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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665871/the-association-between-tuberculosis-and-diphtheria
#1
S Coleman
This research investigates the long-forgotten relationship between diphtheria and tuberculosis. Historical medical reports from the late 19th century are reviewed followed by a statistical regression analysis of the relationship between the two diseases in the early 20th century. Historical medical reports show a consistent association between diphtheria and tuberculosis that can increase the likelihood and severity of either disease in a co-infection. The statistical analysis uses historical weekly public health data on reported cases in five American cities over a period of several years, finding a modest but statistically significant relationship between the two diseases...
April 18, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662482/targeting-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigens-to-dendritic-cells-via-the-dc-specific-icam3-grabbing-nonintegrin-receptor-induces-strong-t-helper-1-immune-responses
#2
Lis Noelia Velasquez, Philipp Stüve, Maria Virginia Gentilini, Maxine Swallow, Judith Bartel, Nils Yngve Lycke, Daniel Barkan, Mariana Martina, Hugo D Lujan, Hakan Kalay, Yvette van Kooyk, Tim D Sparwasser, Luciana Berod
Tuberculosis remains a major global health problem and efforts to develop a more effective vaccine have been unsuccessful so far. Targeting antigens (Ags) to dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo has emerged as a new promising vaccine strategy. In this approach, Ags are delivered directly to DCs via antibodies that bind to endocytic cell-surface receptors. Here, we explored DC-specific-ICAM3-grabbing-nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) targeting as a potential vaccine against tuberculosis. For this, we made use of the hSIGN mouse model that expresses human DC-SIGN under the control of the murine CD11c promoter...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29591888/effects-of-t-2-and-fumonisin-b1-combined-treatment-on-in-vitro-mouse-embryo-development-and-blastocyst-quality
#3
Bence Somoskői, Melinda Kovács, Sándor Cseh
In the temperate region, most common mycotoxins are members of fusariotoxins. It often happens that food and forage are contaminated with two or more fusariotoxins at the same time. Effects of co-contamination are poorly documented, especially in the field of reproduction. The aim of our study was to assess the combined effect of the two common fusariotoxins, T-2 toxin (T-2) and Fumonisin B1 on early mouse embryo development in vitro. Embryo culture media contained either (1) 0.5 ng/ml T-2; 1, 2, or 10 ng/ml FB1 (group A, B, and C, respectively); or (2) 0...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563815/viability-biofilm-formation-and-mazef-expression-in-drug-sensitive-and-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-circulating-in-xinjiang-china
#4
Ji-Li Zhao, Wei Liu, Wan-Ying Xie, Xu-Dong Cao, Li Yuan
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is one of the most common chronic infectious amphixenotic diseases worldwide. Prevention and control of TB are greatly difficult, due to the increase in drug-resistant TB, particularly multidrug-resistant TB. We speculated that there were some differences between drug-sensitive and drug-resistant MTB strains and that mazEF 3,6,9 toxin-antitoxin systems (TASs) were involved in MTB viability. This study aimed to investigate differences in viability, biofilm formation, and MazEF expression between drug-sensitive and drug-resistant MTB strains circulating in Xinjiang, China, and whether mazEF 3,6,9 TASs contribute to MTB viability under stress conditions...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529224/system-wide-analysis-unravels-differential-regulation-and-in-vivo-essentiality-of-vapbc-ta-systems-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#5
Sakshi Agarwal, Prabhakar Tiwari, Amar Deep, Saqib Kidwai, Shamba Gupta, Krishan Gopal Thakur, Ramandeep Singh
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are bicistronic genetic modules that are ubiquitously present in bacterial genomes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome encodes for 90 putative TA systems and these are considered to be associated with maintenance of bacterial genomic stability or its survival under unfavorable environment. Majority of these in Mtb have been annotated as belonging to the Virulence associated protein B and C (VapBC) family. However, their precise role in bacterial physiology has not been elucidated...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475111/pth-1-34-and-growth-hormone-in-prevention-of-disuse-osteopenia-and-sarcopenia-in-rats
#6
Mikkel Bo Brent, Annemarie Brüel, Jesper Skovhus Thomsen
Osteopenia and sarcopenia develops rapidly during disuse. The study investigated whether intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34) (PTH) and growth hormone (GH) administered alone or in combination could prevent or mitigate disuse osteopenia and sarcopenia in rats. Disuse was achieved by injecting 4 IU botulinum toxin A (BTX) into the right hindlimb musculature of 12-14-week-old female Wistar rats. Seventy-two rats were divided into six groups: 1. Baseline; 2. Ctrl; 3. BTX; 4. BTX + GH; 5. BTX + PTH; 6...
February 20, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459859/next-generation-vaccines-based-on-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin
#7
REVIEW
Natalie E Nieuwenhuizen, Stefan H E Kaufmann
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a major health threat. A live, attenuated mycobacterium known as Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), derived from the causative agent of cattle TB, Mycobacterium bovis , has been in clinical use as a vaccine for 90 years. The current incidence of TB demonstrates that BCG fails to protect sufficiently against pulmonary TB, the major disease manifestation and source of dissemination. The protective efficacy of BCG is on average 50% but varies substantially with geographical location and is poorer in those with previous exposure to mycobacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388363/zoonotic-pathogens-from-feral-swine-that-pose-a-significant-threat-to-public-health
#8
REVIEW
V R Brown, R A Bowen, A M Bosco-Lauth
The natural fecundity of suids, great ability to adapt to new habitats and desire for local hunting opportunities leading to translocation of feral pigs to regions where they are not yet established have all been instrumental in the home range expansion of feral swine. Feral swine populations in the United States continue to expand, wreaking havoc on agricultural lands, further compromising threatened and endangered species, and posing a microbiological threat to humans, domestic livestock and companion animals...
January 31, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281674/convergent-evolution-and-topologically-disruptive-polymorphisms-among-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-peru
#9
Louis Grandjean, Robert H Gilman, Tomatada Iwamoto, Claudio U Köser, Jorge Coronel, Mirko Zimic, M Estee Török, Diepreye Ayabina, Michelle Kendall, Christophe Fraser, Simon Harris, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock, David A J Moore, Caroline Colijn
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis poses a major threat to the success of tuberculosis control programs worldwide. Understanding how drug-resistant tuberculosis evolves can inform the development of new therapeutic and preventive strategies. METHODS: Here, we use novel genome-wide analysis techniques to identify polymorphisms that are associated with drug resistance, adaptive evolution and the structure of the phylogenetic tree. A total of 471 samples from different patients collected between 2009 and 2013 in the Lima suburbs of Callao and Lima South were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform with 150bp paired-end reads...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225431/insights-from-the-protein-protein-interaction-network-analysis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-toxin-antitoxin-systems
#10
Zoozeal Thakur, Renu Dharra, Vandana Saini, Ajit Kumar, Promod K Mehta
Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis is a powerful strategy to understand M. tuberculosis (Mtb) system level physiology in the identification of hub proteins. In the present study, the PPI network of 79 Mtb toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems comprising of 167 nodes and 234 edges was investigated. The topological properties of PPI network were examined by 'Network analyzer' a cytoscape plugin app and STRING database. The key enriched biological processes and the molecular functions of Mtb TA systems were analyzed by STRING...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182512/global-mapping-of-mtra-binding-sites-links-mtra-to-regulation-of-its-targets-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
Ayan Chatterjee, Arun Kumar Sharma, Amar Chandra Mahatha, Srijon Kaushik Banerjee, Manish Kumar, Sudipto Saha, Joyoti Basu, Manikuntala Kundu
Mycobacterium tuberculosis employs two-component systems (TCSs) for survival within its host. The TCS MtrAB is conserved among mycobacteria. The response regulator MtrA is essential in M. tuberculosis. The genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing performed in this study suggested that MtrA binds upstream of at least 45 genes of M. tuberculosis, including those involved in cell wall remodelling, stress responses, persistence and regulation of transcription. It binds to the promoter regions and regulates the peptidoglycan hydrolases rpfA and rpfC, which are required for resuscitation from dormancy...
January 2018: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166305/botulinum-toxin-therapy-is-syringe-type-related-to-cost-effectiveness
#12
Mark Anthony Foglietti, Lauren Wright, Alanna Foglietti-Fostyk
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium botulinum toxin is effective through cleaving presynaptic proteins at the neuromuscular junction, which prevents the release of acetylcholine and inhibits muscle contraction. Several serotypes of botulinum toxin (BT) exist; however, only 2 types have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for commercial and medical use, A and B. Both types of BT must be administered intramuscularly with a syringe, but the type of syringe is the injector's preference...
March 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114057/directed-evolution-of-secb-chaperones-toward-toxin-antitoxin-systems
#13
Ambre Julie Sala, Patricia Bordes, Sara Ayala, Nawel Slama, Samuel Tranier, Michèle Coddeville, Anne-Marie Cirinesi, Marie-Pierre Castanié-Cornet, Lionel Mourey, Pierre Genevaux
SecB chaperones assist protein export in bacteria. However, certain SecB family members have diverged to become specialized toward the control of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems known to promote bacterial adaptation to stress and persistence. In such tripartite TA-chaperone (TAC) systems, the chaperone was shown to assist folding and to prevent degradation of its cognate antitoxin, thus facilitating inhibition of the toxin. Here, we used both the export chaperone SecB of Escherichia coli and the tripartite TAC system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a model to investigate how generic chaperones can specialize toward the control of TA systems...
November 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089144/adenoviral-vector-mediated-gm-csf-gene-transfer-improves-anti-mycobacterial-immunity-in-mice-role-of-regulatory-t-cells
#14
Alena Singpiel, Julia Kramer, Regina Maus, Jennifer Stolper, Lara Friederike Bittersohl, Jack Gauldie, Martin Kolb, Tobias Welte, Tim Sparwasser, Ulrich A Maus
Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor involved in differentiation, survival and activation of myeloid and non-myeloid cells with important implications for lung antibacterial immunity. Here we examined the effect of pulmonary adenoviral vector-mediated delivery of GM-CSF (AdGM-CSF) on anti-mycobacterial immunity in M. bovis BCG infected mice. Exposure of M. bovis BCG infected mice to AdGM-CSF either applied on 6h, or 6h and 7days post-infection substantially increased alveolar recruitment of iNOS and IL-12 expressing macrophages, and significantly increased accumulation of IFNγ(pos) T cells and particularly regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
October 26, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066303/computational-insights-into-promoter-architecture-of-toxin-antitoxin-systems-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#15
Zoozeal Thakur, Vandana Saini, Preeti Arya, Ajit Kumar, Promod K Mehta
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are two component genetic modules widespread in many bacterial genomes, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The TA systems play a significant role in biofilm formation, antibiotic tolerance and persistence of pathogen inside the host cells. Deciphering regulatory motifs of Mtb TA systems is the first essential step to understand their transcriptional regulation. In this study, in silico approaches, that is, the knowledge based motif discovery and de novo motif discovery were used to identify the regulatory motifs of 79 Mtb TA systems...
January 30, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061131/proguanil-and-cycloguanil-are-organic-cation-transporter-and-multidrug-and-toxin-extrusion-substrates
#16
Maarten van der Velden, Albert Bilos, Jeroen J M W van den Heuvel, Sanna R Rijpma, Evelien G E Hurkmans, Robert W Sauerwein, Frans G M Russel, Jan B Koenderink
BACKGROUND: Malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis endemic areas show considerable geographical overlap, leading to incidence of co-infections. This requires treatment with multiple drugs, potentially causing adverse drug-drug interactions (DDIs). As anti-malarials are generally positively charged at physiological pH, they are likely to interact with human organic cation transporters 1 and 2 (OCT1 and OCT2). These transporters are involved in the uptake of drugs into hepatocytes and proximal tubule cells for subsequent metabolic conversion or elimination...
October 23, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058054/long-term-high-dose-resveratrol-supplementation-reduces-bone-mass-and-fracture-strength-in-rats
#17
Marie Juul Ornstrup, Annemarie Brüel, Jesper Skovhus Thomsen, Torben Harsløf, Bente Lomholt Langdahl, Steen Bønløkke Pedersen
Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenolic compound. A recent study suggests a positive effect on BMD in men; however, the underlying changes in microstructure and strength remain unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of RSV on the skeleton in hindlimb-immobilized and non-immobilized rats. Seventy-two female Wistar rats were divided into six groups. Two baseline (BSL) groups underwent short-term diet intervention for 4 weeks before sacrifice [phytoestrogen-deficient diet (PD) (BSL + PD) or RSV diet (600 mg/kg body weight/day) (BSL + RSV)]...
October 20, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993337/whole-transcriptome-and-genome-analysis-of-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-identifies-downregulation-of-etha-as-a-mechanism-of-ethionamide-resistance
#18
Lynne de Welzen, Vegard Eldholm, Kashmeel Maharaj, Abigail L Manson, Ashlee M Earl, Alexander S Pym
Genetics-based drug susceptibility testing has improved the diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis but is limited by our lack of knowledge of all resistance mechanisms. Next-generation sequencing has assisted in identifying the principal genetic mechanisms of resistance for many drugs, but a significant proportion of phenotypic drug resistance is unexplained genetically. Few studies have formally compared the transcriptomes of susceptible and resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. We carried out comparative whole-genome transcriptomics of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) clinical isolates using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to find novel transcription-mediated mechanisms of resistance...
December 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986943/crystal-structure-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-vapc20-toxin-and-its-interactions-with-cognate-antitoxin-vapb20-suggest-a-model-for-toxin-antitoxin-assembly
#19
Amar Deep, Soni Kaundal, Sakshi Agarwal, Ramandeep Singh, Krishan Gopal Thakur
VapBCs, virulence-associated proteins, are the most abundant type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in prokaryotes. Under normal conditions, toxin and antitoxin interact to form a heterooctameric complex, which upon binding to operator sites, inhibits their own expression. Under stress conditions, the VapB antitoxin is degraded by cellular proteases to release a free VapC toxin, which in turn inhibits cell growth mainly by targeting protein translation. However, the intermediate steps involved in the assembly of the heterooctameric complex have not been resolved...
December 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972145/structural-analyses-of-the-mazef4-toxin-antitoxin-pair-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-provide-evidence-for-a-unique-extracellular-death-factor
#20
Do-Hwan Ahn, Ki-Young Lee, Sang Jae Lee, Sung Jean Park, Hye-Jin Yoon, Soon-Jong Kim, Bong-Jin Lee
The bacterial toxin-antitoxin MazEF system in the tuberculosis (TB)-causing bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis is activated under unfavorable conditions, including starvation, antibiotic exposure, and oxidative stress. This system contains the ribonucleolytic enzyme MazF and has emerged as a promising drug target for TB treatments targeting the latent stage of M. tuberculosis infection and reportedly mediates a cell death process via a peptide called extracellular death factor (EDF). Although it is well established that the increase in EDF-mediated toxicity of MazF drives a cell-killing phenomenon, the molecular details are poorly understood...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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