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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342825/association-between-parasitic-infections-and-tuberculin-skin-test-results-in-refugees
#1
Nathaniel S Watts, Mucho M Mizinduko, Elizabeth D Barnett, Laura F White, Natasha S Hochberg
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections are known to modulate the immune response necessary for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We sought to investigate species-specific effects of parasite infection on M. tuberculosis infection. METHODS: As part of the Refugee Health Assessment Program, stool examinations and tuberculin skin testing were performed on refugees seen at Boston Medical Center between 1995 and 2012. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and stool examination data were collected for 6669 refugees; 3349 (50...
March 22, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342534/comparison-of-ixekizumab-with-etanercept-or-placebo-in-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis-subgroup-analysis-of-latin-american-patients-in-the-phase-3-randomized-uncover-3-study
#2
F Valenzuela, C de la Cruz Fernandez, R L Galimberti, S Gürbüz, M McKean-Matthews, L Goncalves, R Romiti
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ixekizumab demonstrated greater efficacy than placebo and etanercept in UNCOVER-3. Subgroup analysis of Latin American patients was performed. We report 12-week and 60-week data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Analysis included 102 Latin American patients randomized to receive placebo (n=14), etanercept 50mg twice weekly (n=30), or ixekizumab 160-mg starting dose followed by 80mg every 2 weeks (Q2W; n=29) or every 4 weeks (Q4W; n=29). At week 12, patients maintaining efficacy response and adequate overall safety were assigned, at the discretion of the investigator, to long-term extension with ixekizumab Q4W...
March 22, 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339640/response-disseminated-tuberculosis
#3
S G Chong, A M McLaughlin, J Keane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339465/comparative-accuracy-of-the-reba-mtb-mdr-and-hain-mtbdrplus-line-probe-assays-for-the-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-multicenter-non-inferiority-study
#4
Joshua Havumaki, Doris Hillemann, Nazir Ismail, Shaheed Vally Omar, Sophia B Georghiou, Samuel G Schumacher, Catharina Boehme, Claudia M Denkinger
INTRODUCTION: Despite recent diagnostic advances, the majority of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases remain undiagnosed. Line probes assays (LiPAs) hold great promise to curb the spread of MDR-TB as they can rapidly detect MDR-TB even when laboratory infrastructure is limited, yet few of these assays are currently widely available or supported by World Health Organization (WHO) policy. METHODS: The aim of this prospective, blinded, non-inferiority study was to compare the performance of YD Diagnostics REBA MTB MDR LiPA (YD) to the WHO-endorsed Hain MTBDRplus V1 LiPA (Hain V1) for the detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338924/a-nonsynonymous-snp-catalog-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-virulence-genes-and-its-use-for-detecting-new-potentially-virulent-sublineages
#5
N E Mikheecheva, M V Zaychikova, A V Melerzanov, V N Danilenko
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is divided into several distinct lineages, and various genetic markers such as IS-elements, VNTR, and SNPs are used for lineage identification. We propose an M. tuberculosis classification approach based on functional polymorphisms in virulence genes. An M. tuberculosis virulence genes catalog has been established, including 319 genes from various protein groups, such as proteases, cell wall proteins, fatty acid and lipid metabolism proteins, sigma factors, toxin-antitoxin systems...
March 11, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338827/strategies-for-halting-the-rise-of-multidrug-resistant-tb-epidemics-assessing-the-effect-of-early-case-detection-and-isolation
#6
Aquino L Espindola, Marie Varughese, Marek Laskowski, Affan Shoukat, Jane M Heffernan, Seyed M Moghadas
Background: The increasing rates of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) have posed the question of whether control programs under enhanced directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS-Plus) are sufficient or implemented optimally. Despite enhanced efforts on early case detection and improved treatment regimens, direct transmission of MDR-TB remains a major hurdle for global TB control. Methods: We developed an agent-based simulation model of TB dynamics to evaluate the effect of transmission reduction measures on the incidence of MDR-TB...
March 7, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338723/non-specific-effects-of-bcg-vaccination-on-morbidity-among-children-in-greenland-a-population-based-cohort-study
#7
S Haahr, S W Michelsen, M Andersson, K Bjorn-Mortensen, B Soborg, J Wohlfahrt, M Melbye, A Koch
Background: The potential non-specific effects of BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccination, with reported reduction of infectious disease morbidity among vaccinated children, in addition to the protective effect against tuberculosis (TB), are highly debated. In Greenland, BCG vaccination was introduced in 1955, but temporarily discontinued from 1991 to 1996 due to nationwide policy changes. Using the transient vaccination stop, we aimed to investigate possible non-specific effects of BCG vaccination by measuring nation-wide hospitalization rates due to infectious diseases other than TB among vaccinated and unvaccinated children...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337966/acid-fast-positive-and-acid-fast-negative-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-the-koch-paradox
#8
Catherine Vilchèze, Laurent Kremer
Acid-fast (AF) staining, also known as Ziehl-Neelsen stain microscopic detection, developed over a century ago, is even today the most widely used diagnostic method for tuberculosis. Herein we present a short historical review of the evolution of AF staining methods and discuss Koch's paradox, in which non-AF tubercle bacilli can be detected in tuberculosis patients or in experimentally infected animals. The conversion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from an actively growing, AF-positive form to a nonreplicating, AF-negative form during the course of infection is now well documented...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337447/genotypic-diversity-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-in-the-multiethnic-area-of-the-xinjiang-uygur-autonomous-region-in-china
#9
Jie Liu, Junlian Li, Jiao Liu, Xiuqin Zhao, Lulu Lian, Haican Liu, Bing Lu, Qin Yu, Jingrui Zhang, Yingcheng Qi, Kanglin Wan
Objectives. We studied the genetic diversity of clinical isolates from patients with tuberculosis in the multiethnic area of Xinjiang autonomous region in China. A total of 311 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates were collected in 2006 and 2011 and genotyped by two genotyping methods. All isolates were grouped into 68 distinct spoligotypes using the spoligotyping method. The Beijing family was dominant, followed by T1 and CAS. MIRU-VNTR results showed that a total of 195 different VNTR types were identified. Ten of the 15 loci were highly or moderately discriminant according to their HGDI scores, and 13 loci had good discriminatory power in non-Beijing family strains, whereas only two loci had good discriminatory power in Beijing family strains...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337427/comparative-proteomics-analysis-of-human-macrophages-infected-with-virulent-mycobacterium-bovis
#10
Pei Li, Rui Wang, Wenqi Dong, Linlin Hu, Bingbing Zong, Yanyan Zhang, Xiangru Wang, Aizhen Guo, Anding Zhang, Yaozu Xiang, Huanchun Chen, Chen Tan
Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), the most common pathogens of tuberculosis (TB), is virulent to human and cattle, and transmission between cattle and humans warrants reconsideration concerning food safety and public health. Recently, efforts have begun to analyze cellular proteomic responses induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). However, the underlying mechanisms by which virulent M. bovis affects human hosts are not fully understood. For the present study, we utilized a global and comparative labeling strategy of isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) to assess proteomic changes in the human monocyte cell line (THP-1) using a vaccine strain and two virulent strains H37Rv and M...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337426/pathogen-identification-in-suspected-cases-of-pyogenic-spondylodiscitis
#11
Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh, Azar D Khosravi, Hamed Goodarzi, Roohangiz Nashibi, Alireaza Teimouri, Azim Motamedfar, Reza Ranjbar, Sara Afzalzadeh, Mehrandokht Cyrus, Mohammad Hashemzadeh
Pyogenic spinal infection continues to represent a worldwide problem. In approximately one-third of patients with pyogenic spondylodiscitis, the infectious agent is never identified. Of the cases that lead to organismal identification, bacteria are more commonly isolated from the spine rather than fungi and parasites. This study applied universal prokaryotic 16S rRNA PCR as a rapid diagnostic tool for the detection of bacterial agents in specimens from patients suspected of pyogenic spondylodiscitis. Gram and Ziehl-Neelsen staining were used as a preliminary screening measure for microbiologic evaluation of patient samples...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337336/sar-and-identification-of-2-quinolin-4-yloxy-acetamides-as-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-cytochrome-bc1-inhibitors
#12
Narisa Phummarin, Helena I Boshoff, Patricia S Tsang, James Dalton, Siouxsie Wiles, Clifton E Barry Rd, Brent R Copp
A previous phenotypic screen by GSK identified 2-(quinolin-4-yloxy)acetamides as potent growth inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We report the results of a preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of the compound class which has yielded more potent inhibitors. An Mtb cytochrome bd oxidase deletion mutant (cydKO) was found to be hypersensitive to most members of the compound library, while strains carrying single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the qcrB gene, which encodes a subunit of the menaquinol cytochrome c oxidoreductase (bc1) complex, were resistant to the library...
November 1, 2016: MedChemComm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336452/the-relationship-of-bone-properties-using-high-resolution-peripheral-quantitative-computed-tomography-to-radiographic-components-of-hip-osteoarthritis
#13
Mark H Edwards, Julien Paccou, Kate A Ward, Karen A Jameson, Charlotte Moss, Jennifer Woolston, M Kassim Javaid, Cyrus Cooper, Elaine M Dennison
OBJECTIVE: Positive associations between radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) and areal BMD have been demonstrated and appear strongest when bony features of OA are considered. To date, these associations have not been assessed using HRpQCT. DESIGN: A total of 318 participants (170 men and 148 women), aged 72.1-81.4 years from a non-selected cohort, underwent HRpQCT of the distal radius and tibia along with hip radiography. Differences in bone microarchitecture were assessed between those with and without osteophytes, sclerosis or joint space narrowing (JSN) in either hip...
March 20, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336310/regulatory-role-of-ccl5-rs2280789-and-cxcl10-rs56061981-gene-polymorphisms-on-intracellular-ccl5-and-cxcl10-expression-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#14
Brijendra Singh, Selvaraj Anbalagan, Paramasivam Selvaraj
Genetic variations in chemokine genes influence the chemoattractive properties of T cells which may be associated with outcome of infections. In present study, we have investigated the regulatory role played by In1.1T/C (rs2280789) polymorphism of CCL5 and -135G/A (rs56061981) polymorphism of CXCL10 gene on intracellular CCL5 and CXCL10 expression in T cells. Whole blood cell cultures were stimulated with culture filtrate antigen (CFA) and infected with live M. tuberculosis were used for intracellular CCL5 and CXCL10 expression using flow cytometry...
March 21, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335738/genome-wide-expression-profiling-establishes-novel-modulatory-roles-of-vitamin-c-in-thp-1-human-monocytic-cell-line
#15
Sakshi Dhingra Batra, Malobi Nandi, Kriti Sikri, Jaya Sivaswami Tyagi
BACKGROUND: Vitamin C (vit C) is an essential dietary nutrient, which is a potent antioxidant, a free radical scavenger and functions as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions. Vit C is also considered to enhance the immune effector function of macrophages, which are regarded to be the first line of defence in response to any pathogen. The THP-1 cell line is widely used for studying macrophage functions and for analyzing host cell-pathogen interactions. RESULTS: We performed a genome-wide temporal gene expression and functional enrichment analysis of THP-1 cells treated with 100 μM of vit C, a physiologically relevant concentration of the vitamin...
March 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335544/combination-effect-of-antituberculosis-drugs-and-ethanolic-extract-of-selected-medicinal-plants-against-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates
#16
Prabasiwi Nur Fauziyah, Elin Yulinah Sukandar, Dhyan Kusuma Ayuningtyas
Adverse drug reaction and resistance to antituberculosis drugs remain the causes of tuberculosis therapeutic failure. This research aimed to find the combination effect of standard antituberculosis drugs with Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Kaempferia galanga L., and Piper crocatum N.E. Br against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Two MDR strains (i.e., isoniazid/ethambutol resistant and rifampicin/streptomycin resistant) of M. tuberculosis were inoculated in Löwenstein-Jensen medium containing a combination of standard antituberculosis drugs and ethanolic extracts of H...
March 20, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334925/simultaneous-lc-ms-ms-determination-of-lopinavir-and-rifabutin-in-human-plasma
#17
Swati Jaiswal, Abhisheak Sharma, Mahendra Shukla, Jawahar Lal
Tuberculosis (TB) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome represents the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Anti-TB drugs are used concurrently with antiretroviral drug for treatment of TB-HIV co-morbidities. Due to lower risk of interaction with protease inhibitors, rifabutin is preferred over rifampicin in treatment of HIV and TB co-morbidity. A simple and specific liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for quantification of rifabutin (RBT) and lopinavir (LPV) simultaneously in human plasma...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334803/statistical-analysis-of-genetic-interactions-in-tn-seq-data
#18
Michael A DeJesus, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Clare M Smith, Richard E Baker, Christopher M Sassetti, Thomas R Ioerger
Tn-Seq is an experimental method for probing the functions of genes through construction of complex random transposon insertion libraries and quantification of each mutant's abundance using next-generation sequencing. An important emerging application of Tn-Seq is for identifying genetic interactions, which involves comparing Tn mutant libraries generated in different genetic backgrounds (e.g. wild-type strain versus knockout strain). Several analytical methods have been proposed for analyzing Tn-Seq data to identify genetic interactions, including estimating relative fitness ratios and fitting a generalized linear model...
February 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333945/environmental-reservoirs-of-pathogenic-mycobacteria-across-the-ethiopian-biogeographical-landscape
#19
Hayley C King, Tanya Khera-Butler, Phillip James, Brian B Oakley, Girume Erenso, Abraham Aseffa, Rob Knight, Elizabeth M Wellington, Orin Courtenay
The Mycobacterium genus comprises over one-hundred-and-fifty recognised species, the majority of which reside in the environment and many of which can be pathogenic to mammals. Some species of environmental mycobacteria may interfere with BCG vaccination efficacy and in tuberculin test interpretation. Examining biogeographic trends in the distribution of members of the mycobacteria across a number of physicochemical and spatial gradients in soil and water environments across Ethiopia using oligotyping identified differential distributions of pathogenic and significant species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333908/tuberculosis-united-states-2016
#20
Kristine M Schmit, Zimy Wansaula, Robert Pratt, Sandy F Price, Adam J Langer
In 2016, a total of 9,287 new tuberculosis (TB) cases were reported in the United States; this provisional* count represents the lowest number of U.S. TB cases on record and a 2.7% decrease from 2015 (1). The 2016 TB incidence of 2.9 cases per 100,000 persons represents a slight decrease compared with 2015 (-3.4%) (Figure). However, epidemiologic modeling demonstrates that if similar slow rates of decline continue, the goal of U.S. TB elimination will not be reached during this century (2). Although current programs to identify and treat active TB disease must be maintained and strengthened, increased measures to identify and treat latent TB infection (LTBI) among populations at high risk are also needed to accelerate progress toward TB elimination...
March 24, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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