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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225384/the-role-of-sulfur-dioxide-in-stratospheric-aerosol-formation-evaluated-using-in-situ-measurements-in-the-tropical-lower-stratosphere
#1
A W Rollins, T D Thornberry, L A Watts, P Yu, K H Rosenlof, M Mills, E Baumann, F R Giorgetta, T V Bui, M Höpfner, K A Walker, C Boone, P F Bernath, P R Colarco, P A Newman, D W Fahey, R S Gao
Stratospheric aerosols (SAs) are a variable component of the Earth's albedo that may be intentionally enhanced in the future to offset greenhouse gases (geoengineering). The role of tropospheric-sourced sulfur dioxide (SO2) in maintaining background SAs has been debated for decades without in-situ measurements of SO2 at the tropical tropopause to inform this issue. Here we clarify the role of SO2 in maintaining SAs by using new in-situ SO2 measurements to evaluate climate models and satellite retrievals. We then use the observed tropical tropopause SO2 mixing ratios to estimate the global flux of SO2 across the tropical tropopause...
May 16, 2017: Geophysical Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173039/engineered-aglycosylated-full-length-igg-fc-variants-exhibiting-improved-fc%C3%AE-riiia-binding-and-tumor-cell-clearance
#2
Migyeong Jo, Hyeong Sun Kwon, Kwang-Hoon Lee, Ji Chul Lee, Sang Taek Jung
FcγRIIIa, which is predominantly expressed on the surface of natural killer cells, plays a key role in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), a major effector function of therapeutic IgG antibodies that results in the death of aberrant cells. Despite the potential uses of aglycosylated IgG antibodies, which can be easily produced in bacteria and do not have complicated glycan heterogeneity issues, they show negligible binding to FcγRIIIa and abolish the activation of immune leukocytes for tumor cell clearance, in sharp contrast to most glycosylated IgG antibodies used in the clinical setting...
November 27, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167106/use-of-a-primary-care-online-consultation-system-by-whom-when-and-why-evaluation-of-a-pilot-observational-study-in-36-general-practices-in-south-west-england
#3
Hannah B Edwards, Elsa Marques, William Hollingworth, Jeremy Horwood, Michelle Farr, Elly Bernard, Chris Salisbury, Kate Northstone
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of a pilot study of an online consultation system in primary care. We describe who used the system, when and why, and the National Health Service costs associated with its use. DESIGN: 15-month observational study. SETTING: Primary care practices in South West England. RESULTS: 36 General practices covering 396 828 patients took part in the pilot. The online consultation website was viewed 35 981 times over the pilot period (mean 9...
November 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142787/sleep-apnea-symptoms-and-cardiovascular-disease-risks-among-haitian-medical-students
#4
Diana M Rosenthal, Donaldson F Conserve, Dodley Severe, Michaele A Gedeon, Ferdinand Zizi, Georges Casimir, Samy I McFarlane, Girardin Jean Louis
Sleep apnea is a prevalent sleep disorder that disproportionately affects blacks and has been previously studied among Caribbean-born blacks in Brooklyn, New York, but there has been negligible research in the Caribbean, specifically Haiti, and developing countries on this pressing health issue. A total of 373 medical students (mean age=20.6 years ± 2.3 years) from a medical school in Haiti participated in this study. Participants were administered a questionnaire assessing their sleep health and cardiovascular outcomes...
April 2017: Journal of Sleep Disorders & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134995/rate-constant-for-the-h%C3%AB-h2o-%C3%A2-%C3%AB-oh-h2-reaction-at-elevated-temperatures-measured-by-pulse-radiolysis
#5
Y Muroya, S Yamashita, P Lertnaisat, S Sanguanmith, J Meesungnoen, J-P Jay-Gerin, Y Katsumura
Maintaining the structural integrity of materials in nuclear power plants is an essential issue associated with safe operation. Hydrogen (H2) addition or injection to coolants is a powerful technique that has been widely applied such that the reducing conditions in the coolant water avoid corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Because the radiation-induced reaction of ˙OH + H2 → H˙ + H2O plays a crucial role in these systems, the rate constant has been measured at operation temperatures of the reactors (285-300 °C) by pulse radiolysis, generating sufficient data for analysis...
November 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108867/medicolegal-issues-for-the-respiratory-paediatrician
#6
REVIEW
Ian M Balfour-Lynn
The legal profession depends on expert witnesses, and indeed the first time an English Court relied on an expert medical witness was in the 14th century. Asking a specialist to comment on the standard of professional practice expected in their own specialty was first introduced in a 1767 case [1]. This article draws on 20 years of experience in medicolegal work relating to paediatric respiratory medicine. It highlights some of the legal principles that lie behind an expert opinion and what constitutes clinical negligence...
October 12, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108061/genetic-correlations-between-wool-traits-and-meat-quality-traits-in-merino-sheep
#7
S I Mortimer, S Hatcher, N M Fogarty, J H J van der Werf, D J Brown, A A Swan, R H Jacob, G H Geesink, D L Hopkins, J E Hocking Edwards, E N Ponnampalam, R D Warner, K L Pearce, D W Pethick
Genetic correlations between 29 wool production and quality traits and 25 meat quality and nutritional value traits were estimated for Merino sheep from an Information Nucleus (IN). Genetic correlations among the meat quality and nutritional value traits are also reported. The IN comprised 8 flocks linked genetically and managed across a range of sheep production environments in Australia. The wool traits included over 5,000 yearling and 3,700 adult records for fleece weight, fiber diameter, staple length, staple strength, fiber diameter variation, scoured wool color, and visual scores for breech and body wrinkle...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104305/full-length-antibodies-versus-single-chain-antibody-fragments-for-a-selective-impedimetric-lectin-based-glycoprofiling-of-prostate-specific-antigen
#8
Stefan Belicky, Pavel Damborsky, Julia Zapatero-Rodríguez, Richard O'Kennedy, Jan Tkac
The main aim of the research was to design a functional impedimetric biosensor able to glycoprofile prostate specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa), with high specificity using lectins as glycan recognising proteins. Traditionally, full-length antibody is immobilised on the biosensor interface for specific capture of PSA with subsequent glycoprofiling of PSA by addition of lectins. Since full-length antibodies contain glycans in the Fc domain, particular attention has to be paid to suppress direct binding of lectins to immobilised full-length antibodies, which would compromise accurate glycoprofiling...
August 20, 2017: Electrochimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090032/the-psychological-abuse-of-the-elderly-a-silent-factor-of-cardiac-decompensation
#9
Adina Carmen Ilie, Anca Iuliana Pîslaru, Ioana Dana Alexa, Adriana Pancu, Ovidiu Gavrilovici, Aliona Dronic
Abuse of the elderly is a major issue debated worldwide. The most commonly identified form of abuse is the physical abuse. It is also the most frequently studied in the medical literature. However, at least six types of elder abuse are identified, and physical abuse is found in a small proportion of the cases. The consequences of abuse are frequent and, by prolonging hospitalizations, they will be associated with high costs of medical services, and patient's lack of self-confidence which, in time, may lead to social isolation, somatization, anxiety, depression, and suicide attempts...
June 2017: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079861/impact-of-dna-extraction-sample-dilution-and-reagent-contamination-on-16s-rrna-gene-sequencing-of-human-feces
#10
Eliana P Velásquez-Mejía, Jacobo de la Cuesta-Zuluaga, Juan S Escobar
Culture-independent methods have granted the possibility to study microbial diversity in great detail, but technical issues pose a threat to the accuracy of new findings. Biases introduced during DNA extraction can result in erroneous representations of the microbial community, particularly in samples with low microbial biomass. We evaluated the DNA extraction method, initial sample biomass, and reagent contamination on the assessment of the human gut microbiota. Fecal samples of 200 mg were subjected to 1:10 serial dilutions; total DNA was obtained using two commercial kits and the microbiota assessed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing...
October 27, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078186/fate-of-sulfamethoxazole-its-main-metabolite-n-ac-sulfamethoxazole-and-ciprofloxacin-in-agricultural-soils-amended-or-not-by-organic-waste-products
#11
Aurore Andriamalala, Laure Vieublé-Gonod, Valérie Dumeny, Philippe Cambier
Spreading organic waste products (OWP) issued from sewage sludge or manures into soil may disseminate antibiotics with unknown risks for human health and environment. Our objectives were to compare the fate of two sulfonamides, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and its metabolite N-acetyl-sulfamethoxazole (N-ac-SMX), and one fluoroquinolone, ciprofloxacin (CIP), in an unamended soil, and two soils regularly amended since 1998 with a sewage sludge and green waste compost and with farmyard manure respectively. Incubations of soil spiked with (14)C labelled SMX or N-ac-SMX (0...
October 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075671/design-of-flexible-polyphenylene-proton-conducting-membrane-for-next-generation-fuel-cells
#12
Junpei Miyake, Ryunosuke Taki, Takashi Mochizuki, Ryo Shimizu, Ryo Akiyama, Makoto Uchida, Kenji Miyatake
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are promising devices for clean power generation in automotive, stationary, and portable applications. Perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomers (for example, Nafion) have been the benchmark PEMs; however, several problems, including high gas permeability, low thermal stability, high production cost, and environmental incompatibility, limit the widespread dissemination of PEMFCs. It is believed that fluorine-free PEMs can potentially address all of these issues; however, none of these membranes have simultaneously met the criteria for both high performance (for example, proton conductivity) and durability (for example, mechanical and chemical stability)...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055183/democracy-and-health-evidence-from-within-country-heterogeneity-in-the-congo
#13
Peter van der Windt, Sotiris Vandoros
The literature documents a positive association between democracy and health, and studies supporting this claim have largely relied on cross-country panel analyses. In many developing countries, however, local traditional leaders at the micro-level play a key role in individuals' daily lives while the influence of the national government is largely negligible. In response, this study revisits the relationship between democracy and health using micro-level household data from 816 randomly selected villages in Eastern Congo...
October 12, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042626/long-term-cyclability-of-substoichiometric-silicon-nitride-thin-film-anodes-for-li-ion-batteries
#14
Asbjørn Ulvestad, Hanne Flåten Andersen, Jan Petter Mæhlen, Øystein Prytz, Martin Kirkengen
Silicon has been the subject of an extensive research effort aimed at developing new anode materials for lithium ion batteries due to its large specific and volumetric capacity. However, commercial use is limited by a number of degradation problems, many of which are related to the large volume change the material undergoes during cycling in combination with limited lithium-diffusivity. Silicon rich silicon oxides (SiOx), which converts into active silicon and inactive lithium oxide during the initial lithiation, have attracted some attention as a possible solution to these issues...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035257/southern-ocean-biological-iron-cycling-in-the-pre-whaling-and-present-ecosystems
#15
Maria T Maldonado, Szymon Surma, Evgeny A Pakhomov
This study aimed to create the first model of biological iron (Fe) cycling in the Southern Ocean food web. Two biomass mass-balanced Ecopath models were built to represent pre- and post-whaling ecosystem states (1900 and 2008). Functional group biomasses (tonnes wet weight km(-2)) were converted to biogenic Fe pools (kg Fe km(-2)) using published Fe content ranges. In both models, biogenic Fe pools and consumption in the pelagic Southern Ocean were highest for plankton and small nektonic groups. The production of plankton biomass, particularly unicellular groups, accounted for the highest annual Fe demand...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034379/medical-malpractice-an-introduction-for-the-dental-practitioner
#16
Inbal Blau, Liran Levin
With the plethora of medical malpractice claims, health care providers are forced to deal not only with medical matters but also with legal issues. Thus, unfortunately, every time health care providers give a medical treatment, they should be aware of the legal implications of their act. Most medical malpractice cases will be resolved in civil law and will have financial implications, but in extreme cases (such as causing death by negligence) criminal procedure may also be conducted, meaning criminal sanctions (imprisonment or fine)...
2017: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027632/let-us-talk-about-eggs-professional-resistance-to-elective-egg-vitrification-and-gendered-medical-paternalism
#17
Judit Sándor, Lilla Vicsek, Zsófia Bauer
In this paper, by applying a feminist bioethical perspective, we identify a new form of medical paternalism that still shapes contemporary legal policies on human egg cryopreservation performed without medical reasons. The fear of negligent, careless women who opt to delay their pregnancy for mere convenience is a widely known gender biased stereotype. Nevertheless, the opinions and judgments of medical professionals on this issue have not yet been sufficiently explored by in-depth research. In this essay, therefore, first we look at the broader bioethical, legal, and social aspects of human egg cryopreservation...
October 13, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024397/li4-ti5-o12-anode-structural-design-from-material-to-electrode-and-the-construction-of-energy-storage-devices
#18
REVIEW
Zhijie Chen, Honsen Li, Langyuan Wu, Xiaoxia Lu, Xiaogang Zhang
Spinel Li4 Ti5 O12 , known as a zero-strain material, is capable to be a competent anode material for promising applications in state-of-art electrochemical energy storage devices (EESDs). Compared with commercial graphite, spinel Li4 Ti5 O12 offers a high operating potential of ∼1.55 V vs Li/Li(+) , negligible volume expansion during Li(+) intercalation process and excellent thermal stability, leading to high safety and favorable cyclability. Despite the merits of Li4 Ti5 O12 been presented, there still remains the issue of Li4 Ti5 O12 suffering from poor electronic conductivity, manifesting disadvantageous rate performance...
October 12, 2017: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985689/effect-of-age-period-and-birth-cohort-on-the-frequency-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-in-sardinian-adults
#19
Giovanni Mario Pes, Alessandra Errigo, Angela Bitti, Maria Pina Dore
BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an inherited disorder common in Sardinia. In this study, the frequency variation of G6PD-deficiency across age groups and birth cohorts was investigated using Age-Period-Cohort analysis. METHODS: Data were collected from the clinical records of 11,252 patients (6975 women, age range 17-94 years) who underwent endoscopy between 2000 and 2016 at a teaching hospital (University of Sassari), Italy. G6PD status was assessed by enzymatic assay based on G6PD/6GPD ratio...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984069/assessment-of-radiopharmaceutical-retention-for-vascular-access-ports-using-positron-emission-tomography-imaging
#20
Michael S Gossman, Huaiyu Zheng, John G Evans, Junling Li, Chin K Ng
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to resolve the issue of whether various generations of CR Bard peripheral vascular access ports and catheters are prone to retain PET radiopharmaceuticals. The study evaluates the residual radioactivity remaining following injection for two PET radiopharmaceuticals currently used extensively in the clinic, FDG and Na(18) F. METHODS: FDG was purchased from a local cyclotron facility and Na(18) F was prepared in-house. Three generations of currently marketed vascular access ports were tested...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
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