly effective method (own method - OM) was devised. The principle of this method is to eliminate the flocculent effect on the structure of sewage sludge by mechanically damaging floccules in the presence of surfactants and to increase the effectiveness of egg isolation processes in large volumes of liquids. The objective of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of the OM in detecting nematode eggs in sewage sludge samples containing flocculants...
September 28, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Catalina Vargas, Patricio Torres, María Isabel Jercic, Marta Lobos, Alan Oyarce, Juan Carlos Miranda, Salvador Ayala
The frequency of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in individuals attended by the Centro de Salud Familiar in the coastal Niebla town, Chile, was related to the host and to environmental factors. IgG anti- Toxocara antibodies were detected with a commercial ELISA kit (SCIMEDX Corporation, USA). Samples with undetermined absorbance values were subjected to an additional ELISA standardized by the Instituto de Salud Pública, Chilean Health Ministry, a commercial ELISA (NOVATEC, Germany), and a commercial Western blot kit (LDBio Diagnostics, France)...
2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Rita Leal Sperotto, Frederico Schmitt Kremer, Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne, Luciana F Costa de Avila, Luciano da Silva Pinto, Karina Mariante Monteiro, Karin Silva Caumo, Henrique Bunselmeyer Ferreira, Natália Berne, Sibele Borsuk
Toxocariasis is a neglected disease, and its main etiological agent is the nematode Toxocara canis. Serological diagnosis is performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using T. canis excretory and secretory (TES) antigens produced by in vitro cultivation of larvae. Identification of TES proteins can be useful for the development of new diagnostic strategies since few TES components have been described so far. Herein, we report the results obtained by proteomic analysis of TES proteins using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach...
September 13, 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
R Nijsse, H W Ploeger, J A Wagenaar, L Mughini-Gras
The prevalence of and risk factors for shedding Toxocara eggs in cats older than 6 months were determined by examining 670 faecal samples collected in 4 cross-sectional studies in the Netherlands. Additionally, cat owners provided information on their attitude towards routine deworming. Samples were examined using the centrifugal sedimentation flotation method. Overall Toxocara prevalence was 7.2 %. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that young age and living in rural areas were significant risk factors for shedding Toxocara eggs...
September 17, 2016: Parasitology Research
Ana M Olave, Jairo A Mesa, Jorge H Botero, Edwin B Patiño, Gisela M García, Juan F Alzate
INTRODUCTION: Toxocara canis is a pathogenic nematode of canines which can be accidentally transmitted to humans. Although serology is the most important diagnostic tool for this zoonosis, diagnostic kits use crude excretion/secretion antigens, most of them being glycoproteins which are not species-specific and may cross-react with antibodies generated against other parasites.  OBJECTIVES: To produce the rTES-30 recombinant antigen of Toxocara canis and evaluate it in the immunodiagnosis of toxocariasis...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Divyamol Thomas, N Jeyathilakan, S Abdul Basith, T M A Senthilkumar
Toxocara canis is a widespread gastrointestinal nematode parasite of dogs and cause Toxocara larva migrans, an important zoonotic disease in humans on ingestion of infective eggs. Toxocarosis is one of the few human parasitic diseases whose serodiagnosis uses a standardized antigen, T. canis excretory secretory antigen (TES). The present study describes collection of T. canis adult worm, collection and embryonation of T. canis eggs, hatching and separation of T. canis larvae, in vitro maintenance of T. canis second stage larvae for production of TES, concentration of culture fluid TES and yield of TES in correlation with various methods cited in literature...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Adel M Farghly, Sabah M A Mohamed, Sara A Abdel-Rahman, Faten E Mohammed, Enas S El-Bahaie, Mahmoud A El-Shafey
Soil transmitted helminths are highly prevalent throughout the developing countries of the world and Egypt is categorized as one of the developing countries. This study aimed to detect the relation between the presence and prevalence of STH in the soil and their reflection on the prevalence among school-children living in rural and urban areas in Zagazig district, Egypt. The present study was carried out on (859) school-children aged 6-13 years in Zagazig district all over the year 2013. They were subjected to stool examination...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Shahabeddin Sarvi, Ahmad Daryani, Mahdi Sharif, Mohammad Taghi Rahimi, Davood Azami, Zahra Marhaba, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Azadeh Mizani
An epidemiological study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminthic parasites of domestic dogs using stool samples in north of Iran in 2013. Stool samples (n = 100) were collected from domestic dogs of different ages and genders. Different techniques including wet smear, formalin-ether sedimentation method and flotation technique in saturated zinc chloride solution were performed on collected stools to detect eggs and larval stage of helminthes parasites. The overall prevalence of helminthic parasites of examined stools of dogs was 57 %...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
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