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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528339/molecular-diagnosis-of-tubercular-lymphadenopathy-from-fine-needle-aspirates-in-pediatric-patients
#1
Vivek Gupta, Arvind Bhake
OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of peripheral tubercular lymphadenopathy (TBLN) in pediatric patients is often a challenge because features evident on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or tissue biopsy can be deceptive for the reason that they result from an immunological response. This study aimed to evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in pediatric patients under clinical suspicion for TBLN and to assess its role in the evaluation of cases cytodiagnosed as reactive lymphoid hyperplasia...
May 20, 2017: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527650/new-1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridine-derivatives-active-against-both-replicating-and-dormant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#2
Elena G Salina, Olga Ryabova, Anthony Vocat, Boris Nikonenko, Stewart T Cole, Vadim Makarov
Tuberculosis (TB) treatment is confounded by the range of metabolic states displayed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, by the long duration required and by the increasing prevalence of drug-resistant strains. Latent TB infection is especially difficult to treat due to the phenotypic antibiotic resistance of non-replicating M. tuberculosis. Therefore, the development of new drugs effective against both active and latent TB infection is needed. New 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridine derivatives were synthesized and found to be highly effective in vitro against both actively growing and dormant non-culturable M...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527252/-characterization-of-clinical-isolates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-hiv-positive-individuals-in-colombia-2012
#3
Claudia Castro, Alba Ricardo, Angie Zabaleta, Claudia Llerena, Gloria Puerto
INTRODUCTION: One third of the increase in tuberculosis cases is attributed to the spread of HIV. In 2012, 1,397 HIV-associated tuberculosis cases were reported in Colombia, i.e., 11.8% of the total cases. Molecular epidemiology tools help to understand the transmission of tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: To characterize clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis derived from HIV-infected individuals, received at the Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia in the Instituto Nacional de Salud...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526681/adoptive-transfer-of-phosphoantigen-specific-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-subset-attenuates-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-nonhuman-primates
#4
Arwa Qaqish, Dan Huang, Crystal Y Chen, Zhuoran Zhang, Richard Wang, Shengpu Li, Enzhuoa Yang, Yang Lu, Michelle H Larsen, William R Jacobs, Lixia Qian, James Frencher, Ling Shen, Zheng W Chen
The dominant Vγ2Vδ2 T cell subset recognizes phosphoantigen and exists only in humans and nonhuman primates. Despite the discovery of γδ T cells >30 y ago, a proof-of-concept study has not been done to prove the principle that the Vγ2Vδ2 T cell subset is protective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other infections. In this study, we used an adoptive cell-transfer strategy to define the protective role of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in a primate tuberculosis (TB) model. Vγ2Vδ2 T cells for adoptive transfer displayed central/effector memory and mounted effector functions, including the production of anti-M...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525582/challenges-in-the-estimation-of-the-annual-risk-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-children-aged-under-5-years
#5
P Y Khan, J R Glynn, T Mzembe, D Mulawa, R Chiumya, A C Crampin, K Kranzer, K L Fielding
Accurate estimates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection in young children provide a critical indicator of on-going community M.tb transmission. Cross reactions due to infection with environmental mycobacteria and/or Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination compromise the estimates derived from population-level tuberculin skin test surveys using traditional cut-off methods. Newer statistical approaches are prone to failure of model convergence, especially in settings where the prevalence of M.tb infection is low and environmental sensitisation is high...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524434/unaffected-reaction-level-in-tuberculin-skin-test-by-long-term-therapy-with-tumor-necrosis-factor-inhibitors-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#6
Shotaro Yamamoto, Katsuya Nagatani, Takeo Sato, Masahiro Iwamoto, Shino Takatori, Seiji Minota
AIM: The tuberculin skin test (TST) is used to diagnose tuberculosis; however, the influence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors on the test is unclear. This study investigated whether therapy with TNF inhibitors suppresses the TST reaction due to immunosuppression or whether the TST reaction increases due to reactivation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. METHOD: Ninety-one patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving TNF inhibitors (40 using infliximab and 51 using etanercept) were studied...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523507/tof-sims-parallel-imaging-ms-ms-of-lipid-species-in-thin-tissue-sections
#7
Anne Lisa Bruinen, Gregory L Fisher, Ron M A Heeren
Unambiguous identification of detected species is essential in complex biomedical samples. To date, there are not many mass spectrometry imaging techniques that can provide both high spatial resolution and identification capabilities. A new and patented imaging tandem mass spectrometer, exploiting the unique characteristics of the nanoTOF II (Physical Electronics, USA) TOF-SIMS TRIFT instrument, was developed to address this.Tandem mass spectrometry is based on the selection of precursor ions from the full secondary ion spectrum (MS(1)), followed by energetic activation and fragmentation, and collection of the fragment ions to obtain a tandem MS spectrum (MS(2))...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522247/potential-of-multi-component-antigens-for-tuberculosis-diagnosis
#8
Sana Khurshid, Madeeha Afzal, Ruqqya Khalid, M Waheed Akhtar, Mahmood Husain Qazi
Tuberculosis is one of the top ten causes of deaths worldwide. The cause of tuberculosis is a bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which has been surviving for centuries. Immunological tests based on detecting the presence of antibodies in the sera of active TB patients against various antigens of M. tuberculosis are useful for diagnosis of TB and offer simple, rapid and cost effective methods most suitable for poor and developing countries. Several recombinant antigens have been reported so far with varying sensitivity individually, yet none had shown sensitivity higher enough to be used in a commercial test...
May 15, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521256/antibody-detection-tests-improve-the-sensitivity-of-tuberculosis-diagnosis-in-cattle
#9
C Casal, J A Infantes, M A Risalde, A Díez-Guerrier, M Domínguez, I Moreno, B Romero, L de Juan, J L Sáez, R Juste, C Gortázar, L Domínguez, J Bezos
We evaluated the sensitivity (Se) of the single cervical intradermal tuberculin (SIT) test, two interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assays and three different antibody detection techniques for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) diagnosis in 131 mixed beef breed cattle. The results of the diagnostic techniques performed over the whole herd, and over the animals confirmed as infected based on the presence of lesions compatible with the disease and/or M. bovis isolation were compared to determine apparent prevalence (AP) and Se...
May 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517109/the-studies-of-para-and-parb-dynamics-reveal-asymmetry-of-chromosome-segregation-in-mycobacteria
#10
Katarzyna Ginda, Isabella Santi, Djenet Bousbaine, Jolanta Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Dagmara Jakimowicz, John McKinney
Active segregation of bacterial chromosomes usually involves the action of ParB proteins, which bind in proximity of chromosomal origin (oriC) regions forming nucleoprotein complexes - segrosomes. Newly duplicated segrosomes are moved either uni- or bidirectionally by the action of ATPases - ParA proteins. In Mycobacterium smegmatis the oriC region is located in an off-centred position and newly replicated segrosomes are segregated toward cell poles. The elimination of M. smegmatis ParA and/or ParB leads to chromosome segregation defects...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516818/the-changing-epidemiology-of-spinal-tuberculosis-the-influence-of-international-immigration-in-catalonia-1993-2014
#11
M Peghin, D Rodriguez-Pardo, A Sanchez-Montalva, F Pellisé, A Rivas, T Tortola, J Aguilar, B Almirante, C Pigrau
The overall incidence of spinal tuberculosis (TB) appears to be stable or declining in most European countries, but with an increasing proportion of cases in the foreign-born populations. We performed a retrospective observational study (1993-2014), including all cases of spinal TB diagnosed at a Barcelona hospital to assess the epidemiological changes. Fifty-four episodes (48·1% males, median age 52 years) of spinal TB were diagnosed. The percentage of foreign-born residents with spinal TB increased from 14% to 45·2% in the last 10 years (P = 0·017)...
May 18, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516071/levamisole-as-an-adjuvant-to-short-course-therapy-in-newly-diagnosed-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients
#12
Chetna Ashok Shamkuwar, Sushant Hiraman Meshram, Sunil M Mahakalkar
BACKGROUND: The estimated incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis in India are 2.1 and 2.6 million cases respectively. Immunotherapy may shorten tuberculosis treatments and improve the immunity of individuals as well. Hence we study the efficacy of levamisole (LVM) (immunomodulator) as an adjuvant to chemotherapy of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted for 21 months in newly diagnosed sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515626/the-history-of-tuberculosis-from-the-first-historical-records-to-the-isolation-of-koch-s-bacillus
#13
REVIEW
I Barberis, N L Bragazzi, L Galluzzo, M Martini
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious, infectious disease, due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) that has always been a permanent challenge over the course of human history, because of its severe social implications. It has been hypothesized that the genus Mycobacterium originated more than 150 million years ago. In the Middle Ages, scrofula, a disease affecting cervical lymph nodes, was described as a new clinical form of TB. The illness was known in England and France as "king's evil", and it was widely believed that persons affected could heal after a royal touch...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515317/characterization-of-a-secretory-hydrolase-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-sheds-critical-insight-into-host-lipid-utilization-by-m-tuberculosis
#14
Khundrakpam Herojit Singh, Bhavya Jha, Abhisek Dwivedy, Eira Choudhary, Arpitha G N, Anam Ashraf, Nisheeth Agarwal, Bichitra Kumar Biswal
Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis in humans and predominantly infects alveolar macrophages. To survive inside host lesions and to evade immune surveillance, this pathogen has developed many strategies. For example, M. tuberculosis uses host-derived lipids/fatty acids as nutrients for prolonged persistence within hypoxic host microenvironments. M. tuberculosis imports these metabolites through its respective transporters, and in the case of host fatty acids, a pertinent question arises: does M. tuberculosis have the enzyme(s) for cleavage of fatty acids from host lipids? We show herein that a previously uncharacterized membrane-associated M...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515032/bilateral-painless-testicular-mass-acute-uveitis-and-annular-cutaneous-lesions-an-unusual-presentation-of-sarcoidosis-and-literature-review
#15
Enver Şimşek, Tülay Şimşek, Meliha Demiral, Funda Canaz, M Fuat Açıkalın
BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by non-caseating epitheloid granulomas; whereas it usually involves the lungs and lymph nodes, genitourinary involvement is extremely rare. For this reason, no consensus regarding the diagnostic and management options for testicular sarcoidosis has been reached. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this case report was to describe an unusual clinical presentation of sarcoidosis. An 8-year-old boy presented with a 6-month history of painless scrotal enlargement and a 2-month history of photophobia, blurred vision, and pain in both eyes...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514713/pattern-recognition-receptors-and-coordinated-cellular-pathways-involved-in-tuberculosis-immunopathogenesis-emerging-concepts-and-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
Abhishek Mishra, Shamim Akhtar, Chinnaswamy Jagannath, Arshad Khan
Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) play a central role in the recognition of numerous pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, resulting in activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Besides Toll Like Receptors, C-type Lectin Receptors and Nod Like Receptors are now being recognized for their involvement in inducing immune response against M. tuberculosis infection. Although, a functional redundancy of the PRRs has also been reported in many studies, emerging evidences support the notion that a cooperative and coordinated response generated by these receptors is critical to sustain the full immune control of M...
May 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513421/clinical-and-bacteriological-characteristics-associated-with-clustering-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#17
J-Y J-Y Feng, L G Jarlsberg, K Salcedo, J Rose, M Janes, S-Y G Lin, D H Osmond, K C Jost, M K Soehnlen, J Flood, E A Graviss, E Desmond, P K Moonan, P Nahid, P C Hopewell, M Kato-Maeda
<h2>SETTING:</h2><p>The impact of the genetic characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the clustering of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has not been analyzed together with clinical and demographic characteristics.</p><h2>OBJECTIVE:</h2><p>To determine factors associated with genotypic clustering of MDR-TB in a community-basedstudy.</p><h2>DESIGN:</h2><p>We measured the proportion of clustered cases among MDR-TB patients and determined the impact of clinical and demographic characteristics and that of three M...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513416/the-role-of-esx-1-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-pathogenesis
#18
Ka-Wing Wong
In this article, we have described several cellular pathological effects caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESX-1. The effects include induction of necrosis, NOD2 signaling, type I interferon production, and autophagy. We then attempted to suggest that these pathological effects are mediated by the cytosolic access of M. tuberculosis-derived materials as a result of the phagosome-disrupting activity of the major ESX-1 substrate ESAT-6. Such activity of ESAT-6 is most likely due to its pore-forming activity at the membrane...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512022/synthesis-antimycobacterial-activity-and-docking-study-of-2-aroyl-1-benzopyrano-4-3-c-pyrazol-4-1h-one-derivatives-and-related-hydrazide-hydrazones
#19
Violina T Angelova, Violeta Valcheva, Tania Pencheva, Yulian Voynikov, Nikolay Vassilev, Rositsa Mihaylova, Georgi Momekov, Boris Shivachev
A new convenient method for preparation of 2-aroyl-[1]benzopyrano[4,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H)-one derivatives 5b-g and coumarin containing hydrazide-hydrazone analogues 4a-e was presented. The antimycobacterial activity against reference strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and cytotoxicity against the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK-293 were tested in vitro. All compounds demonstrated significant minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging 0.28-1.69μM, which were comparable to those of isoniazid. The cytotoxicity (IC50>200µM) to the "normal cell" model HEK-293T exhibited by 2-aroyl-[1]benzopyrano[4,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H)-one derivatives 5b-e, was noticeably milder compared to that of their hydrazone analogues 4a-e (IC50 33-403µM)...
May 5, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511895/diagnostic-performance-of-anyplex-ii-mtb-mdr-xdr-for-detection-of-resistance-to-first-and-second-line-drugs-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#20
F Pérez-García, M J Ruiz-Serrano, P López Roa, Fermín Acosta, Laura Pérez-Lago, D García-De-Viedma, E Bouza
PURPOSE: Genotypic methods have considerably improved the diagnosis of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis. One of these tests is Anyplex II MTB/MDR/XDR (Anyplex). Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of this multiplex PCR. METHODS: We conducted our study on 47 MDR tuberculosis and 14 pan-susceptible strains. We evaluated the ability of Anyplex to detect resistance mutations in rpoB (rifampin [RIF]), katG and inhA (isoniazid [INH]), gyrA (fluoroquinolones [FLQ]), and rrs and eis (aminoglycosides [AMG])...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
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