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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446003/effects-of-canine-and-murine-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-transplantation-on-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#1
Diego Noe Rodriguez Sanchez, Matheus Bertanha, Thiago Dias Fernandes, Luiz Antônio de Lima Resende, Elenice Deffune, Rogério Martins Amorim
Background and Objectives: Maintaining a permissive microenvironment is essential for adequate nerve regeneration. Cell-based therapy has the potential based cell replacement and promotion of axonal growth. The adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stromal cells (Ad-MSC) attract interest because neuroregenerative and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of canine and murine Ad-MSC transplantation on the sciatic nerve regeneration. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided randomly into: control group - CG (n=8); denervated group - DG (n=8); decellularized vein group - VG (n=8); decellularized vein+canine MSC-cMSC (n=8); descellularized vein+murine MSC-mMSC (n=8)...
April 30, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445518/use-of-human-fat-grafting-in-the-prevention-of-perineural-adherence-experimental-study-in-athymic-mouse
#2
Mario Cherubino, Igor Pellegatta, Alessandro Crosio, Luigi Valdatta, Stefano Geuna, Rosalba Gornati, Pierluigi Tos
Perineural adherences represent a problem after surgery involving peripheral neural system. Fat-grafting with adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) with their pro-regenerative characteristics can be important to prevent the neural damage or to facilitate the neural regeneration. Our idea was to use the fat-grafting as an anti-adherence device and test its efficacy on a postsurgical scar animal model and comparing to an antiadhesive gel. 32 athymic mice were operated under magnification, we exposed both sciatic nerves...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445364/n-acetylcysteine-prevents-retrograde-motor-neuron-death-after-neonatal-peripheral-nerve-injury
#3
Joseph Catapano, Jennifer Zhang, David Scholl, Cameron Chiang, Tessa Gordon, Gregory H Borschel
BACKGROUND: Neuronal death may be an overlooked and unaddressed component of disability following neonatal nerve injuries, such as obstetric brachial plexus injury. N-acetylcysteine and acetyl-L-carnitine improve survival of neurons after adult nerve injury, but it is unknown whether they improve survival after neonatal injury, when neurons are most susceptible to retrograde neuronal death. The authors' objective was to examine whether N-acetylcysteine or acetyl-L-carnitine treatment improves survival of neonatal motor or sensory neurons in a rat model of neonatal nerve injury...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444825/3-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-the-normal-canine-femoral-and-sciatic-nerves
#4
Christine Sievert, Henning Richter, Dominic Gascho, Patrick R Kircher, Inés Carrera
Understanding the normal course and optimizing visualization of the canine peripheral nerves of the lumbar plexus, in particular the sciatic and the femoral nerves, is essential when interpreting images of patients with suspected peripheral neuropathies such as inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The purpose of this prospective, anatomic study was to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anatomy of the normal canine femoral and sciatic nerves and to define the sequences in which the nerves are best depicted...
April 25, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444817/microtubule-stabilization-promoted-axonal-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-after-spinal-root-avulsion
#5
Heng Li, Wutian Wu
A spinal root avulsion injury disconnects spinal roots with the spinal cord. The rampant motoneuron death, inhibitory CNS/PNS transitional zone (TZ) for axonal regrowth and limited regeneration speed together lead to motor dysfunction. Microtubules rearrange to assemble a new growth cone and disorganized microtubules underline regeneration failure. It's been shown that microtubule-stabilizing drug, Epothilone B, enhanced axonal regeneration and attenuated fibrotic scaring after spinal cord injury. Here, we are reporting that after spinal root avulsion+ re-implantation in adult rats, EpoB treatment improved motor functional recovery and potentiated electrical responses of motor units...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444521/leprosy-in-children
#6
REVIEW
Josafá Gonçalves Barreto, Marco Andrey Cipriani Frade, Fred Bernardes Filho, Moises Batista da Silva, John Stewart Spencer, Claudio Guedes Salgado
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This manuscript aims to review the cutting-edge developments regarding to the diagnosis, management, and prevention of leprosy in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Leprosy transmission still occurs continuously in some endemic areas in the world. Leprosy in children below 15 years old is a robust indicator of active source of infection in the community where they live. A special focus on children to reduce disabilities and reduce transmission is one of the core areas of interventions of the global leprosy strategy 2016-2020...
June 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443569/can-a-small-intestine-segment-be-an-alternative-biological-conduit-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#7
Mehmet S Arda, Emre A Koçman, Emre Özkara, Erdem Söztutar, Orhan Özatik, Aydan Köse, Cengiz Çetin
BACKGROUND: Autologous nerve grafts (ANG) are used to bridge peripheral nerve defects. Limited sources and donor site morbidity are the major problems of peripheral nerve grafts. Although various types of autologous grafts such as arteries, veins and muscles have been recommended, an ideal conduit has not been described yet. AIMS: The purpose of present study is to investigate the effectiveness of small intestinal conduit (SIC) for peripheral nerve defects. STUDY DESIGN: Animal experimentation...
April 6, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443217/malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumor-of-the-c2-nerve-root-case-report
#8
Joshua D Burks, Robert G Briggs, Chad A Glenn, John C Greenert, Cordell M Baker, Keren Bartal, Greg A Krempl, Michael E Sughrue
Here we present the case of a 36-year-old man who was found to have a symptomatic malignant neural sheath tumor growing from the C2 nerve root following a period of progressively worsening headaches. The patient was successfully treated with surgical resection resulting in resolution of cranial nerve deficits. Though uncommon, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor must be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors involving the cervical nerve roots and carotid space.
April 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442932/granular-cell-tumor-in-breast-a-case-report
#9
Maria Castillo Lara, Antonia Martínez Herrera, Rafael Torrejón Cardoso, Daniel Maria Lubián López
Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a rare neoplasm of the soft tissues, and <1% of all GCTs are malignant. It usually appears in the tongue and sometimes may affect the female breast. Initially, GCT was considered to be a myogenic lesion affecting female breast (myoblastoma). Actually, it is assumed as a tumor originating from perineural or putative Schwann cells of peripheral nerves or their precursors that grows in the lobular breast tissue, due to the immunohistochemical features. Here, we review the importance of differentiating between this tumor and malignant breast carcinoma...
2017: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442746/ultrastructural-characterization-of-the-lower-motor-system-in-a-mouse-model-of-krabbe-disease
#10
Valentina Cappello, Laura Marchetti, Paola Parlanti, Silvia Landi, Ilaria Tonazzini, Marco Cecchini, Vincenzo Piazza, Mauro Gemmi
Krabbe disease (KD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the lack of β- galactosylceramidase enzymatic activity and by widespread accumulation of the cytotoxic galactosyl-sphingosine in neuronal, myelinating and endothelial cells. Despite the wide use of Twitcher mice as experimental model for KD, the ultrastructure of this model is partial and mainly addressing peripheral nerves. More details are requested to elucidate the basis of the motor defects, which are the first to appear during KD onset. Here we use transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to focus on the alterations produced by KD in the lower motor system at postnatal day 15 (P15), a nearly asymptomatic stage, and in the juvenile P30 mouse...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442382/relationship-between-sensorimotor-peripheral-nerve-function-and-indicators-of-cardiovascular-autonomic-function-in-older-adults-from-the-health-aging-and-body-composition-study
#11
Brittney S Lange-Maia, Anne B Newman, John M Jakicic, Jane A Cauley, Robert M Boudreau, Ann V Schwartz, Eleanor M Simonsick, Suzanne Satterfield, Aaron I Vinik, Sasa Zivkovic, Tamara B Harris, Elsa S Strotmeyer
BACKGROUND: Age-related peripheral nervous system (PNS) impairments are highly prevalent in older adults. Although sensorimotor and cardiovascular autonomic function have been shown to be related in persons with diabetes, the nature of the relationship in general community-dwelling older adult populations is unknown. METHODS: Health, Aging and Body Composition participants (n=2399, age=76.5±2.9years, 52% women, 38% black) underwent peripheral nerve testing at the 2000/01 clinic visit...
April 22, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441776/gold-nanoparticles-for-modulating-neuronal-behavior
#12
REVIEW
Chiara Paviolo, Paul R Stoddart
Understanding the detailed functioning and pathophysiology of the brain and the nervous system continues to challenge the scientific community, particularly in terms of scaling up techniques for monitoring and interfacing with complex 3D networks. Nanotechnology has the potential to support this scaling up, where the eventual goal would be to address individual nerve cells within functional units of both the central and peripheral nervous system. Gold nanoparticles provide a variety of physical and chemical properties that have attracted attention as a light-activated nanoscale neuronal interface...
April 24, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441282/magnetic-field-reference-levels-for-arbitrary-periodic-waveforms-for-prevention-of-peripheral-nerve-stimulation
#13
Gregory B Gajda, Stephen H Bly
Guidelines for prevention of peripheral nerve stimulation from exposure to low frequency magnetic fields have been developed by standard-setting bodies. Exposure limits or reference levels (RLs) are typically set in terms of the maximum root-mean-square amplitude of a sinusoidal waveform; however, environmental flux densities are often periodic, non-sinusoidal waveforms. This work presents a procedure for deriving RLs for any generalized periodic waveform using the empirical nerve-stimulation threshold data obtained from human volunteer MRI experiments...
June 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440471/time-dependent-differential-expression-of-long-non-coding-rnas-following-peripheral-nerve-injury
#14
Bin Pan, Heng-Xing Zhou, Yi Liu, Jia-Yin Yan, Yao Wang, Xue Yao, Yan-Qiu Deng, Shu-Yi Chen, Lu Lu, Zhi-Jian Wei, Xiao-Hong Kong, Shi-Qing Feng
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are widely accepted as key players in various biological processes. However, the roles of lncRNA in peripheral nerve regeneration remain completely unknown. Thus, in this study, we performed microarray analysis to measure lncRNA expression in the distal segment of the sciatic nerve at 0, 3, 7 and 14 days following injury. We identified 5,354 lncRNAs that were differentially expressed: 3,788 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between days 0 and 3; 3,314 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between days 0 and 7; and 2,400 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between days 0 and 14...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438966/mediation-of-movement-induced-breakthrough-cancer-pain-by-ib4-binding-nociceptors-in-rats
#15
Joshua Havelin, Ian Imbert, Devki Sukhtankar, Bethany Remeniuk, Ian Pelletier, Jonathan Gentry, Alec Okun, Timothy Tiutan, Frank Porreca, Tamara King
Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is characterized by moderate to severe ongoing pain that commonly requires the use of opiates. Even when ongoing pain is well controlled, patients can suffer breakthrough pain (BTP), episodic severe pain that "breaks through" the medication. We developed a novel model of cancer-induced BTP using female rats with mammary adenocarcinoma cells sealed within the tibia. We previously demonstrated that rats with bone cancer learn to prefer a context paired with saphenous nerve block to elicit pain relief (i...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438465/isaacs-syndrome-with-caspr2-antibody-a-series-of-three-cases
#16
Jie Song, Sisi Jing, Chao Quan, Jun Lu, Xiangyang Qiao, Kai Qiao, Jiahong Lu, Jianying Xi, Chongbo Zhao
Isaacs syndrome is a form of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, characterized by spontaneous muscle twitching and stiffness. Some patients are reported to be positive for CASPR2 antibody that may be one of the pathogenic autoantibodies in Isaacs syndrome. We reported a series of three patients with Isaacs syndrome, including their clinical features, electrophysiologic findings, laboratory parameters and therapeutic responses. All the three patients were positive for CASPR2 antibodies examined on transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells by indirect immunofluorescence method...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438411/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-digital-nerves-of-the-hand-anatomy-and-spectrum-of-pathology
#17
REVIEW
Charles H Mitchell, Laura M Fayad, Shivani Ahlawat
Digital nerves are intrinsic to the sensory and motor function of the hand. These nerves represent the terminal ramifications of the ulnar, median, and radial nerves and are located distal to the carpal tunnel and Guyon canal. With magnetic resonance imaging, traumatic and nontraumatic abnormalities of the digital nerves can be shown with high contrast as well as high spatial resolution. Digital nerve abnormalities are most commonly posttraumatic in nature; however, infection, inflammatory, vascular malformations, and neoplasms can rarely occur...
March 6, 2017: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438258/intraneural-glomus-tumor-of-uncertain-malignant-potential-and-with-braf-mutation-in-the-median-nerve-an-unusual-case
#18
Lars B Dahlin, Peter Scherman, Jack Besjakov, Eva Lindberg, David A Solomon, Andrew E Horvai, Arie Perry
A glomus tumor of uncertain malignant potential is defined as a glomus tumor with some, but not all, criteria for malignancy and without a known metastasis. Here, we present a rare example presenting in the median nerve in a 40-year-old woman with a long history of severely impaired left median nerve function. A large panel of immunohistochemical stains excluded other diagnoses, and the designation of a "uncertain malignant potential" was based on the high proliferative activity, the tumor size and location, and the lack of WHO malignancy criteria such as marked nuclear atypia, necrosis, or atypical mitoses...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438166/adjacent-regenerative-peripheral-nerve-interfaces-produce-phase-antagonist-signals-during-voluntary-walking-in-rats
#19
Daniel Ursu, Andrej Nedic, Melanie Urbanchek, Paul Cederna, R Brent Gillespie
BACKGROUND: Regenerative Peripheral Nerve Interfaces (RPNIs) are neurotized muscle grafts intended to produce electromyographic signals suitable for motorized prosthesis control. Two RPNIs producing independent agonist/antagonist signals are required for each control axis; however, it is unknown whether signals from adjacent RPNIs are independent. The purpose of this work was to determine signaling characteristics from two adjacent RPNIs, the first neurotized by a foot dorsi-flexor nerve and the second neurotized by a foot plantar-flexor nerve in a rodent model...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438068/high-definition-video-system-for-peripheral-neurorrhaphy-in-rats
#20
Rui Sergio Monteiro de Barros, Marcus Vinicius Henriques Brito, Renan Kleber Costa Teixeira, Vitor Nagai Yamaki, Felipe Lobato da Silva Costa, Marcelo Ferreia Sabbá, Marcos Vinicius Vieira Lemos, Igor Costa Parente, Daniel Haber Feijó
BACKGROUND: Although all microsurgeries are based on the use of surgical microscopes, several alternative magnification systems have shown promising results. Improvements in image quality facilitated the use of video systems in microsurgeries with safety and accuracy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a low-cost, video-assisted magnification system in peripheral neurorrhaphy in rats. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 matched groups according to the magnification system used: the microscope group, with neurorrhaphy performed under a microscope with an image magnification of 40×; and the video system group, with the procedures performed under a video system composed of a high-definition Sony camcorder DCR-SR42 set to 52× magnification, macro lenses, 42-inch television, and a digital HDMI cable...
April 1, 2017: Surgical Innovation
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