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pediatric triage in trauma

Michelle M Corrado, Junxin Shi, Krista K Wheeler, Jin Peng, Brian Kenney, Sarah Johnson, Huiyun Xiang
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the proportions of injured children transported to trauma centers by different transportation modes and evaluate the effect of transportation mode on inter-facility transfer rates using the US national trauma registry. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2007-2012 National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) to study trends of EMS versus non-EMS transport. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between transport mode and inter-facility transfer...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Brian R Englum, Kristy L Rialon, Jina Kim, Mark L Shapiro, John E Scarborough, Henry E Rice, Obinna O Adibe, Elisabeth T Tracy
PURPOSE: The role of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in pediatric trauma remains controversial. We examined its use in pediatric trauma and its effectiveness in children with moderate/severe injuries. METHODS: All blunt/penetrating trauma patients ≤18years old in the National Trauma Data Bank were evaluated for use of HEMS and in-hospital mortality. In a comparative effectiveness study, only patients treated at level I/II pediatric centers with injury severity score (ISS)≥9 were included...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Timur Kouliev
The study of disaster triage is made difficult by the complex emotional response of potentially lifesaving intervention that a triage officer must make basing decisions on a succinct and efficient algorithm. A survey of triage professionals in international settings was designed to identify possible emotionally led bias that affects objective decision making in identifying victims most likely to benefit from immediate life support intervention. This survey suggests a lack of correlation between triage priority and predictable clinical outcomes as predicted by the Revised Trauma Score tool...
2016: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
E Brooke Lerner, Amy L Drendel, Jeremy T Cushman, Mohamed Badawy, Manish N Shah, Clare E Guse, Arthur Cooper
BACKGROUND: There is limited research on how well the American College of Surgeons/Center for Disease Control and Prevention Guidelines for Field Triage of Injured Patients assist EMS providers in identifying children who need the resources of a trauma center. OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of the Physiologic Criteria (Step 1) of the Field Triage Guidelines in identifying injured children who need the resources of a trauma center. METHODS: EMS providers who transported injured children 15 years and younger to pediatric trauma centers in 3 mid-sized cities were interviewed regarding patient demographics and the presence or absence of each of the Field Triage Guidelines criteria...
October 6, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
Madison M Hunt, Austin M Stevens, Kristine W Hansen, Stephen J Fenton
PURPOSE: To expedite flow of injured children suspected to require operative intervention, a "trauma 1 OP" (T1OP) activation classification was created. The purpose of this study was to review this strategy at a level 1 pediatric trauma center. METHODS: A retrospective review of T1OP activations between 2003 and 2015 was performed. Children suspected of requiring neurosurgical intervention were classified as trauma 1 OP neuro (T1OP(N)). Comparisons were made to trauma 1 (T1) patients who required emergent operative intervention, excluding orthopedic injuries...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Emma C Hamilton, Charles C Miller, Bryan A Cotton, Charles Cox, Lillian S Kao, Mary T Austin
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of insurance status on the probability of transfer of pediatric trauma patients to level I/II centers after initial evaluation at lower level centers. METHODS: A retrospective review of all pediatric trauma patients (age<16years) registered in the 2007-2012 National Trauma Data Bank was performed. Multiple regression techniques controlling for clustering at the hospital level were used to determine the impact of insurance status on the probability of transfer to level I/II trauma centers...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Alexander Leung, Patrick Bonasso, Kevin Lynch, Dustin Long, Richard Vaughan, Alison Wilson, Jorge Con
Secondary overtriage is a term that describes patients who are discharged home shortly after being transferred, an indication that transfer and hospitalization were unnecessary. The study goal was to identify factors associated with secondary triage. A statewide trauma registry was used to identify trauma patients aged less than 18 years during a 6-year period (2007-2012) who were discharged within 48 hours from arrival and did not undergo a surgical procedure. We compared those that were treated at initial facility and those transferred to a second facility using clinical indices including patterns of injury pattern using multivariate logistic regression...
September 2016: American Surgeon
Emily M Fortin, Jerry Fisher, Sheng Qiu, Charlene Irvin Babcock
Previous studies suggest overuse disparity of head computed tomography (CT) in white pediatric trauma patients with minor head injuries. Our study is meant to determine if race or insurance status impacts the probability of obtaining head CT in patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) = 15. Using the 2008-2010 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for Emergency Departments (NHAMCS) database, the following variables were analyzed: race, emergency medical services (EMS) arrival, triage category, admission status, gender, age, and insurance status...
December 2016: Emergency Radiology
Mauricio A Escobar, Carolynn J Morris
BACKGROUND: The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACS-COT) view over- and undertriage rates based on trauma team activation (TTA) criteria as surrogate markers for quality trauma patient care. Undertriage occurs when classifying patients as not needing a TTA when they do. Over-triage occurs when a TTA is unnecessarily activated. ACS-COT recommends undertriage <5% and overtriage 25-35%. We sought to improve the under-triage and over-triage rates at our Level II Pediatric Trauma Center by updating our outdated trauma team activation criteria in an evidence-based fashion to better identify severely injured children and improving adherance to following established trauma team activation criteria...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Jennifer N Fishe, Anthony A Luberti, Christina L Master, Roni L Robinson, Matthew F Grady, Kristy B Arbogast, Mark R Zonfrillo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to characterize referral patterns and medical outcomes of children with head injury triaged by an after-hours call center of a large urban pediatric network, both before and after an institutional concussion initiative. The initiative included a revised call center triage algorithm referring patients with a suspected concussion to see a primary care provider (PCP) within 24 hours, concussion-specific continuing education for medical providers, and a new concussion information Web site...
March 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Joshua B Brown, Christine M Leeper, Jason L Sperry, Andrew B Peitzman, Timothy R Billiar, Barbara A Gaines, Mark L Gestring
BACKGROUND: Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) are frequently used to transport injured children, despite unclear evidence of benefit. The study objective was to evaluate the association of HEMS compared with ground emergency medical services (GEMS) transport with outcomes in a national sample of pediatric trauma patients. METHODS: Patients 15 years or younger undergoing scene transport by HEMS or GEMS in the National Trauma Data Bank from 2007 to 2012 were included...
May 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
J Joelle Donofrio, Amy H Kaji, Ilene A Claudius, Todd P Chang, Genevieve Santillanes, Mark X Cicero, Saranya Srinivasan, Alexis Perez-Rogers, Marianne Gausche-Hill
BACKGROUND: Rapid, accurate evaluation and sorting of victims in a mass casualty incident (MCI) is crucial, as over-triage of victims may overwhelm a trauma system and under-triage may lead to an increase in morbidity and mortality. At this time, there is no validation tool specifically developed for the pediatric population to test an MCI algorithm's inherent capabilities to correctly triage children. OBJECTIVE: To develop a set of criteria for outcomes and interventions to be used as a validation tool for testing an MCI algorithm's ability to correctly triage patients from a cohort of pediatric trauma patients...
May 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
Paula Pearce
INTRODUCTION: Considerable evidence has discussed the significant workload and advances in clinical care by UK Defence Medical Services (DMS) during recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although the DMS is not doctrinally staffed to deal with children on operations, severely ill and injured paediatric casualties continue to present to military medical facilities; therefore, staff must be competent to deliver the appropriate level of care. This paper reports the paediatric presentations to the emergency department (ED), at the Role 3 Medical Treatment Facility (MTF) in Camp Bastion, Afghanistan, over a 21-month period...
December 2015: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Robert Flood, Paula Szwargulski, Nadeem Qureshi, Mary Bixby, Steven Laffey, Ryan Pratt, James Gerard
BACKGROUND: Immediate bedding has been shown to increase efficiency in general emergency departments (EDs), but little has been published regarding its use in pediatric emergency medicine. OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to improve door-to-provider (DTP) times and patient satisfaction and to better define the relationships between throughput times and patient satisfaction in a pediatric ED. METHODS: On November 1, 2011, we changed to a new immediate bedding triage process in our academic, urban pediatric Level I trauma center...
May 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Uthen Pandee, Sakda Arj-ong Vallipakorn, Adisak Plitponkarnpim
BACKGROUND: There is an absence of data describing pediatric patients who visit Emergency Department (ED) in Thailand. Therefore, this report creates a profile of pediatric emergency room visit at a university hospital in Thailand. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The retrospective data of the pediatric patient aged less than 15 years that visited ED at Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand between fiscal year (FY) 2002 and 2011 were reviewed. The Electronic Medical Record Tracking was extracted...
August 2015: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Andrea N Doud, Ashley A Weaver, Jennifer W Talton, Ryan T Barnard, Samantha L Schoell, John K Petty, Joel D Stitzel
OBJECTIVE: Survival risk ratios (SRRs) and their probabilistic counterpart, mortality risk ratios (MRRs), have been shown to be at odds with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) severity scores for particular injuries in adults. SRRs have been validated for pediatrics but have not been studied within the context of pediatric age stratifications. We hypothesized that children with similar motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries may have different mortality risks (MR) based upon developmental stage and that these MRs may not correlate with AIS severity...
2015: Traffic Injury Prevention
Sergey Tarima, Allison Ertl, Jonathan I Groner, Laura D Cassidy
BACKGROUND: Timely access to the appropriate level of care, both in the prehospital and in the hospital setting, is necessary to optimize outcomes in severely injured pediatric trauma patients. However, a substantial portion of the pediatric population does not have adequate timely access to a verified Level 1 trauma center. This study aimed to identify significant predictors of in-hospital mortality and transfer to a higher level of care. This is the first statewide analysis that includes pediatric patients who are first seen at nontrauma centers (NTCs)...
September 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Ilene Claudius, Amy Kaji, Genevieve Santillanes, Mark Cicero, J Joelle Donofrio, Marianne Gausche-Hill, Saranya Srinivasan, Todd P Chang
INTRODUCTION: Multiple modalities for simulating mass-casualty scenarios exist; however, the ideal modality for education and drilling of mass-casualty incident (MCI) triage is not established. Hypothesis/Problem Medical student triage accuracy and time to triage for computer-based simulated victims and live moulaged actors using the pediatric version of the Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (JumpSTART) mass-casualty triage tool were compared, anticipating that student performance and experience would be equivalent...
October 2015: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Lawrence M Dagrosa, Kathryn S McMenaman, Vernon M Pais
The etiology of acute scrotal pain can vary from a benign process such as mild trauma, appendicular torsion, or epididymo-orchitis to an emergent process such as an incarcerated inguinal hernia, testicular torsion, or rupture. Furthermore, testicular insult often results in a reactive hydrocele that can both cloud the diagnosis and impair the physical examination. Traditionally, the acute scrotum was managed with immediate exploration, but emergency physicians and urologists have increasingly used Doppler ultrasonography to assess vascular flow, aide in the diagnosis, and ultimately guide triage of those patients who require urgent intervention...
August 2015: Pediatric Emergency Care
Michael J Miescier, Nanette C Dudley, Howard A Kadish, Michael B Mundorff, Howard M Corneli
OBJECTIVES: Recent research has shown significant variation in rates of computed tomography (CT) use among pediatric hospital emergency departments (ED) for evaluation of head injured children. We examined the rates of CT use by individual ED attending physicians for evaluation of head injured children in a pediatric hospital ED. METHODS: We used an administrative database to identify children younger than 18 years evaluated for head injury from January 2011 through March 2013 at our children's hospital ED, staffed by pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) fellowship trained physicians and pediatricians...
August 10, 2015: Pediatric Emergency Care
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