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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531952/groundwater-quality-in-the-alluvial-aquifer-system-of-northwest-india-new-evidence-of-the-extent-of-anthropogenic-and-geogenic-contamination
#1
D J Lapworth, G Krishan, A M MacDonald, M S Rao
Groundwater depletion has been widely studied in northwest India, but water quality concerns are still poorly constrained. In this study, we explore the hydrochemistry of the top 160m of the aquifer system, through detailed field studies in the Bist-Doab region, considering both anthropogenic and geogenic controls. A detailed comparison is made between sites dominated by urban and agricultural landuse. Salinity, nitrate, chloride and lead concentrations are significantly higher in the shallow (0-50m) groundwater system due to surface anthropogenic contaminant loading from agricultural and urban sources...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531908/methods-and-reporting-studies-assessing-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-a-systematic-review
#2
Aïda Bafeta, Amelie Yavchitz, Carolina Riveros, Rui Batista, Philippe Ravaud
Background: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could be a novel treatment option for several chronic diseases associated with altered gut microbiota. Purpose: To examine the conduct and reporting of studies assessing FMT. Data Sources: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science from inception to 31 January 2017. Study Selection: Two reviewers independently examined titles and abstracts to identify all English-language reports of human clinical studies assessing the safety or efficacy of FMT...
May 23, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531829/prevalence-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-in-europe-a-meta-analysis
#3
Claire E Eades, Dawn M Cameron, Josie M M Evans
AIMS: Estimates of the prevalence of gestational diabetes vary widely. It is important to have a clear understanding of the prevalence of this condition to be able to plan interventions and health care provision. This paper describes a meta-analysis of primary research data reporting the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in the general pregnant population of developed countries in Europe. METHODS: Four electronic databases were systematically searched in May 2016...
May 9, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531771/preventive-effect-of-l-carnitine-and-its-derivatives-on-endothelial-dysfunction-and-platelet-aggregation
#4
REVIEW
Mohammad Mohammadi, Azita Hajhossein Talasaz, Mohammad Alidoosti
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Oxidative stress plays an important role in platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction. Exogenous and endogenous reactive oxygen species are associated with platelet activation and vascular dysfunction. Antioxidants have been shown to attenuate oxidative stress and consequently endothelial dysfunction by preventing inflammation, regulating vascular tone, and promoting antiadhesive and antithrombotic properties. l-carnitine and its derivatives have been demonstrated to improve endothelial and platelet function against oxidative stress by several mechanisms, some of which cannot be found in other antioxidants...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531339/limtox-a-web-tool-for-applied-text-mining-of-adverse-event-and-toxicity-associations-of-compounds-drugs-and-genes
#5
Andres Cañada, Salvador Capella-Gutierrez, Obdulia Rabal, Julen Oyarzabal, Alfonso Valencia, Martin Krallinger
A considerable effort has been devoted to retrieve systematically information for genes and proteins as well as relationships between them. Despite the importance of chemical compounds and drugs as a central bio-entity in pharmacological and biological research, only a limited number of freely available chemical text-mining/search engine technologies are currently accessible. Here we present LimTox (Literature Mining for Toxicology), a web-based online biomedical search tool with special focus on adverse hepatobiliary reactions...
May 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531183/a-scoping-review-on-bio-aerosols-in-healthcare-and-the-dental-environment
#6
Charifa Zemouri, Hans de Soet, Wim Crielaard, Alexa Laheij
BACKGROUND: Bio-aerosols originate from different sources and their potentially pathogenic nature may form a hazard to healthcare workers and patients. So far no extensive review on existing evidence regarding bio-aerosols is available. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to review evidence on bio-aerosols in healthcare and the dental setting. The objectives were 1) What are the sources that generate bio-aerosols?; 2) What is the microbial load and composition of bio-aerosols and how were they measured?; and 3) What is the hazard posed by pathogenic micro-organisms transported via the aerosol route of transmission? METHODS: Systematic scoping review design...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530519/does-a-one-size-fits-all-cost-sharing-approach-incentivize-appropriate-medication-use-a-roundtable-on-the-fairness-and-ethics-associated-with-variable-cost-sharing
#7
Jennifer S Graff, Chuck Shih, Thomas Barker, Gabriela Dieguez, Cheryl Larson, Helen Sherman, Robert W Dubois
BACKGROUND: Tiered formularies, in which patients pay copays or coinsurance out-of-pocket (OOP), are used to manage costs and encourage more efficient health care resource use. Formulary tiers are typically based on the cost of treatment rather than the medical appropriateness for the patient. Cost sharing may have unintended consequences on treatment adherence and health outcomes. Use of higher-cost, higher-tier medications can be due to a variety of factors, including unsuccessful treatment because of lack of efficacy or side effects, patient clinical or genetic characteristics, patient preferences to avoid potential side effects, or patient preferences based on the route of administration...
June 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530410/correction-to-kujawa-proudfit-and-klein-2014
#8
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Neural reactivity to rewards and losses in offspring of mothers and fathers with histories of depressive and anxiety disorders" by Autumn Kujawa, Greg Hajcak Proudfit and Daniel N. Klein (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2014[May], Vol 123[2], 287-297). In the original article, there was an error in the Measures section. The article stated that the EEG data were band-pass filtered with cutoffs of 0.1 and 30 Hz and baseline corrected using the 200 ms interval prior to feedback. Instead, the data were actually filtered with cutoffs of 0...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530044/a-review-of-transition-experiences-in-perinatally-and-behaviourally-acquired-hiv-1-infection-same-same-but-different
#9
Phung Khanh Lam, Sarah Fidler, Caroline Foster
INTRODUCTION: Despite sharing common psychosocial and developmental experiences, adolescents living with perinatally and behaviourally acquired HIV-1 infection are different in terms of timing of HIV infection and developmental stage at infection. Therefore, it is of interest to identify similarities and differences between these two groups of adolescents living with HIV in their experiences, facilitators and barriers during the transition process. METHODS: A detailed literature search of peer-reviewed published papers was conducted on PubMed to identify relevant original research or viewpoints published up to September 2016...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530040/adolescents-with-hiv-and-transition-to-adult-care-in-the-caribbean-central-america-and-south-america-eastern-europe-and-asia-and-pacific-regions
#10
Heather Bailey, Maria Letícia Santos Cruz, Wipaporn Natalie Songtaweesin, Thanyawee Puthanakit
INTRODUCTION: The HIV epidemics in the Caribbean, Central America and South America (CCASA), Eastern Europe (EE) and Asia and Pacific (AP) regions are diverse epidemics affecting different key populations in predominantly middle-income countries. This narrative review describes the populations of HIV-positive youth approaching adolescence and adulthood in CCASA, EE and AP, what is known of their outcomes in paediatric and adult care to date, ongoing research efforts and future research priorities...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529914/characteristics-of-postintensive-care-syndrome-in-survivors-of-pediatric-critical-illness-a-systematic-review
#11
Elizabeth A Herrup, Beth Wieczorek, Sapna R Kudchadkar
AIM: To synthesize the available evidence focusing on morbidities in pediatric survivors of critical illness that fall within the defined construct of postintensive care syndrome (PICS) in adults, including physical, neurocognitive and psychological morbidities. METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and CINAHL using controlled vocabulary and key word terms to identify studies reporting characteristics of PICS in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients...
May 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529448/systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-foodservice-interventions-and-their-effect-on-nutritional-outcomes-and-satisfaction-of-adult-oncology-patients
#12
REVIEW
Elizabeth Doyle, Natalie Simmance, Helen Wilding, Judi Porter
AIM: An understanding of effective foodservice interventions on nutrition outcomes in adult patients with cancer is required to support clinical decision making. This systematic review aimed to determine the effect of foodservice interventions across a range of nutritional outcomes and satisfaction of hospitalised and ambulatory adult oncology patients. METHODS: The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42016045772). Six databases were searched using search terms associated with the intervention and population...
April 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528644/bypassing-negative-epistasis-on-yield-in-tomato-imposed-by-a-domestication-gene
#13
Sebastian Soyk, Zachary H Lemmon, Matan Oved, Josef Fisher, Katie L Liberatore, Soon Ju Park, Anna Goren, Ke Jiang, Alexis Ramos, Esther van der Knaap, Joyce Van Eck, Dani Zamir, Yuval Eshed, Zachary B Lippman
Selection for inflorescence architecture with improved flower production and yield is common to many domesticated crops. However, tomato inflorescences resemble wild ancestors, and breeders avoided excessive branching because of low fertility. We found branched variants carry mutations in two related transcription factors that were selected independently. One founder mutation enlarged the leaf-like organs on fruits and was selected as fruit size increased during domestication. The other mutation eliminated the flower abscission zone, providing "jointless" fruit stems that reduced fruit dropping and facilitated mechanical harvesting...
May 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528446/microsolvation-effects-on-the-reactivity-of-oxy-nucleophiles-the-case-of-gas-phase-sn2-reactions-of-yo-ch3oh-n-1-2-towards-ch3cl
#14
Liu Yun-Yun, Qiu Fang-Zhou, Zhu Jun, Ren Yi, Lau Kai-Chung
The modified G4(MP2) method was applied to explore microsolvation effects on the reactivity of four solvated normal oxy-nucleophiles YO(-)(CH3OH) n=1,2 (Y = CH3, C2H5, FC2H4, ClC2H4), and five α-oxy-nucleophiles YO(-)(CH3OH) n=1,2 (Y = HO, CH3O, F, Cl, Br), in gas-phase SN2 reactions towards the substrate CH3Cl. Based on a Brønsted-type plot, our calculations reveal that the overall activation barriers of five microsolvated α-oxy-nucleophiles are obviously smaller than the prediction from the correlation line constructed by four normal microsolvated ones to different degrees, and clearly demonstrate the existence of an α-effect in the presence of one or two methanol molecule(s)...
June 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528382/optimal-production-of-a-rhodococcus-erythropolis-atcc-4277-biocatalyst-for-biodesulfurization-and-biodenitrogenation-applications
#15
Diego Todescato, Danielle Maass, Diego Alex Mayer, J Vladimir Oliveira, Débora de Oliveira, Selene M A Guelli Ulson de Souza, Antônio Augusto Ulson de Souza
Rhodococcus sp. has a broad catabolic diversity and unique enzymatic capabilities, and it is able to adapt under extreme conditions. Thereby, the production of this remarkable bacterium has a great biotechnological and industrial importance. In this sense, we sought to improve the R. erythropolis ATCC 4277 growth through a central composite design, by varying the components of nutrient medium (glucose, malt extract, yeast extract, CaCO3), temperature, and agitation. It was found that the concentrations of glucose and malt extract are not statistically significant, being reduced of 4...
May 20, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528381/metal-chelate-affinity-precipitation-with-thermo-responsive-polymer-for-purification-of-%C3%AE%C2%B5-poly-l-lysine
#16
Sipeng Li, Zhaoyang Ding, Jifu Liu, Xuejun Cao
ε-Poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) is a natural preservative for food processing industry. A thermo-responsive polymer, attached with Cu(2+) or Ni(2+), was prepared for metal-chelate affinity precipitation for purification of ε-PL. The low critical solution temperatures (LCSTs) of these polymers were close to the room temperature (31.0-35.0 °C). The optimal adsorption conditions were as follows: pH 4.0, 0 mol/L NaCl, ligand density 75.00 μmol/g, and 120 min. The ligand Cu(2+) showed a stronger affinity interaction with ε-PL and the highest adsorption amount reached 251...
May 20, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528328/24th-european-congress-on-obesity-eco2017-porto-portugal-may-17-20-2017-abstracts
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528213/optimal-electrostatic-interactions-between-substrate-and-protein-are-essential-for-radical-chemistry-in-ornithine-4-5-aminomutase
#18
Caitlyn Makins, Douglas A Whitelaw, Michael McGregor, Alix Petit, Robert G Mothersole, Kathleen E Prosser, Kirsten R Wolthers
Ornithine 4,5-aminomutase (OAM) from Clostridium sticklandii is an adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes a 1,2-amino shift, interconverting D-ornithine and 2S, 4R-diaminopentanoate. The reaction occurs via a radical-based mechanism whereby a PLP-bound substrate radical undergoes intramolecular isomerization via an azacyclopropylcarbinyl radical intermediate. Herein, we investigated the catalytic role of active site residues that form non-covalent interactions with PLP and/or substrate, D-ornithine...
May 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528208/mentoring-interventions-and-the-impact-of-protective-assets-on-the-reproductive-health-of-adolescent-girls-and-young-women
#19
REVIEW
Kate F Plourde, Nicole B Ippoliti, Geeta Nanda, Donna R McCarraher
Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) are disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS and other negative reproductive health (RH) outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that programs to build AGYW's assets can help reduce their vulnerability to poor RH. Mentoring interventions have demonstrated a positive impact on a variety of youth development outcomes, including the protective assets needed to circumvent poor RH outcomes. The purpose of this review was to understand the types of mentoring programs for AGYW that have demonstrated effectiveness in improving protective assets, and/or, RH knowledge, intentions, behaviors, or outcomes themselves...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527730/experiences-of-the-screening-process-and-the-diagnosis-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-among-65-year-old-men-from-invitation-to-a-1-year-surveillance
#20
Monica Pettersson, Anders Hansson, John Brodersen, Christine Kumlien
The prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is reported to be 2.2%-8% among men >65 years. During recent years, screening programs have been developed to detect AAA, prevent ruptures, and thereby saving lives. Therefore, most men with the diagnosis are monitored conservatively with regular reviews. The objective of the study was to describe how men diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysm <55 mm discovered by screening experience the process and diagnosis from invitation to 1 year after screening...
June 2017: Journal of Vascular Nursing: Official Publication of the Society for Peripheral Vascular Nursing
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