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D Coric, N A Smith
Elevated troponin levels within three days of surgery are strongly linked to major adverse cardiac events (MACE). However, the value of screening with troponin measurements is controversial. The extent to which this is done in routine practice is uncertain. We examined the medical records of all patients ≥45 years of age undergoing moderate or major non-cardiac surgery in our tertiary referral hospital over a six-month period. We determined how many patients had a troponin (TnT) measurement recorded in the first three days postoperatively, how many of these were abnormal, and the occurrence of MACE within 30 days...
November 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Xuxin Yang, Pei Ma, Hui Qi, Jingxin Zhao, Qiang Wu, Jichun You, Yongjin Li
Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays were successfully synthesized by the combination of soft and hard templates. In the fabrication of them, anodic aluminum oxide membranes act as the hard template while the self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) complexed with titanium-tetraisopropoxide (TTIP, the precursor of TiO2) provides the soft template to control the grain size of TiO2 nanotubes. Our results indicate that the field emission (FE) performance depends crucially on the grain size of the calcinated TiO2 which is dominated by the PS-b-PEO and its blending ratio with TTIP...
November 13, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Venugopal Thayanithy, Patrick O'Hare, Phillip Wong, Xianda Zhao, Clifford J Steer, Subbaya Subramanian, Emil Lou
BACKGROUND: Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are naturally-occurring filamentous actin-based membranous extensions that form across a wide spectrum of mammalian cell types to facilitate long-range intercellular communication. Valid assays are needed to accurately assess the downstream effects of TNT-mediated transfer of cellular signals in vitro. We recently reported a modified transwell assay system designed to test the effects of intercellular transfer of a therapeutic oncolytic virus, and viral-activated drugs, between cells via TNTs...
November 13, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Keqiang Gao, Songmin Li, Liujing Zhuang, Zhen Qin, Bin Zhang, Liquan Huang, Ping Wang
The olfactory system is a natural biosensor since its peripheral olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) respond to the external stimuli and transmit the signals to the olfactory bulb (OB) where they are integrated and processed. The axonal connections from the OSNs expressing about 1000 different types of odorant receptors are precisely organized and sorted out onto 1800 glomeruli in the OB, from which the olfactory information is delivered to and perceived by the central nervous system. This process is carried out with particularly high sensitivity, specificity and rapidity, which can be used for explosive detection...
October 10, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Daoiz Zamora, Mario Amo-Gonzalez, Marta Lanza, Gonzalo Fernandez De La Mora, Juan Fernandez de la Mora
The feasibility of detecting explosives in the atmosphere at concentrations as low as 0.01 ppq hinges on the poorly known question of what interfering species exist at these or higher concentrations. To clarify the issue, hundreds of samples of ambient air, either clean or loaded with explosives (from lightly contaminated environments) have been collected in fiberglass/stainless steel filters coated with Tenax-GR, thermally desorbed at variable temperature, and ionized with Cl- via secondary electrospray (SESI)...
November 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Yao Shu, Yong Yi, Jichuan Huo, Ning Liu, Ke Wang, Yingying Lu, Xiaochuan Wang, Zongkai Wu, Yuanjie Shu, Shaowen Zhang
The glass transition temperature (T g) and density of poly-(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (PPESK A) were estimated by molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. A novel poly-(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (PPESK B) was constructed by introducing nitrol and amini energetic groups into PPESK A, and T g and density were also simulated for PPESK B. The estimated T g values of PPESK A were very close to experimental results, while for PPESK B three estimated values differed by < 5 K. The interactions between explosives and polymer binders of polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) were simulated by MD...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Wojciech Pawłowski, Łukasz Matyjasek, Katarzyna Cieślak, Monika Karpińska
The philosophy underlying the procedure with the trace from the moment of the securing of the evidence up to its ultimate inspection is of significance for the result achieved. Hands of the people who conduct investigative action or of the experts involved in examinations contaminated with explosives may adversely affect results of the analyses. The contamination effect is one of the most dangerous consequences of non-observance of the strict rules in handling the traces secured on the crime scene. The aim of this research work was to examine whether at all, and if so, with what an ease and at which stage of the analytical procedure there occurs a likely contamination of the evidence material with explosives such as TNT, RDX, PETN, NG...
October 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
Beatrice Falcinelli, Ombretta Marconi, Stefano Maranghi, Stanley Lutts, Adolfo Rosati, Franco Famiani, Paolo Benincasa
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are used mainly by the juice industry, for which seeds are a by-product to be disposed of, though they could potentially be a source of bioactive compounds. In this work, germination (total germination percentage, G; mean germination time, MGT; time to reach 80% of germination, TG80; seedling shoot length, fresh weight and dry matter), and nutritional value (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF; total non-tannins, TNT; antioxidant activities) of pomegranate seeds and sprouts were determined on four commercial pomegranate cultivars (Akko, Dente di Cavallo, Mollar de Elche and Wonderful)...
November 2, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Jennifer Ariazi, Andrew Benowitz, Vern De Biasi, Monique L Den Boer, Stephanie Cherqui, Haifeng Cui, Nathalie Douillet, Eliseo A Eugenin, David Favre, Spencer Goodman, Karine Gousset, Dorit Hanein, David I Israel, Shunsuke Kimura, Robert B Kirkpatrick, Nastaran Kuhn, Claire Jeong, Emil Lou, Robbie Mailliard, Stephen Maio, George Okafo, Matthias Osswald, Jennifer Pasquier, Roel Polak, Gabriele Pradel, Bob de Rooij, Peter Schaeffer, Vytenis A Skeberdis, Ian F Smith, Ahmad Tanveer, Niels Volkmann, Zhenhua Wu, Chiara Zurzolo
Cell-to-cell communication is essential for the organization, coordination, and development of cellular networks and multi-cellular systems. Intercellular communication is mediated by soluble factors (including growth factors, neurotransmitters, and cytokines/chemokines), gap junctions, exosomes and recently described tunneling nanotubes (TNTs). It is unknown whether a combination of these communication mechanisms such as TNTs and gap junctions may be important, but further research is required. TNTs are long cytoplasmic bridges that enable long-range, directed communication between connected cells...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Jinar Rostami, Staffan Holmqvist, Veronica Lindström, Jessica Sigvardson, Gunilla T Westermark, Martin Ingelsson, Joakim Bergström, Laurent Roybon, Anna Erlandsson
Many lines of evidence suggest that the Parkinson's disease (PD) related protein alpha-synuclein (α-SYN) can propagate from cell-to-cell in a prion-like manner. However, the cellular mechanisms behind the spreading remain elusive. Here, we show that human astrocytes, derived from embryonic stem cells, actively transfer aggregated α-SYN to nearby astrocytes via direct contact and tunneling nanotubes (TNTs). Failure in the astrocytes' lysosomal digestion of excess α-SYN oligomers, results in α-SYN deposits in the trans-Golgi network followed by endoplasmic reticulum swelling and mitochondrial disturbances...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Navin Suthahar, Wouter C Meijers, Frank P Brouwers, Hiddo J L Heerspink, Ron T Gansevoort, Pim van der Harst, Stephan J L Bakker, Rudolf A de Boer
BACKGROUND: There is a strong reciprocal relationship between heart failure (HF) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Shared pathophysiological mechanisms might be a possible explanation. Therefore, we hypothesised that biomarkers linked to HF would also predict new-onset type 2 DM in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: We utilized the Prevention of Vascular and Renal End-stage Disease (PREVEND) cohort (mean age 48.9years, 51% female) to study the relationship between HF and DM in 7953 participants free of baseline HF and DM...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
Hongzhi Lu, Shuai Quan, Shoufang Xu
In this work, we developed a simple and sensitive ratiometric fluorescent assay for sensing trinitrotoluene (TNT) based on the inner filter effect (IFE) between gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and ratiometric fluorescent nanoparticles (RFNs), which was designed by hybridizing green emissive carbon dots (CDs) and red emissive quantum dots (QDs) into a silica sphere as a fluorophore pair. AuNPs in their dispersion state can be a powerful absorber to quench CDs, while the aggregated AuNPs can quench QDs in the IFE-based fluorescent assays as a result of complementary overlap between the absorption spectrum of AuNPs and emission spectrum of RFNs...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Tamatha Baxley, Dylan Johnson, Jose R Pinto, Joseph M Chalovich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2017: Biochemistry
Mengting Li, LIli Gao, Junhong Chen, Yan Zhang, Jianxin Wang, Xiong Lu, Ke Duan, Jie Weng, Bo Feng
Classically activated M1 macrophages and alternatively activated M2 macrophages play key roles in regulating immune responses. M1 macrophages initiate angiogenesis in the early stages of wound healing or after implantation. However, their prolonged activation can lead to chronic inflammation. We speculated that biomedical implants with specific properties can induce a shift from M1 to M2 macrophages at a specific time point to promote tissue repair and wound healing. To investigate this possibility, drug-loaded double-layer sol-gel coatings were fabricated on TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs), which were used to modulate the switch from the M1 to the M2 phenotype by controlled release of interleukin (IL)-4...
October 23, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Kate E Keller, John M Bradley, Ying Ying Sun, Yong-Feng Yang, Ted S Acott
Purpose: The actin cytoskeleton of trabecular meshwork (TM) cells plays a role in regulating aqueous humor outflow. Many studies have investigated stress fibers, but F-actin also assembles into other supramolecular structures including filopodia. Recently, specialized filopodia called tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been described, which communicate molecular signals and organelles directly between cells. Here, we investigate TNT formation by TM cells. Methods: Human TM cells were labeled separately with the fluorescent dyes, DiO and DiD, or with mitochondrial dye...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Michael F Rentz, Andrew H Ruffner, Rachel M Ancona, Kimberly W Hart, John R Kues, Christopher M Barczak, Christopher J Lindsell, Carl J Fichtenbaum, Michael S Lyons
BACKGROUND: Healthcare settings screen broadly for HIV. Public health settings use social network and partner testing ("Transmission Network Targeting (TNT)") to select high-risk individuals based on their contacts. HIV screening and TNT systems are not integrated, and healthcare settings have not implemented TNT. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pilot implementation of multi-component, multi-venue TNT in conjunction with HIV screening by a healthcare setting. METHODS: Our urban, academic health center implemented a TNT program in collaboration with the local health department for five months during 2011...
October 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
Xiaopeng Su, Lifeng Yang, Cailian Huang, Qinli Hu, Xinyi Shan, Junmin Wan, Zhiwen Hu, Bing Wang
Reduced graphene oxide/titanium dioxide nanotube (rGO/TNT) composites have superior properties, such as a large surface area, extraordinary mechanical strength, high carrier mobility, etc. However, the biosafety and biocompatibility of these composites, such as their influences on cell viability and cell functions, which are of paramount importance, are still not fully addressed. In this study, rGO/TNT nanocomposites were successfully synthesized through a modified hydrothermal treatment method. Then, the interactions between the rGO/TNT nanocomposites and Raw264...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Chunlin He, Gang Zhao, Joseph P Hooper, Jean'ne M Shreeve
Energetic bridged triiodopyrazoles and triiodoimidazoles were designed and synthsized by reacting potassium triiodopyrazolate or triiodoimidazolate with corresponding dichloro compounds. All compounds were fully characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and elemental analyses. The structure of compound 1 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All of the compounds exhibit good thermal stability with decomposition temperatures between 199 and 270 °C and high densities ranging from 2...
November 6, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Matthew A Roberts, Piyush M Srivastava, David L Hare, Francesco L Ierino
AIM: Levels of plasma markers of myocardial fibrosis (galectin-3), stretch (B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)) and injury (troponin T (TnT)) may be affected by haemodialysis and residual renal function (RRF) in addition to cardiac pathology. We aimed to determine the association of RRF, urine output and haemodialysis itself on clinically important cardiac biomarkers in haemodialysis patients. METHODS: Adult haemodialysis patients underwent venesection pre- and post- haemodialysis followed by echocardiography and inter-dialytic urine collection to calculate RRF (mL/minute/1...
October 13, 2017: Nephrology
Lu Zhang, Xuhui Liao, Alex Fok, Chengyun Ning, Piklam Ng, Yan Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between various crystalline phases of titania (TiO2) nanotube (TNT) coatings and platelet adhesion and activation. METHODS: TNT coatings were fabricated on pure titanium foils by anodization and then randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were annealed at 350°C, 450°C and 550°C in order to obtain different crystalline phases. The remaining group was not annealed and served as the control group. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to define the crystalline phases of different groups...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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