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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921762/tb-ii-i-a-fraction-isolated-from-tityus-bahiensis-scorpion-venom-alters-cytokines-level-and-induces-seizures-when-intrahippocampally-injected-in-rats
#1
Emidio Beraldo Neto, Douglas O C Mariano, Lucas A Freitas, Ana L C Dorce, Adriana N Martins, Daniel C Pimenta, Fernanda C V Portaro, Daniela Cajado-Carvalho, Valquiria A C Dorce, Ana L A Nencioni
Scorpion venoms are composed of several substances with different pharmacological activities. Neurotoxins exert their effects by targeting ion channels resulting in toxic effects to mammals, insects and crustaceans. Tb II-I, a fraction isolated from Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom, was investigated for its ability to induce neurological and immune-inflammatory effects. Two putative β-sodium channel toxins were identified in this fraction, Tb2 II and Tb 4, the latter having been completely sequenced by mass spectrometry...
June 19, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788125/toxin-antitoxin-systems-and-regulatory-mechanisms-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#2
Richard A Slayden, Clinton C Dawson, Jason E Cummings
There has been a significant reduction in annual tuberculosis incidence since the World Health Organization declared tuberculosis a global health threat. However, treatment of M. tuberculosis infections requires lengthy multidrug therapeutic regimens to achieve a durable cure. The development of new drugs that are active against resistant strains and phenotypically diverse organisms continues to present the greatest challenge in the future. Numerous phylogenomic analyses have revealed that the Mtb genome encodes a significantly expanded repertoire of toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci that makes up the Mtb TA system...
June 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748643/publisher-correction-co-expression-network-analysis-of-toxin-antitoxin-loci-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-reveals-key-modulators-of-cellular-stress
#3
Amita Gupta, Balaji Venkataraman, Madavan Vasudevan, Kiran Gopinath Bankar
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717013/quorum-sensing-extracellular-death-peptides-enhance-the-endoribonucleolytic-activities-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mazf-toxins
#4
Akanksha Nigam, Sathish Kumar, Hanna Engelberg-Kulka
mazEF is a toxin-antitoxin module located on chromosomes of most bacteria. MazF toxins are endoribonucleases antagonized by MazE antitoxins. Previously, we characterized several quorum sensing peptides called "<u>e</u>xtracellular <u>d</u>eath <u>f</u>actors" (EDFs). When secreted from bacterial cultures, EDFs induce interspecies cell death. EDFs also enhance the endoribonucleolytic activity of Escherichia coli MazF. Mycobacterium tuberculosis carries several mazEF modules...
May 1, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685279/silage-review-animal-and-human-health-risks-from-silage
#5
REVIEW
F Driehuis, J M Wilkinson, Y Jiang, I Ogunade, A T Adesogan
Silage may contain several agents that are potentially hazardous to animal health, the safety of milk or other animal food products, or both. This paper reviews published literature about microbial hazards, plant toxins, and chemical hazards. Microbial hazards include Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium bovis, and various mold species. High concentrations of C. botulinum in silage have been associated with cattle botulism. A high initial concentration of C...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665871/the-association-between-tuberculosis-and-diphtheria
#6
S Coleman
This research investigates the long-forgotten relationship between diphtheria and tuberculosis. Historical medical reports from the late 19th century are reviewed followed by a statistical regression analysis of the relationship between the two diseases in the early 20th century. Historical medical reports show a consistent association between diphtheria and tuberculosis that can increase the likelihood and severity of either disease in a co-infection. The statistical analysis uses historical weekly public health data on reported cases in five American cities over a period of several years, finding a modest but statistically significant relationship between the two diseases...
April 18, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662482/targeting-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigens-to-dendritic-cells-via-the-dc-specific-icam3-grabbing-nonintegrin-receptor-induces-strong-t-helper-1-immune-responses
#7
Lis Noelia Velasquez, Philipp Stüve, Maria Virginia Gentilini, Maxine Swallow, Judith Bartel, Nils Yngve Lycke, Daniel Barkan, Mariana Martina, Hugo D Lujan, Hakan Kalay, Yvette van Kooyk, Tim D Sparwasser, Luciana Berod
Tuberculosis remains a major global health problem and efforts to develop a more effective vaccine have been unsuccessful so far. Targeting antigens (Ags) to dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo has emerged as a new promising vaccine strategy. In this approach, Ags are delivered directly to DCs via antibodies that bind to endocytic cell-surface receptors. Here, we explored DC-specific-ICAM3-grabbing-nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) targeting as a potential vaccine against tuberculosis. For this, we made use of the hSIGN mouse model that expresses human DC-SIGN under the control of the murine CD11c promoter...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29591888/effects-of-t-2-and-fumonisin-b1-combined-treatment-on-in-vitro-mouse-embryo-development-and-blastocyst-quality
#8
Bence Somoskői, Melinda Kovács, Sándor Cseh
In the temperate region, most common mycotoxins are members of fusariotoxins. It often happens that food and forage are contaminated with two or more fusariotoxins at the same time. Effects of co-contamination are poorly documented, especially in the field of reproduction. The aim of our study was to assess the combined effect of the two common fusariotoxins, T-2 toxin (T-2) and Fumonisin B1 on early mouse embryo development in vitro. Embryo culture media contained either (1) 0.5 ng/ml T-2; 1, 2, or 10 ng/ml FB1 (group A, B, and C, respectively); or (2) 0...
May 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563815/viability-biofilm-formation-and-mazef-expression-in-drug-sensitive-and-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-circulating-in-xinjiang-china
#9
Ji-Li Zhao, Wei Liu, Wan-Ying Xie, Xu-Dong Cao, Li Yuan
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is one of the most common chronic infectious amphixenotic diseases worldwide. Prevention and control of TB are greatly difficult, due to the increase in drug-resistant TB, particularly multidrug-resistant TB. We speculated that there were some differences between drug-sensitive and drug-resistant MTB strains and that mazEF 3,6,9 toxin-antitoxin systems (TASs) were involved in MTB viability. This study aimed to investigate differences in viability, biofilm formation, and MazEF expression between drug-sensitive and drug-resistant MTB strains circulating in Xinjiang, China, and whether mazEF 3,6,9 TASs contribute to MTB viability under stress conditions...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529224/system-wide-analysis-unravels-the-differential-regulation-and-in-vivo-essentiality-of-virulence-associated-proteins-b-and-c-toxin-antitoxin-systems-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#10
Sakshi Agarwal, Prabhakar Tiwari, Amar Deep, Saqib Kidwai, Shamba Gupta, Krishan Gopal Thakur, Ramandeep Singh
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are bicistronic genetic modules that are ubiquitously present in bacterial genomes. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 90 putative TA systems, and these are considered to be associated with maintenance of bacterial genomic stability or bacterial survival under unfavorable environmental conditions. The majority of these in M. tuberculosis have been annotated as belonging to the virulence-associated protein B and C (VapBC) family. However, their precise role in bacterial physiology has not been elucidated...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475111/pth-1-34-and-growth-hormone-in-prevention-of-disuse-osteopenia-and-sarcopenia-in-rats
#11
Mikkel Bo Brent, Annemarie Brüel, Jesper Skovhus Thomsen
Osteopenia and sarcopenia develops rapidly during disuse. The study investigated whether intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34) (PTH) and growth hormone (GH) administered alone or in combination could prevent or mitigate disuse osteopenia and sarcopenia in rats. Disuse was achieved by injecting 4IU botulinum toxin A (BTX) into the right hindlimb musculature of 12-14-week-old female Wistar rats. Seventy-two rats were divided into six groups: 1. Baseline; 2. Ctrl; 3. BTX; 4. BTX+GH; 5. BTX+PTH; 6. BTX+PTH+GH...
May 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459859/next-generation-vaccines-based-on-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin
#12
REVIEW
Natalie E Nieuwenhuizen, Stefan H E Kaufmann
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a major health threat. A live, attenuated mycobacterium known as Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), derived from the causative agent of cattle TB, Mycobacterium bovis , has been in clinical use as a vaccine for 90 years. The current incidence of TB demonstrates that BCG fails to protect sufficiently against pulmonary TB, the major disease manifestation and source of dissemination. The protective efficacy of BCG is on average 50% but varies substantially with geographical location and is poorer in those with previous exposure to mycobacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388363/zoonotic-pathogens-from-feral-swine-that-pose-a-significant-threat-to-public-health
#13
REVIEW
V R Brown, R A Bowen, A M Bosco-Lauth
The natural fecundity of suids, great ability to adapt to new habitats and desire for local hunting opportunities leading to translocation of feral pigs to regions where they are not yet established have all been instrumental in the home range expansion of feral swine. Feral swine populations in the United States continue to expand, wreaking havoc on agricultural lands, further compromising threatened and endangered species, and posing a microbiological threat to humans, domestic livestock and companion animals...
January 31, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281674/convergent-evolution-and-topologically-disruptive-polymorphisms-among-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-peru
#14
Louis Grandjean, Robert H Gilman, Tomatada Iwamoto, Claudio U Köser, Jorge Coronel, Mirko Zimic, M Estee Török, Diepreye Ayabina, Michelle Kendall, Christophe Fraser, Simon Harris, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock, David A J Moore, Caroline Colijn
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis poses a major threat to the success of tuberculosis control programs worldwide. Understanding how drug-resistant tuberculosis evolves can inform the development of new therapeutic and preventive strategies. METHODS: Here, we use novel genome-wide analysis techniques to identify polymorphisms that are associated with drug resistance, adaptive evolution and the structure of the phylogenetic tree. A total of 471 samples from different patients collected between 2009 and 2013 in the Lima suburbs of Callao and Lima South were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform with 150bp paired-end reads...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225431/insights-from-the-protein-protein-interaction-network-analysis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-toxin-antitoxin-systems
#15
Zoozeal Thakur, Renu Dharra, Vandana Saini, Ajit Kumar, Promod K Mehta
Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis is a powerful strategy to understand M. tuberculosis (Mtb) system level physiology in the identification of hub proteins. In the present study, the PPI network of 79 Mtb toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems comprising of 167 nodes and 234 edges was investigated. The topological properties of PPI network were examined by 'Network analyzer' a cytoscape plugin app and STRING database. The key enriched biological processes and the molecular functions of Mtb TA systems were analyzed by STRING...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182512/global-mapping-of-mtra-binding-sites-links-mtra-to-regulation-of-its-targets-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#16
Ayan Chatterjee, Arun Kumar Sharma, Amar Chandra Mahatha, Srijon Kaushik Banerjee, Manish Kumar, Sudipto Saha, Joyoti Basu, Manikuntala Kundu
Mycobacterium tuberculosis employs two-component systems (TCSs) for survival within its host. The TCS MtrAB is conserved among mycobacteria. The response regulator MtrA is essential in M. tuberculosis. The genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing performed in this study suggested that MtrA binds upstream of at least 45 genes of M. tuberculosis, including those involved in cell wall remodelling, stress responses, persistence and regulation of transcription. It binds to the promoter regions and regulates the peptidoglycan hydrolases rpfA and rpfC, which are required for resuscitation from dormancy...
January 2018: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166305/botulinum-toxin-therapy-is-syringe-type-related-to-cost-effectiveness
#17
Mark Anthony Foglietti, Lauren Wright, Alanna Foglietti-Fostyk
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium botulinum toxin is effective through cleaving presynaptic proteins at the neuromuscular junction, which prevents the release of acetylcholine and inhibits muscle contraction. Several serotypes of botulinum toxin (BT) exist; however, only 2 types have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for commercial and medical use, A and B. Both types of BT must be administered intramuscularly with a syringe, but the type of syringe is the injector's preference...
March 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114057/directed-evolution-of-secb-chaperones-toward-toxin-antitoxin-systems
#18
Ambre Julie Sala, Patricia Bordes, Sara Ayala, Nawel Slama, Samuel Tranier, Michèle Coddeville, Anne-Marie Cirinesi, Marie-Pierre Castanié-Cornet, Lionel Mourey, Pierre Genevaux
SecB chaperones assist protein export in bacteria. However, certain SecB family members have diverged to become specialized toward the control of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems known to promote bacterial adaptation to stress and persistence. In such tripartite TA-chaperone (TAC) systems, the chaperone was shown to assist folding and to prevent degradation of its cognate antitoxin, thus facilitating inhibition of the toxin. Here, we used both the export chaperone SecB of Escherichia coli and the tripartite TAC system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a model to investigate how generic chaperones can specialize toward the control of TA systems...
November 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089144/adenoviral-vector-mediated-gm-csf-gene-transfer-improves-anti-mycobacterial-immunity-in-mice-role-of-regulatory-t-cells
#19
Alena Singpiel, Julia Kramer, Regina Maus, Jennifer Stolper, Lara Friederike Bittersohl, Jack Gauldie, Martin Kolb, Tobias Welte, Tim Sparwasser, Ulrich A Maus
Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor involved in differentiation, survival and activation of myeloid and non-myeloid cells with important implications for lung antibacterial immunity. Here we examined the effect of pulmonary adenoviral vector-mediated delivery of GM-CSF (AdGM-CSF) on anti-mycobacterial immunity in M. bovis BCG infected mice. Exposure of M. bovis BCG infected mice to AdGM-CSF either applied on 6h, or 6h and 7days post-infection substantially increased alveolar recruitment of iNOS and IL-12 expressing macrophages, and significantly increased accumulation of IFNγpos T cells and particularly regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
March 2018: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066303/computational-insights-into-promoter-architecture-of-toxin-antitoxin-systems-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#20
Zoozeal Thakur, Vandana Saini, Preeti Arya, Ajit Kumar, Promod K Mehta
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are two component genetic modules widespread in many bacterial genomes, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The TA systems play a significant role in biofilm formation, antibiotic tolerance and persistence of pathogen inside the host cells. Deciphering regulatory motifs of Mtb TA systems is the first essential step to understand their transcriptional regulation. In this study, in silico approaches, that is, the knowledge based motif discovery and de novo motif discovery were used to identify the regulatory motifs of 79 Mtb TA systems...
January 30, 2018: Gene
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