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Lindsay V Slater, Joseph M Hart
The squat is an assessment of lower extremity alignment during movement, however there is little information regarding altered joint kinetics during poorly performed squats. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in joint kinetics and power from altered knee alignment during a squat. Thirty participants completed squats while displacing the knee medially, anteriorly, and with neutral alignment (control). Sagittal and frontal plane torques at the ankle, knee, and hip were altered in the descending and ascending phase of the squat in both the medial and anterior malaligned squat compared to the control squat...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Amir A Afkhami
The world is currently in the midst of the largest refugee crisis since World War II, with the highest interval of mass displacement in recorded history according to the United Nations. The United States has pledged to maintain its position as one of the world's top resettlement countries in response to this crisis. These new immigrants will arrive with exceptional chronic and acute medical needs, including higher rates of behavioral health disorders. The author describes the health care challenges experienced by refugees seeking asylum in the United States and outlines the ways in which our health care system is currently deficient in helping refugee patients to overcome these challenges...
October 18, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Martin Jastroch, Sylvain Giroud, Perry Barrett, Fritz Geiser, Gerhard Heldmaier, Annika Herwig
Endothermic mammals and birds require intensive energy turnover to sustain high body temperatures and metabolic rates. To cope with energetic bottlenecks associated with the change of seasons, and to minimise energy expenditure, complex mechanisms and strategies, such as daily torpor and hibernation, are used. During torpor metabolic depression and low body temperatures save energy. However, these bouts of torpor lasting for hours to weeks are interrupted by active 'euthermic' phases with high body temperatures...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Jianbin Wang, Michael C Holmes
The battle with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been ongoing for more than 30 years, and although progress has been made, there are still significant challenges remaining. A few unique features render HIV to be one of the toughest viruses to conquer in the modern medicine era, such as the ability to target the host immune system, persist by integrating into the host genome and adapt to a hostile environment such as a single anti-HIV medication by continuously evolving. The finding of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) about 2 decades ago has transformed the treatment options for HIV-infected patients and significantly improved patient outcomes...
November 2016: Cytotherapy
Susanne Paukner, Rosemarie Riedl
Pleuromutilins are antibiotics that selectively inhibit bacterial translation and are semisynthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring tricyclic diterpenoid pleuromutilin, which received its name from the pleuromutilin-producing fungus Pleurotus mutilus Tiamulin and valnemulin are two established derivatives in veterinary medicine for oral and intramuscular administration. As these early pleuromutilin drugs were developed at a time when companies focused on major antibacterial classes, such as the β-lactams, and resistance was not regarded as an issue, interest in antibiotic research including pleuromutilins was limited...
October 14, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Kathleen A Kennedy, C Michael Cotten, Kristi L Watterberg, Waldemar A Carlo
Despite remarkable improvements in survival of extremely premature infants, the burden of BPD among survivors remains a frustrating problem for parents and caregivers. Advances, such as antenatal steroids and surfactant replacement, which have dramatically improved survival, have not reduced BPD among survivors. Other advances that have significantly improved the combined outcome of death or BPD, such as vitamin A and avoidance of mechanical ventilation, have had smaller magnitude effects on the outcome of BPD alone...
October 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
J Trnka, M Špaček, V Šírová, P Mitáš, G Hodková, J Kubinyi, R Špunda, J Lindner
BACKGROUND: Hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion is used to treat irresectable extremity malignancies. It is based on the following principle - the perfusion of the extremity is isolated from systemic circulation and connected to an extra-corporal circuit via which a very high concentration of a chemotherapeutic agent is administered into the blood compartment of the extremity. In some cases, treatment efficiency can be improved using tasonermin (a TNF-α agent). By itself, tasonermin can cause severe health complications in patients if leakage into systemic circulation results in a level that exceeds the maximally tolerated dose...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Myles R McKenzie, Ernest W Parrish, Ethan A Miles, James C Spradling, Lanny F Littlejohn, Mark D Quinlan, George A Barbee, David R King
During an assault on an extremely remote target, a US Special Operations Soldier sustained multiple gunshot and fragmentation wounds to the thorax, resulting in a traumatic arrest and subsequent survival. His care, including care under fire, tactical field care, tactical evacuation care, and Role III, IV, and V care, is presented. The case is used to illustrate the complex dynamics of Special Operations care on the modern battlefield and the exceptional outcomes possible when evidence-based medicine is taken to the warfighter with effective, farforward, expeditionary medical-force projection...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Amy O'Donnell, Catherine McParlin, Stephen C Robson, Fiona Beyer, Eoin Moloney, Andrew Bryant, Jennifer Bradley, Colin Muirhead, Catherine Nelson-Piercy, Dorothy Newbury-Birch, Justine Norman, Emma Simpson, Brian Swallow, Laura Yates, Luke Vale
BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 85% of all women during pregnancy, but for the majority self-management suffices. For the remainder, symptoms are more severe and the most severe form of NVP - hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) - affects 0.3-1.0% of pregnant women. There is no widely accepted point at which NVP becomes HG. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for NVP and HG...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Neeraj Nagpal
Physicians and Internists in India have tended to brush under the carpet legal issues affecting their profession. Of concern to all Physicians is the judgment in a recent case where the NCDRC has stated that if MD Medicine Physicians write Physician & Cardiologist on their letterhead it is Quackery. What is MD Medicine degree holder in India qualified and trained to treat ? These are issues which need debate and that can only be initiated once we recognize that there is a problem. Either an MD Medicine is a cardiologist or he is not...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Michael D Kessler, Laura Yerges-Armstrong, Margaret A Taub, Amol C Shetty, Kristin Maloney, Linda Jo Bone Jeng, Ingo Ruczinski, Albert M Levin, L Keoki Williams, Terri H Beaty, Rasika A Mathias, Kathleen C Barnes, Timothy D O'Connor
To characterize the extent and impact of ancestry-related biases in precision genomic medicine, we use 642 whole-genome sequences from the Consortium on Asthma among African-ancestry Populations in the Americas (CAAPA) project to evaluate typical filters and databases. We find significant correlations between estimated African ancestry proportions and the number of variants per individual in all variant classification sets but one. The source of these correlations is highlighted in more detail by looking at the interaction between filtering criteria and the ClinVar and Human Gene Mutation databases...
October 11, 2016: Nature Communications
Helen M Burke, Thorfinnur Gunnlaugsson, Eoin M Scanlan
The development of synthetic chemical probes for the detection of enzymes is extremely important for biological, medicinal, and industrial applications. Here we report the synthesis of an array of novel glycosylated Tb(iii) complexes, their photophysical properties in solution, and their ability to function as luminescent probes for observing glycosidase enzyme activity in real time. Our initial studies into the application of these complexes for the detection of the Concanavalin A (ConA) lectin is also reported, highlighting the broad scope of these novel chemical probes...
September 26, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Heinrich Ebner, Francesco Stillo, Gaetano Lanza, Nicola Mangialardi, Giovanni B Agus, Marco Apperti, Eugenio Bernardini, Marcello Bernardini, Benedetto Bernardo, Giuseppe Bianchini, Roberto Bisacci, Stefano Camparini, Nicola Chiulli, Domenico Corda, Aldo Crespi, Antonio De Fiores, Roberto Di Mitri, Walter Dorigo, Juliane A Ebner, Guglielmo Emanuelli, Francesco Ferrara, Giuseppe Genovese, Elena Giacomelli, Benedetta Giannasio, Bruno Gossetti, Mirko Guerra, Vincenzo Mattaliano, Antonello Musiani, Olindo Pieroni, Riccardo Piccioli, Massimo Pisacreta, Carlo Pratesi, Sonia Ronchey, Gennaro Quarto, Antonio Sellitti, Giovanni M Spinelli, Enzo Strati, Antonio Tori, Marco Viani, Pierluigi Zolesio
Phlebology is not a specialty for its own in Italy. Phlebological patients are treated by vascular and general surgeons, dermatologists, phlebologists, angiologists, internists and even general practitioners. Even tough guidelines present a series of recommendations based on evidence-based medicine, guidelines may also be a tool to unify the diagnostic and therapeutic approach in a vast medical field like phlebology. Since vascular surgeons and phlebologists are particularly involved in phlebology-related pathologies the scientific societies of the Italian Society of Phlebology (SIF) and the Italian Society for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (SICVE) decided to cooperate for the preparation of phlebo-lymphological guidelines...
August 2016: Minerva Cardioangiologica
Maurie Markman, Kim Kramer, Ricardo H Alvarez, Glen J Weiss, Eugene Ahn, George William Daneker
It is increasingly recognized that cancer is a highly heterogeneous group of illnesses even within a particular organ site (e.g., breast, lung, colon, etc.). This observation presents a serious challenge to the traditional concept of phase 3 randomized trials designed to define therapeutic efficacy of a novel treatment strategy. For while 10% of the patients with a common malignancy (e.g., non-small-cell lung cancer) may be sufficient to consider such an effort, enrolling a sufficient number of patients into a clinical trial in a timely manner to define clinical utility would be extremely difficult if the population in question represented only 1% of this population, and essentially impossible if one wished to explore the benefits of treatment in a rarer neoplasm (e...
October 6, 2016: Oncology
Fabrizio De Biasio, Nicola Zingaretti, Andrea Marchesi, Luca Vaienti, Daria Almesberger, Pier Camillo Parodi
BACKGROUND: Quadrantectomy is an oncologically safe procedure for the treatment of early-stage breast cancer, but it often results in poor aesthetic outcomes such as breast shape deformity, which is more visible if the tumour is located in the lower pole. We recommend the use of the transverse incision, which retains the oncological advantages of the quadrantectomy while leading to better aesthetical results. METHOD: We evaluated the clinical results of 24 patients with breast cancer who underwent quadrantectomy of the lower breast pole and volume replacement with remodelling through three posterior scorings from January 2012 to January 2014, with cosmetic evaluations performed according to the criteria set by the Japanese Breast Cancer Society...
October 4, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Casey O'Connor, Yvonne Braun, Sjoerd P F T Nota, Timothy Baloda, David Ring
Background: Variation in pain intensity and magnitude of disability among patients with musculoskeletal illness is largely accounted for by variations in symptoms of depression, catastrophic thinking, and heightened illness concern. It is possible that patients with greater stress, distress, and less effective coping strategies might be more likely to seek the use of Complementary Health Approaches (CHA). This study addressed the primary null hypothesis that there are no demographic, illness-related, or psychological factors associated with CHA use among patients with upper extremity illness...
September 2016: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
Zsuzsanna Hollander, Mari L DeMarco, Mohsen Sadatsafavi, Bruce M McManus, Raymond T Ng, Don D Sin
There is a great interest in developing biomarkers to enable precision medicine and improve health outcomes of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, biomarker development is extremely challenging and expensive, and translation of research endeavors to date have been largely unsuccessful. In most cases, biomarkers fail owing to poor replication of initial promising results in independent cohorts and/or inability to transfer the biomarker from a discovery platform to a clinical assay...
September 29, 2016: Chest
Hannah Wenger, Adam B Weiner, Aria Razmaria, Gladell P Paner, Scott E Eggener
INTRODUCTION: Several institutional studies have suggested that pathological Gleason score≤6 prostate cancer has little or no capacity for metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (SEER, 2004-2011, n = 19,594) and the National Cancer Database (NCDB, 2004-2013, n = 57,540), we identified patients with pathological Gleason score≤6 prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy and lymph node dissection...
September 27, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Mahmoud Bahmani, Babak Baharvand-Ahmadi, Pegah Tajeddini, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Nasrollah Naghdi
INTRODUCTION: Kidney stones are the third most common urinary tract problems after urinary tract infections and prostate pathology. Kidney stones may cause extreme pain and blockage of urine flow. They are usually treated with medications that may cause a number of side-effects. Medicinal herbs are used in different cultures as a reliable source of natural remedies. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine native medicinal plants used by traditional healers of Shiraz for the treatment of kidney stones...
2016: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
Steffi Sunny, George Cheng, Daniel Daniel, Peter Lo, Sebastian Ochoa, Caitlin Howell, Nicolas Vogel, Adnan Majid, Joanna Aizenberg
Camera-guided instruments, such as endoscopes, have become an essential component of contemporary medicine. The 15-20 million endoscopies performed every year in the United States alone demonstrate the tremendous impact of this technology. However, doctors heavily rely on the visual feedback provided by the endoscope camera, which is routinely compromised when body fluids and fogging occlude the lens, requiring lengthy cleaning procedures that include irrigation, tissue rubbing, suction, and even temporary removal of the endoscope for external cleaning...
September 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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