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extreme medicine

Latinka Basara, Nataša Jokić Begić, Sanja Popović Grle, Marko Jakopović, Miroslav SamarŽija
Dyspnea or breathlessness is a term primarily used in respiratory medicine. Nevertheless, in the last fifteen years, studies from other fields focus on the affective component of this complex phenomenon due to the frequent observation that psychological states can cause or be caused by dyspnea. Research so far shows that besides the biological component, dyspnea has a strong emotional and psychosocial determinant. This means that apart from its biological factors, dyspnea and its intensity are affected by emotions, personality, anxiety and depression, etc...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Adegbenro Omotuyi John Fakoya, David Adeiza Otohinoyi, Francis Adelade Fakoya
Background: Most studies have focused on ill-tendons with a little insight on how intrinsic factors correlate with the Achilles tendon (AT) morphology. Aim: This study aims at establishing how blood pressure (BP), blood glucose (BG), and body mass index (BMI) correlate with the morphology of the AT with emphasis on width changes. Materials and Methods: Participants were volunteers who were recruited during and after an organized health fair by the Medical Students' body of All Saints University, School of Medicine, Commonwealth of Dominica...
April 2018: Annals of African Medicine
Hongxiang Zhang, Fan Wu, Wenli Guo, Rong Bai, Zhuanzhuan Yan, Blaise Pascal Muvunyi, Qi Yan, Yufei Zhang, Xianfeng Yi, Jiyu Zhang
Melilotus is an important genus of legume plants and an herbage with excellent nitrogen fixation; it can tolerate extreme environmental conditions and possesses important medicinal value. However, there is limited genetic information about the genus; thus, we analysed four chloroplast loci (rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH and trnL-F) and one nuclear region (ITS) to determine the genetic diversity of 199 accessions from 18 Melilotus species. The rbcL and matK sequences were highly conserved, whereas the trnL-F and ITS sequences contained variable and parsimony-informative sites...
2018: PloS One
John W Wax, Amy W An, Nicole Kosier, Timothy E Quill
Voluntary stopping of eating and drinking (VSED) is a deliberate, self-initiated attempt to hasten death in the setting of suffering refractory to optimal palliative interventions or prolonged dying that a person finds intolerable. Individuals who consider VSED tend to be older, have a serious but not always imminently terminal illness, place a high value on independence, and have significant illness burden. VSED can theoretically be performed independent of clinician assistance and therefore avoids many of the ethical and legal concerns associated with physician-assisted dying or other palliative measures of last resort, However, VSED is an intense process fraught with new sources of somatic and emotional suffering for individuals and their caregivers, so VSED is best supervised by an experienced, well-informed clinician who can provide appropriate pre-intervention assessment, anticipatory guidance, medical treatment of symptoms, and emotional support...
March 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Angelo Castello, Laura Olivari, Egesta Lopci
Surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are the oldest modalities for cancer treatment. However, as part of a continuous research in medicine, in order to improve therapeutic precision and biological effectiveness, there is an increasing interest into the use of heavy particle (e.g. protons or heavy ions) in the treatment of solid tumors. However, the restricted availability of the technology has concentrated the expertise in highly specialized centers that take care and treat extreme cases and rare pathologies...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Yangyang Xu, Hao Cai, Gang Cao, Yu Duan, Ke Pei, Sicong Tu, Jia Zhou, Li Xie, Dongdong Sun, Jiayu Zhao, Jing Liu, Xiaoqi Wang, Lin Shen
Baizhu Shaoyao San (BSS) is a famous traditional Chinese medicinal formula widely used for the treatment of painful diarrhea, intestinal inflammation, and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. According to clinical medication, three medicinal herbs (Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Paeoniae Radix Alba, and Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium) included in BSS must be processed using some specific methods of stir-frying. On the basis of the classical theories of traditional Chinese medicine, the therapeutic effects of BSS would be significantly enhanced after processing...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Sinem Şeker, Celal Güven, Handan Akçakaya, Nurten Bahtiyar, Fahri Akbaş, İlhan Onaran
BACKGROUND:  Gene expression analysis of cells treated with extreme dilutions or micro amounts of drugs has been used to provide useful suggestions about biological responses. However, most of the previous studies were performed on medicines being prepared from a variety of herbal and metal sources. This study investigated the effects of ultramolecular dilution of the taxane anti-cancer drugs, which are not commonly used in homeopathic medicines, on mRNA expression profiles of five key genes ( p53, p21, COX-2, TUBB2A and TUBB3) in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7...
February 2018: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
Mary Judith Berry
The advances in perinatal medicine over the last 20 years are unprecedented. Babies born at extremes of gestational age and birthweight are now able to benefit from innovation in intensive care and many survive into adulthood. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 11, 2018: Journal of Physiology
K Johanna R Hoyer, Sebastian Dittrich, Malte P Bartram, Markus M Rinschen
Renal diseases are driven by alterations in the entity of proteins within the kidney, at the level of single cells, nephron subunits (such as glomerulus and tubule), tissues and body fluids. Histologically, kidney diseases are extremely heterogeneous. Mass-spectrometry based proteomics provides a unique opportunity to interrogate heterogeneity and dynamics of various proteome layers within the kidney to better understand physiology and pathophysiology, and to translate signaling networks into therapies. Yet, the success of this endeavor will largely depend on improving proteomic data acquisition methods toward increased reproducibility...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Ilaria Biasato, Renato Zanatta, Lorella Maniscalco, Rocchina Evangelista, Bryan Iotti, Selina Iussich
The unexpected demise of a 12-year-old male neutered English bulldog solicited a gross examination, which revealed a blood-filled space occurring in the proximal left subclavian artery (LSA). It originated about 1 cm from the branching point of the vessel and progressively dilated for 3 cm distal to this origin. Histopathological investigation showed that the tunica media of the LSA was more than 50% split, with the blood-filled space dissecting through the arterial wall. In the tunica media of the LSA, severe multifocal fragmentation and/or loss of the elastic fibers was observed...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
Thi Thuy Nguyen, Fayna Mammeri, Souad Ammar
Iron oxide and gold-based magneto-plasmonic nanostructures exhibit remarkable optical and superparamagnetic properties originating from their two different components. As a consequence, they have improved and broadened the application potential of nanomaterials in medicine. They can be used as multifunctional nanoprobes for magneto-plasmonic heating as well as for magnetic and optical imaging. They can also be used for magnetically assisted optical biosensing, to detect extreme traces of targeted bioanalytes...
March 7, 2018: Nanomaterials
A Klin, W Jones
The future of neurodevelopmental medicine has the potential of situating child neurology at the forefront of a broad-based public health effort to optimize neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born with high-prevalence and diverse genetic, pre- and peri-natal, and environmental burdens compromising early brain development and leading to lifetime disabilities. Building on advancements in developmental social neuroscience and in implementation science, this shift is already occurring in the case of emblematic neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Li Li, Osama Abdalla Abdelshafy Mohamad, Jinbiao Ma, Ariel D Friel, Yangui Su, Yun Wang, Zulpiya Musa, Yonghong Liu, Brian P Hedlund, Wenjun Li
Little is known about the composition, diversity, and geographical distribution of bacterial communities associated with medicinal plants in arid lands. To address this, a collection of 116 endophytic bacteria were isolated from wild populations of the herb Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch (licorice) in Xinyuan, Gongliu, and Tekesi of Xinjiang Province, China, and identified based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The endophytes were highly diverse, including 20 genera and 35 species. The number of distinct bacterial genera obtained from root tissues was higher (n = 14) compared to stem (n = 9) and leaf (n = 6) tissue...
March 7, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Daigo Ochiai, Hirotaka Masuda, Yushi Abe, Toshimitsu Otani, Marie Fukutake, Tadashi Matsumoto, Kei Miyakoshi, Mamoru Tanaka
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generated great interest in the fields of regenerative medicine and immunotherapy because of their unique biological properties. Among MSCs, amniotic fluid stem cells (AFS) have a number of characteristics that make them attractive candidates for tissue engineering and cell replacement strategies, particularly for perinatal medicine. If various neonatal conditions, including birth asphyxia, preterm birth, and congenital abnormalities, which result in long-lasting severe impairments, could be predicted during pregnancy, it would allow collection of small samples of amniotic fluid cells by amniocentesis...
March 6, 2018: Keio Journal of Medicine
Xifeng Chen, Dawei Yang, Yuguo Tang, Peng Miao
DNA endonucleases play critical roles in medicinal chemistry, which are also commonly used in molecular biology investigation. Sensitive quantification of endonuclease activity is of great significance. In this study, a reliable electrochemical approach for endonuclease activity sensing is developed with the adoption of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) as electrochemical reporters. Firstly, a DNA duplex is designed and modified on a gold electrode, which acts as the template for the synthesis of CuNPs. Subsequently, the formed NPs are dissolved and then electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode for DPV measurements...
March 7, 2018: Analyst
Eldra W Daniels, David Cole, Bret Jacobs, Shawn F Phillips
Office-based ultrasonography has become increasingly available in many settings, and its use to guide joint and soft tissue injections has increased. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the use of ultrasound-guided injections over traditional landmark-guided injections, with a rapid growth in the literature over the past few years. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to demonstrate increased accuracy of ultrasound-guided injections regardless of anatomic location. In the upper extremity, ultrasound-guided injections have been shown to provide superior benefit to landmark-guided injections at the glenohumeral joint, the subacromial space, the biceps tendon sheath, and the joints of the hand and wrist...
February 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Jacob E Kurlander, Mark Kolbe, Joel H Rubenstein, Caroline R Richardson, Michele Heisler, Arlene Weissman, Raymond De Vries, Sameer D Saini
Background: Observational studies have linked proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with serious adverse effects. The study aimed to evaluate internists' perceptions of PPI harms and effects on prescribing. Methods: This was an online survey of a representative sample of the American College of Physicians in 2013. We queried familiarity with and concern about PPI adverse effects (1 - 7 Likert-type scales, anchored by "not at all" and "extremely"). We also asked how frequently (often, sometimes, rarely, or never) participants used any of three "de-escalation" strategies to stop or reduce PPIs because of concern about adverse effects: reducing patients' PPI dose, switching to H2 blocker, or discontinuing PPI...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Bengang Xing, Xiangzhao Ai, Ming Hu, Zhimin Wang, Wenmin Zhang, Juan Li, Jun Lin, Huang-Hao Yang
In terms of the extremely small size and large specific surface area, nanomaterials often exhibit unusual physical and chemical properties, which have recently attracted considerable attention in bionanotechnology and nanomedicine. Currently, the extensive usage of nanotechnology in medicine holds the great potential for precise diagnosis and effective therapeutics of various human diseases in clinical practice in past decades. However, a detailed understanding regarding how nanomedicines interact with the intricate environment in complex living systems remains a pressing and challenging goal...
March 6, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Mengfei Xu, Feng Zhou, Lili Huang
RATIONALE: Concomitant malignancy of the endometrium and cervix is extremely rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 56-year-old female presented to the Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, complaining of irregular vaginal bleeding. The human papillomavirus test (type 18/45) was positive. We performed dilation and curettage; pathology revealed moderately differentiated endometrial carcinoma exhibiting squamous differentiation. The epithelium of the cervical uterus was atypical upon biopsy...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mathilde J H Girard-Madoux, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg, Catherine Mooser, Gabrielle T Belz, Andrew J Macpherson, Eric Vivier
Biological redundancy ensures robustness in living organisms at several levels, from genes to organs. In this review, we explore the concept of redundancy and robustness through an analysis of the caecal appendix, an organ that is often considered to be a redundant remnant of evolution. However, phylogenic data show that the Appendix was selected during evolution and is unlikely to disappear once it appeared. In humans, it is highly conserved and malformations are extremely rare, suggesting a role for that structure...
March 1, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
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