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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098168/the-il-17a-rs2275913-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-is-associated-with-protection-to-tuberculosis-but-related-to-higher-disease-severity-in-argentina
#1
A Rolandelli, R E Hernández Del Pino, J M Pellegrini, N L Tateosian, N O Amiano, S de la Barrera, N Casco, M Gutiérrez, D J Palmero, V E García
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes nearly 10 millions of new tuberculosis disease cases annually. However, most individuals exposed to Mtb do not develop tuberculosis, suggesting the influence of a human genetic component. Here, we investigated the association of the rs2275913 SNP (G → A) from IL-17A and tuberculosis in Argentina by a case-control study. Furthermore, we evaluated in vitro the functional relevance of this SNP during the immune response of the host against Mtb and analyzed its impact on clinical parameters of the disease...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098042/-joining-forces-for-quality-improvement-in-tuberculosis-control
#2
L Gil, M J T van de Ven, C Richter
The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in the Netherlands is declining every year. We fear there may be a loss of knowledge and awareness of detecting TB in the new generation of medical specialists. As medical specialists a great challenge lies before us in maintaining the quality of TB control in the Netherlands. Collaboration between pulmonologist, infectious disease specialist, microbiologist and the public health services is a necessity. Here we describe how, in the region of Arnhem, we work closely with these medical specialists based on structural multidisciplinary meetings...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097645/bacterial-subversion-of-camp-signalling-inhibits-cathelicidin-expression-which-is-required-for-innate-resistance-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
Shashank Gupta, Kathryn Winglee, Richard Gallo, William R Bishai
Antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidins are an important component of innate immune defence against inhaled microorganisms and have demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with in vitro models. Despite this, little is known about the regulation and expression of cathelicidin during tuberculosis in vivo. We sought to determine whether the cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (Cramp) gene, the murine functional homologue of the human cathelicidin gene (CAMP or LL-37), is required for regulating protective immunity during M...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096490/comprehensive-essentiality-analysis-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-genome-via-saturating-transposon-mutagenesis
#4
Michael A DeJesus, Elias R Gerrick, Weizhen Xu, Sae Woong Park, Jarukit E Long, Cara C Boutte, Eric J Rubin, Dirk Schnappinger, Sabine Ehrt, Sarah M Fortune, Christopher M Sassetti, Thomas R Ioerger
: For decades, identifying the regions of a bacterial chromosome that are necessary for viability has relied on mapping integration sites in libraries of random transposon mutants to find loci that are unable to sustain insertion. To date, these studies have analyzed subsaturated libraries, necessitating the application of statistical methods to estimate the likelihood that a gap in transposon coverage is the result of biological selection and not the stochasticity of insertion. As a result, the essentiality of many genomic features, particularly small ones, could not be reliably assessed...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096157/resistance-to-thiacetazone-derivatives-active-against-mycobacterium-abscessus-involves-mutations-in-the-mmpl5-transcriptional-repressor-mab_4384
#5
Iman Halloum, Albertus Viljoen, Varun Khanna, Derek Craig, Christiane Bouchier, Roland Brosch, Geoffrey Coxon, Laurent Kremer
Available chemotherapeutic options are very limited against Mycobacterium abscessus, which imparts a particular challenge in the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients infected with this rapid-growing mycobacterium. New drugs are urgently needed against this emerging pathogen, but the discovery of active chemotypes has not been performed intensively. Interestingly, however, the repurposing of thiacetazone (TAC), a drug once used to treat tuberculosis, has increased following the deciphering of its mechanism of action and the detection of significantly more potent analogues...
January 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095790/comparison-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-and-smear-microscopy-with-culture-for-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-tuberculosis
#6
Baye Gelaw, Yitayal Shiferaw, Marta Alemayehu, Abate Assefa Bashaw
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death from infectious diseases worldwide. Sputum smear microscopy remains the most widely available pulmonary TB diagnostic tool particularly in resource limited settings. A highly sensitive diagnostic with minimal infrastructure, cost and training is required. Hence, we assessed the diagnostic performance of Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay in detecting M.tuberculosis infection in sputum sample compared to LED fluorescent smear microscopy and culture...
January 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095429/high-rates-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-isolation-in-mozambican-children-with-presumptive-tuberculosis
#7
Elisa López-Varela, Alberto L García-Basteiro, Orvalho J Augusto, Oscar Fraile, Helder Bulo, Tasmiya Ira, Kizito Gondo, Jakko van Ingen, Denise Naniche, Jahit Sacarlal, Pedro L Alonso
INTRODUCTION: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can cause disease which can be clinically and radiologically undistinguishable from tuberculosis (TB), posing a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in high TB settings. We aim to describe the prevalence of NTM isolation and its clinical characteristics in children from rural Mozambique. METHODS: This study was part of a community TB incidence study in children <3 years of age. Gastric aspirate and induced sputum sampling were performed in all presumptive TB cases and processed for smear testing using fluorochrome staining and LED Microscopy, liquid and solid culture, and molecular identification by GenoType® Mycobacterium CM/AS assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094930/fe-and-ln-dotam-f12-are-effective-paramagnetic-fluorine-contrast-agents-for-mri-in-water-and-blood
#8
Kriti Srivastava, Evan A Weitz, Katie L Peterson, Małgorzata Marjańska, Valérie C Pierre
A series of fluorinated macrocyclic complexes, M-DOTAm-F12, where M is La(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III), Tm(III), Yb(III), and Fe(II), was synthesized, and their potential as fluorine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents was evaluated. The high water solubility of these complexes and the presence of a single fluorine NMR signal, two necessary parameters for in vivo MRI, are substantial advantages over currently used organic polyfluorocarbons and other reported paramagnetic (19)F probes...
January 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094223/anti-tuberculosis-activity-and-structure-activity-relationships-of-oxygenated-tricyclic-carbazole-alkaloids-and-synthetic-derivatives
#9
Carsten Börger, Christian Brütting, Konstanze K Julich-Gruner, Ronny Hesse, V Pavan Kumar, Sebastian K Kutz, Marika Rönnefahrt, Claudia Thomas, Baojie Wan, Scott G Franzblau, Hans-Joachim Knölker
A series of 49 oxygenated tricyclic carbazole derivatives has been tested for inhibition of the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a mammalian cell line (vero cells). From this series, twelve carbazoles showed a significant anti-TB activity. The four most active compounds were the naturally occurring carbazole alkaloids clauszoline-M (45), murrayaline-C (41), carbalexin-C (27), and the synthetic carbazole derivative 22 with MIC90 values ranging from 1.5 to 3.7μM. The active compounds were virtually nontoxic for the mammalian cell line in the concentration range up to 50μM...
December 27, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093542/disease-burden-of-dengue-in-the-philippines-adjusting-for-underreporting-by-comparing-active-and-passive-dengue-surveillance-in-punta-princesa-cebu-city
#10
Eduardo A Undurraga, Frances E Edillo, Jonathan Neil V Erasmo, Maria Theresa P Alera, In-Kyu Yoon, Francisco M Largo, Donald S Shepard
Dengue virus (DENV) is a serious threat to public health. Having reliable estimates of the burden of dengue is important to inform policy and research, but surveillance systems are not designed to capture all symptomatic DENV infections. We derived the rate of reporting of dengue by comparing active surveillance of symptomatic DENV infections in a prospective community-based seroepidemiological cohort study (N = 1008) of acute febrile illness in Punta Princesa, Cebu City, Philippines, with passive surveillance data from the Cebu City Health Department...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092681/genomic-analysis-of-globally-diverse-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-provides-insights-into-the-emergence-and-spread-of-multidrug-resistance
#11
Abigail L Manson, Keira A Cohen, Thomas Abeel, Christopher A Desjardins, Derek T Armstrong, Clifton E Barry, Jeannette Brand, Sinéad B Chapman, Sang-Nae Cho, Andrei Gabrielian, James Gomez, Andreea M Jodals, Moses Joloba, Pontus Jureen, Jong Seok Lee, Lesibana Malinga, Mamoudou Maiga, Dale Nordenberg, Ecaterina Noroc, Elena Romancenco, Alex Salazar, Willy Ssengooba, A A Velayati, Kathryn Winglee, Aksana Zalutskaya, Laura E Via, Gail H Cassell, Susan E Dorman, Jerrold Ellner, Parissa Farnia, James E Galagan, Alex Rosenthal, Valeriu Crudu, Daniela Homorodean, Po-Ren Hsueh, Sujatha Narayanan, Alexander S Pym, Alena Skrahina, Soumya Swaminathan, Martie Van der Walt, David Alland, William R Bishai, Ted Cohen, Sven Hoffner, Bruce W Birren, Ashlee M Earl
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), caused by drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an increasingly serious problem worldwide. Here we examined a data set of whole-genome sequences from 5,310 M. tuberculosis isolates from five continents. Despite the great diversity of these isolates with respect to geographical point of isolation, genetic background and drug resistance, the patterns for the emergence of drug resistance were conserved globally. We have identified harbinger mutations that often precede multidrug resistance...
January 16, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091937/ocular-mycobacteriosis-dual-infection-of-m-tuberculosis-complex-with-m-fortuitum-and-m-bovis
#12
Kusum Sharma, Natasha Gautam, Megha Sharma, Mohit Dogra, Priya Bajgai, Basavaraj Tigari, Aman Sharma, Vishali Gupta, Surya Prakash Sharma, Ramandeep Singh
BACKGROUND: We report unfavorable outcome in a patient with subretinal granuloma caused by dual infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex with Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium bovis in an immunosuppressed, non-HIV patient. We did a systematic review of literature on dual infection due to M. tuberculosis and M. fortuitum via MEDLINE and PUBMED and could not find any case reported of causing this kind of dual infection in the eye. RESULTS: A 38-year-old Indian male patient presented with decreased vision in the left eye for 3 months, diagnosed as tubercular choroidal granuloma with associated retinal angiomatosis proliferans (RAP) lesion...
December 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091336/who-are-the-patients-that-default-tuberculosis-treatment-space-matters
#13
C Nunes, R Duarte, A M Veiga, B Taylor
The goals of this article are: (i) to understand how individual characteristics affect the likelihood of patients defaulting their pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) treatment regimens; (ii) to quantify the predictive capacity of these risk factors; and (iii) to quantify and map spatial variation in the risk of defaulting. We used logistic regression models and generalized additive models with a spatial component to determine the odds of default across continental Portugal. We focused on new PTB cases, diagnosed between 2000 and 2013, and included some individual information (sex, age, residence area, alcohol abuse, intravenous drug use, homelessness, HIV, imprisonment status)...
January 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089289/evaluation-of-five-serologic-assays-for-bovine-tuberculosis-surveillance-in-domestic-free-range-pigs-from-southern-spain
#14
Fernando Cardoso-Toset, Inmaculada Luque, Librado Carrasco, Francisco Jurado-Martos, María Ángeles Risalde, Ángel Venteo, José A Infantes-Lorenzo, Javier Bezos, Paloma Rueda, Istar Tapia, Christian Gortázar, Lucas Domínguez, Mercedes Domínguez, Jaime Gomez-Laguna
In countries where bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is still prevalent the contact among different animal species in extensive systems contributes to the circulation of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and other members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). Thus, free-range pigs can develop subclinical infections and may contribute to disease spread to bovine and wildlife. Serodiagnosis has been proposed as a screening tool for detecting infected pig herds; however, the value of this method to obtain an accurate diagnosis in this species is still not clear...
December 29, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088237/association-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Balewgizie Sileshi Tegegne, Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold, Melkamu Merid Mengesha, Johannes G M Burgerhof
INTRODUCTION: Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a challenge to global tuberculosis (TB) control and remains a major public health concern in many countries. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an increasingly recognized comorbidity that can both accelerate TB disease and complicate its treatment. The aim of this study is to summarize available evidence on the association of DM and MDR-TB among TB patients and to provide a pooled estimate of risks. METHODS: All studies published in English before October 2016 will be searched using comprehensive search strings through PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and WHO Global Health Library databases which have reported the association of DM and MDR-TB in adults with TB (age > =15)...
January 14, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088186/concentration-of-fine-needle-aspirates-similar-to-molecular-method-improves-sensitivity-of-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-lymphadenitis-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#16
Olifan Zewdie, Tamrat Abebe, Adane Mihret, Eyob Hirpa, Gobena Ameni
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) diagnosis has been a true challenge solely by clinical evidence in developing countries, due to limited the diagnostic facility on hand. However, the availability and affordability of available diagnostic tools in resource-limited settings like Ethiopia necessitates the quest for other techniques with added value over direct Z-N microscopy. Therefore, we aimed at to assess whether the concentration of lymph node aspirate similarly improves the detection rate of tuberculous lymphadenitis or not...
January 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088037/assessment-of-the-meat-quality-of-lamb-m-longissimus-thoracis-et-lumborum-and-m-triceps-brachii-following-three-different-halal-slaughter-procedures
#17
A S Danso, R I Richardson, R Khalid
A total of fifteen male and fifteen female lambs were allocated to three groups of ten animals and subjected to: traditional Halal slaughter without stunning (TNS); slaughter following electric head-only stunning (EHOS) or; post-cut electric head-only stun (PCEHOS) and their meat quality was determined. Instrumental and sensory analyses were carried out on two muscles; M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and M. triceps brachii (TB). Additionally, the effects of sex and muscle type were also assessed. No differences were found among slaughter methods for pH, drip loss and shear force...
January 4, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087948/regulation-of-immunity-to-tuberculosis
#18
Susanna Brighenti, Diane J Ordway
Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires a balance between adaptive immune responses to constrain bacterial replication and the prevention of potentially damaging immune activation. Regulatory T (Treg) cells express the transcription factor Foxp3+ and constitute an essential counterbalance of inflammatory Th1 responses and are required to maintain immune homeostasis. The first reports describing the presence of Foxp3-expressing CD4+ Treg cells in tuberculosis (TB) emerged in 2006. Different Treg cell subsets, most likely specialized for different tissues and microenvironments, have been shown to expand in both human TB and animal models of TB...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087945/innate-immune-responses-to-tuberculosis
#19
Jeffrey S Schorey, Larry S Schlesinger
Tuberculosis remains one of the greatest threats to human health. The causative bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is acquired by the respiratory route. It is exquisitely adapted to humans and is a prototypic intracellular pathogen of macrophages, with alveolar macrophages being the primary conduit of infection and disease. However, M. tuberculosis bacilli interact with and are affected by several soluble and cellular components of the innate immune system which dictate the outcome of primary infection, most commonly a latently infected healthy human host, in whom the bacteria are held in check by the host immune response within the confines of tissue granuloma, the host histopathologic hallmark...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087944/laboratory-diagnosis-and-susceptibility-testing-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#20
Gary W Procop
The laboratory, which utilizes some of the most sophisticated and rapidly changing technologies, plays a critical role in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Some of these tools are being employed in resource-challenged countries for the rapid detection and characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Foremost, the laboratory defines appropriate specimen criteria for optimal test performance. The direct detection of mycobacteria in the clinical specimen, predominantly done by acid-fast staining, may eventually be replaced by rapid-cycle PCR...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
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