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Awatif N Al-Nafie, J Francis Borgio, Sayed AbdulAzeez, Ahmed M Al-Suliman, Fuad S Qaw, Zaki A Naserullah, Sana Al-Jarrash, Mohammed S Al-Madan, Rudaynah A Al-Ali, Mohammed A AlKhalifah, Fahad Al-Muhanna, Martin H Steinberg, Amein K Al-Ali
α-Thalassemia X-linked mental retardation syndrome is a rare inherited intellectual disability disorder due to mutations in the ATRX gene. In our previous study of the prevalence of β-thalassemia mutations in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, we confirmed the widespread coinheritance of α-thalassemia mutation. Some of these subjects have a family history of mental retardation, the cause of which is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the presence or absence of mutations in the ATRX gene in these patients...
June 2015: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
Eliana S Mendes, Lilian Cadet, Johana Arana, Adam Wanner
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that in patients with asthma a single dose of an inhaled glucocorticosteroid (ICS) acutely potentiates inhaled albuterol-induced airway vascular smooth muscle relaxation through a nongenomic action. An effect on airway smooth muscle was not seen, presumably because the patients had normal lung function. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a similar study in patients with asthma with airflow obstruction to determine if an ICS could acutely also potentiate albuterol-induced airway smooth muscle relaxation in them...
April 2015: Chest
Eliana S Mendes, Patricia Rebolledo, Michael Campos, Adam Wanner
BACKGROUND: In patients with asthma, single doses of inhaled glucocorticosteroids (ICS) have been reported to have antiinflammatory actions that can be detected several hours after drug administration. However, the onset and duration of the effect have not been investigated. We therefore measured airway blood flow ([Formula: see text]aw) as an index of airway inflammation to determine the time course and dose dependence of the antiinflammatory action of an ICS in 20 patients with moderate asthma receiving regular ICS treatment...
June 2014: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Lena Vierke, Lutz Ahrens, Mahiba Shoeib, Wolf-Ulrich Palm, Eva M Webster, David A Ellis, Ralf Ebinghaus, Tom Harner
In situ measurements of air and water phases at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were used to investigate the partitioning behavior of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) and perfluorooctyl sulfonamide (HFOSA) and their conjugate bases (PFC(-)s, PFS(-)s, and FOSA(-), respectively). Particle-dissolved (Rd) and air-water (QAW) concentration ratios were determined at different tanks of a WWTP. Sum of concentrations of C4-12,14 PFC(A)s, C4,6,8,10 PFS(A)s and (H)FOSA were as high as 50 pg m(-3) (atmospheric gas phase), 2300 ng L(-1) (aqueous dissolved phase) and 2500 ng L(-1) (aqueous particle phase)...
August 2013: Chemosphere
Eliana S Mendes, Jose Eduardo D Cancado, Patricia Rebolledo, Joahna Arana, Meela Parker, Alex Gonzalez, Barry E Hurwitz, Adam Wanner
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking can lead to systemic endothelial dysfunction. Since the airway circulation is exposed to a high concentration of cigarette smoke constituents, we reasoned that airway vascular endothelial dysfunction could be present in healthy smokers without systemic endothelial dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare airway and systemic endothelial function and measure markers of systemic inflammation in lung-healthy current smokers...
June 2013: Chest
Mohammed Shakil Akhtar, Fuad Qaw, J Francis Borgio, Waleed Albuali, Ahmed Suliman, Zaki Nasserullah, Sana Al-Jarrash, Amein Al-Ali
Both α- and β-thalassemia (α- and β-thal) are highly prevalent in the population of the Al-Qatif and Al-Ahsa regions in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. This study provides a more precise picture of the α-thal mutations prevalent in 104 transfusion-dependent β-thal patients in the Eastern Province. Detection of α-thal mutations was carried out using the α-globin StripAssay kit. A total of 12 α-thal mutations (21 genotypes) were identified in 33.7% of the chromosomes (46 patients). The heterozygous and homozygous -α(3...
2013: Hemoglobin
Eliana S Mendes, Patricia Rebolledo, Adam Wanner
BACKGROUND: The airway contains airway smooth muscle and airway vascular smooth muscle. The acute effects of inhaled long-acting β(2)-adrenergic agonists (LABAs) alone, or in combination with an inhaled glucocorticoid (ICS), on airway smooth muscle tone in asthma are known; however, to the best of our knowledge, their effect on airway vascular smooth muscle tone has not been investigated previously. The objective of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of a LABA and an ICS alone and in combination on airway blood flow (Qaw) as an index of airway vascular smooth muscle tone in patients with stable asthma...
May 2012: Chest
Shih-Han S Huang, Paul A Heidenheim, Kerri Gallo, Saumya Jayakumar, Robert M Lindsay
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Access blood water flow rate (Qaw) can be measured during hemodialysis using an online effective ionic dialysance (EID) methodology. Fresenius employ this methodology in their 2008K dialysis machine. The machine computer converts Qaw to an access blood flow rate (Fresenius Qa) using a generic blood water constant (BWC). We wished to validate this BWC. METHODS: 18 patients had Fresenius Qa measurements using the EID and these were compared with a 'gold standard' ultrasound dilution methodology (Transonic Qa)...
2011: Blood Purification
Eliana S Mendes, Gabor Horvath, Patricia Rebolledo, Maria Elena Monzon, S Marina Casalino-Matsuda, Adam Wanner
Cigarette smoking is associated with attenuated endothelium-dependent vasodilation (endothelial dysfunction) in the systemic circulation, including the airway circulation. We wished to determine whether an inhaled corticosteroid could restore endothelial function in the airway of lung-healthy current smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers. We measured baseline airway blood flow (Qaw) and Qaw reactivity to inhaled albuterol as an index of endothelium-dependent vasodilation and to sublingual nitroglycerin as an index of endothelium-independent vasodilation in lung-healthy current smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers...
July 2008: Journal of Applied Physiology
Robert M Lindsay, Jan Sternby, Bo Olde, Roland Persson, Mary Ellen Thatcher, Kim Sargent
Measurement of blood flow rate (Qa) is used to monitor arteriovenous fistulas and grafts that are used for hemodialysis blood access. Most Qa measurements use indicator dilution techniques to measure the recirculation that is induced by the reversal of hemodialysis blood lines. R plus the dialysis circuit flow (Qb) allows the calculation of Qa. The principle of needle reversal also can be used with a dialysate urea monitor (e.g., DQM 200 [Gambro]) without injection of diluent; the effect of the reversal on urea concentration is observed...
September 2006: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
A K Al-Ali, Z H Al-Mustafa, F S Qaw, M Fayz
The potential role of sodium sulphate in possible enhancement of the hepatoprotective action of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in paracetamol (PCM) overdose was examined. The effects of sodium sulphate (200 mg/kg) in combination with NAC (400 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally 2 h post-PCM dose, on mortality rate and plasma activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were investigated in mice 24 h after receiving a single oral dose of 400 mg/kg PCM. In addition, the effect on the mortality rate of PCM-treated animals of co-administering 400 mg/kg sodium sulphate with NAC (200 or 400 mg/kg) was also studied...
1998: Inflammopharmacology
Paolo Paredi, Simon Ward, Derek Cramer, Peter J Barnes, Sergei A Kharitonov
BACKGROUND: In COPD patients, there is reduced vascularity and inflammation of the bronchi, which may have opposite effects on bronchial blood flow (QAW). We studied the relationship of QAW with the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), which is a potent vasodilator. We also investigated the vascular response to budesonide and a beta(2)-agonist. METHODS: We measured QAW in 17 patients with COPD (mean [+/- SEM] age, 67 +/- 3 years; 10 male patients; mean FEV(1), 57 +/- 3% predicted; mean FEV(1)/FVC ratio, 54 +/- 4%), all of whom were ex-smokers, and in 16 age-matched nonsmoking volunteers (mean age, 64 +/- 4 years) and compared this to FENO...
April 2007: Chest
Adam Wanner, Eliana S Mendes, Neal D Atkins
Our laboratory has previously developed and validated a noninvasive soluble gas uptake method to measure airway blood flow (Qaw) in humans (Onorato DJ, Demirozu MC, Breitenbücher A, Atkins ND, Chediak AD, and Wanner A. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149: 1132-1137, 1994; Scuri M, McCaskill V, Chediak AD, Abraham WM, and Wanner A. J Appl Physiol 79: 1386-1390, 1995). The method has the disadvantage of requiring eight breath-hold maneuvers for a single Qaw measurement, a complicated data analysis, and the inhalation of a potentially explosive gas mixture containing dimethylether (DME) and O2...
May 2006: Journal of Applied Physiology
Eliana S Mendes, Michael A Campos, Adam Wanner
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoking has been associated with impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation responses in the brachial and coronary arteries (endothelial dysfunction). The aim of the present study was to determine whether the airway circulation is also affected and whether pharmacologic treatment has an effect on endothelial function in patients with COPD. METHODS AND PATIENTS: Airway blood flow (Qaw) responses to therapy with inhaled albuterol, which causes endothelium-dependent vasodilation, were measured with a noninvasive soluble-gas-uptake technique in age-matched healthy current smokers (n = 10), healthy ex-smokers (n = 10), ex-smokers with COPD (n = 10), and healthy lifetime nonsmokers...
April 2006: Chest
Amein K Al-Ali, Suad Al-Ateeq, Burhan W Imamwerdi, Saleh Al-Sowayan, Mohammed Al-Madan, Fahad Al-Muhanna, Laila Bashaweri, Foad Qaw
beta-thalassemia is a group of heterogeneous recessive disorders common in many parts of the world. Al-Qatif and Al-Hassa oases in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia are regions known for high frequency of these disorders. Using two molecular methods, based on multiplexing-amplification refractory system and reverse hybridization principles, the spectrum of beta-thalassemia in the region was studied. Sixty-nine subjects with known beta-thalassemia disease and volunteers with high hemoglobin $A(2)(HbA(2))$ and low mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were included in this study...
2005: Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology
C Le Merre, J Isber, A D Chediak, A Wanner
Several studies have demonstrated that nasal challenges can induce reflex responses in the respiratory system. Some authors have described bronchoconstriction and modification of the pattern of breathing following nasal challenges by irritants and cold air. We propose to determine the effect of nasal stimulation with cold dry air on airway mucosal blood flow (Qaw) in the proximal tracheal bronchial tree of healthy humans. Nine healthy subjects participated in the study. Baseline measurement Qaw, nasal airway resistance (NAR) and airway caliber by specific airways conductance (SGaw) were followed by nasal challenge with cold dry air...
October 2003: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Paolo Paredi, Sergei A Kharitonov, Peter J Barnes
In asthma elevated rates of exhaled breath temperature changes (Deltae degrees T) and bronchial blood flow (Qaw) may be due to increased vascularity of the airway mucosa as a result of inflammation.We investigated the relationship of Deltae degrees T with Qaw and airway inflammation as assessed by exhaled nitric oxide (NO). We also studied the anti-inflammatory and vasoactive effects of inhaled corticosteroid and beta2-agonist.Deltae degrees T was confirmed to be elevated (7.27 +/- 0.6 Delta degrees C/s) in 19 asthmatic subjects (mean age +/- SEM, 40 +/- 6 yr; 6 male, FEV1 74 +/- 6 % predicted) compared to 16 normal volunteers (4...
2005: Respiratory Research
Eliana S Mendes, Michael A Campos, Andres Hurtado, Adam Wanner
Asthma is associated with an increase in airway blood flow (Qaw), presumably as a manifestation of airway inflammation. We therefore determined the effect of the antiinflammatory agents montelukast (ML) and fluticasone propionate (FP) on Qaw in 12 patients with mild intermittent asthma. Using a double-blind approach, Qaw along with FEV(1) and Vmax(50) were determined before and after a 2-week treatment period with either ML (10 mg/day), FP (440 microg/day), or 10 mg of ML plus 440 microg of FP daily, separated by 2-week washout periods...
May 15, 2004: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
A Pereira, E Mendes, T Ferreira, A Wanner
Although the relative effect of racemic and (R)-albuterol on airway smooth muscle tone have been investigated in patients with airflow obstruction, the comparative effectiveness of these drugs in relaxing airway vascular smooth muscle is unknown. Therefore, we determined the actions of inhaled racemic and (R)-albuterol on airway mucosal blood flow (Qaw) normalized for anatomic dead space as an index of airway vascular smooth muscle tone in 11 healthy subjects and 10 subjects with mild asthma. We also monitored the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) as an index of airway smooth muscle tone...
2003: Lung
E S Mendes, A Pereira, I Danta, R C Duncan, A Wanner
The vasoconstrictive efficacies of glucocorticosteroids (GS) are usually compared by the McKenzie skin-blanching test and taken as an index of relative potency. The rationale for the present study was to transpose the McKenzie test to the airway and to compare the airway vascular effects of three inhaled GS: beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), fluticasone propionate (FP) and budesonide (BUD), in healthy subjects and patients with mild stable asthma. A soluble, inert gas-uptake method was used to measure airway blood flow (Qaw)...
June 2003: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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