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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035257/southern-ocean-biological-iron-cycling-in-the-pre-whaling-and-present-ecosystems
#1
Maria T Maldonado, Szymon Surma, Evgeny A Pakhomov
This study aimed to create the first model of biological iron (Fe) cycling in the Southern Ocean food web. Two biomass mass-balanced Ecopath models were built to represent pre- and post-whaling ecosystem states (1900 and 2008). Functional group biomasses (tonnes wet weight km(-2)) were converted to biogenic Fe pools (kg Fe km(-2)) using published Fe content ranges. In both models, biogenic Fe pools and consumption in the pelagic Southern Ocean were highest for plankton and small nektonic groups. The production of plankton biomass, particularly unicellular groups, accounted for the highest annual Fe demand...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034379/medical-malpractice-an-introduction-for-the-dental-practitioner
#2
Inbal Blau, Liran Levin
With the plethora of medical malpractice claims, health care providers are forced to deal not only with medical matters but also with legal issues. Thus, unfortunately, every time health care providers give a medical treatment, they should be aware of the legal implications of their act. Most medical malpractice cases will be resolved in civil law and will have financial implications, but in extreme cases (such as causing death by negligence) criminal procedure may also be conducted, meaning criminal sanctions (imprisonment or fine)...
2017: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027632/let-us-talk-about-eggs-professional-resistance-to-elective-egg-vitrification-and-gendered-medical-paternalism
#3
Judit Sándor, Lilla Vicsek, Zsófia Bauer
In this paper, by applying a feminist bioethical perspective, we identify a new form of medical paternalism that still shapes contemporary legal policies on human egg cryopreservation performed without medical reasons. The fear of negligent, careless women who opt to delay their pregnancy for mere convenience is a widely known gender biased stereotype. Nevertheless, the opinions and judgments of medical professionals on this issue have not yet been sufficiently explored by in-depth research. In this essay, therefore, first we look at the broader bioethical, legal, and social aspects of human egg cryopreservation...
October 13, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024397/li4-ti5-o12-anode-structural-design-from-material-to-electrode-and-the-construction-of-energy-storage-devices
#4
REVIEW
Zhijie Chen, Honsen Li, Langyuan Wu, Xiaoxia Lu, Xiaogang Zhang
Spinel Li4 Ti5 O12 , known as a zero-strain material, is capable to be a competent anode material for promising applications in state-of-art electrochemical energy storage devices (EESDs). Compared with commercial graphite, spinel Li4 Ti5 O12 offers a high operating potential of ∼1.55 V vs Li/Li(+) , negligible volume expansion during Li(+) intercalation process and excellent thermal stability, leading to high safety and favorable cyclability. Despite the merits of Li4 Ti5 O12 been presented, there still remains the issue of Li4 Ti5 O12 suffering from poor electronic conductivity, manifesting disadvantageous rate performance...
October 12, 2017: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985689/effect-of-age-period-and-birth-cohort-on-the-frequency-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-in-sardinian-adults
#5
Giovanni M Pes, Alessandra Errigo, Angela Bitti, Maria Pina Dore
BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an inherited disorder common in Sardinia. In this study the frequency variation of G6PD-deficiency across age groups and birth cohorts were investigated using Age-Period-Cohort analysis. METHODS: Data were collected from the clinical records of 11,252 patients (6,975 women, age range 17-94 years) who underwent endoscopy between 2000 and 2016 at a teaching hospital (University of Sassari), Italy. G6PD status was assessed by enzymatic assay based on G6PD/6GPD ratio...
October 6, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984069/assessment-of-radiopharmaceutical-retention-for-vascular-access-ports-using-positron-emission-tomography-imaging
#6
Michael S Gossman, Huaiyu Zheng, John G Evans, Junling Li, Chin K Ng
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to resolve the issue of whether various generations of CR Bard peripheral vascular access ports and catheters are prone to retain PET radiopharmaceuticals. The study evaluates the residual radioactivity remaining following injection for two PET radiopharmaceuticals currently used extensively in the clinic, FDG and Na(18) F. METHODS: FDG was purchased from a local cyclotron facility and Na(18) F was prepared in-house. Three generations of currently marketed vascular access ports were tested...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973784/peanuts-that-keep-aflatoxin-at-bay-a-threshold-that-matters
#7
Kiran K Sharma, Arunima Pothana, Kalyani Prasad, Dilip Shah, Jagdeep Kaur, Deepak Bhatnagar, Zhi-Yuan Chen, Yenjit Raruang, Jeffrey W Cary, Kanniah Rajasekaran, Hari Kishan Sudini, Pooja Bhatnagar-Mathur
Aflatoxin contamination in peanuts poses major challenges for vulnerable populations of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Developing peanut varieties to combat pre-harvest Aspergillus flavus infection and resulting aflatoxin contamination has thus far remained a major challenge, confounded by highly complex peanut-Aspergilli pathosystem. Our study reports achieving high level of resistance in peanut by over expressing (OE) antifungal plant defensins MsDef1 and MtDef4.2, and through host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) of aflM and aflP genes from the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway...
October 3, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969795/legume-isoflavone-synthase-genes-have-evolved-by-whole-genome-and-local-duplications-yielding-transcriptionally-active-paralogs
#8
Dorota Narożna, Michał Książkiewicz, Łucja Przysiecka, Joanna Króliczak, Bogdan Wolko, Barbara Naganowska, Cezary J Mądrzak
Isoflavone synthase (IFS) is the key enzyme of isoflavonoid biosynthesis. IFS genes were identified in numerous species, although their evolutionary patterns have not yet been reconstructed. To address this issue, we performed structural and functional genomic analysis. Narrow leafed lupin, Lupinus angustifolius L., was used as a reference species for the genus, because it has the most developed molecular tools available. Nuclear genome BAC library clones carrying IFS homologs were localized by linkage mapping and fluorescence in situ hybridization in three chromosome pairs...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969709/awareness-and-current-knowledge-of-breast-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Muhammad Akram, Mehwish Iqbal, Muhammad Daniyal, Asmat Ullah Khan
Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments...
October 2, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963719/cryopreservation-of-adult-unrelated-donor-products-in-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-the-onematch-experience-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#10
Joseph Aziz, Gail Morris, Mina Rizk, Risa Shorr, Dena Mercer, Kimberly Young, David Allan
BACKGROUND: The frequency of cryopreserving blood stem or progenitor products from unrelated donors is not known and the underlying reasons are poorly documented. Greater insight is needed to develop policies on cryopreservation that balance donor safety with patient needs. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Cryopreservation requests between January 1, 2014, and May 31, 2016, at the OneMatch Stem Cell and Marrow Network at Canadian Blood Services were reviewed and a systematic review of the literature was performed...
September 30, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960337/reconsideration-of-blood-donation-testing-strategy-for-human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-in-australia
#11
C E Styles, C R Seed, V C Hoad, S Gaudieri, A J Keller
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Universal testing of blood donations for human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) in Australia may no longer be appropriate given the low prevalence of HTLV infection and the mitigating effect of universal leucodepletion for cellular components. This study aimed to determine the most appropriate HTLV testing strategy using the Risk-Based Decision-Making Framework for Blood Safety. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The risk of HTLV transfusion-transmission using three testing strategies (universal, new-donor and no testing) and cost-effectiveness of the first two strategies were assessed using adaptations of published mathematical models...
September 27, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950471/grid-refinement-for-aeroacoustics-in-the-lattice-boltzmann-method-a-directional-splitting-approach
#12
Félix Gendre, Denis Ricot, Guillaume Fritz, Pierre Sagaut
This study focuses on grid refinement techniques for the direct simulation of aeroacoustics, when using weakly compressible lattice Boltzmann models, such as the D3Q19 athermal velocity set. When it comes to direct noise computation, very small errors on the density or pressure field may have great negative consequences. Even strong acoustic density fluctuations have indeed a clearly lower amplitude than the hydrodynamic ones. This work deals with such very weak spurious fluctuations that emerge when a vortical structure crosses a refinement interface, which may contaminate the resulting aeroacoustic field...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945876/issues-and-perspectives-in-species-delimitation-using-phenotypic-data-atlantean-evolution-in-darwin-s-finches
#13
Carlos Daniel Cadena, Felipe Zapata, Iván Jiménez
Progress in the development and use of methods for species delimitation employing phenotypic data lags behind conceptual and practical advances in molecular genetic approaches. The basic evolutionary model underlying the use of phenotypic data to delimit species assumes random mating and quantitative polygenic traits, so that phenotypic distributions within a species should be approximately normal for individuals of the same sex and age. Accordingly, two or more distinct normal distributions of phenotypic traits suggest the existence of multiple species...
September 1, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930095/robust-and-practical-non-invasive-estimation-of-local-arterial-wave-speed-and-mean-blood-velocity-waveforms
#14
Remi Kowalski, Richard Beare, Marie Willemet, Jordi Alastruey, Joseph J Smolich, Michael M H Cheung, Jonathan P Mynard
Local arterial wave speed, a surrogate of vessel stiffness, can be estimated via the pressure-velocity (PU) and diameter-velocity (ln(D)U) loop methods. These assume negligible early-systolic reflected waves (RWes) and require measurement of cross-sectionally averaged velocity (U<sub>mean</sub>), which itself is a valuable quantity related to volumetric blood flow. However, RWes may not always be negligible and routine Doppler ultrasound typically provides maximum velocity waveforms or estimates of mean velocity subject to various errors (U<sub>raw</sub>)...
September 20, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898386/pancreaticojejunostomy-versus-pancreaticogastrostomy-reconstruction-for-the-prevention-of-postoperative-pancreatic-fistula-following-pancreaticoduodenectomy
#15
REVIEW
Yao Cheng, Marta Briarava, Mingliang Lai, Xiaomei Wang, Bing Tu, Nansheng Cheng, Jianping Gong, Yuhong Yuan, Pierluigi Pilati, Simone Mocellin
BACKGROUND: Pancreatoduodenectomy is a surgical procedure used to treat diseases of the pancreatic head and, less often, the duodenum. The most common disease treated is cancer, but pancreatoduodenectomy is also used for people with traumatic lesions and chronic pancreatitis. Following pancreatoduodenectomy, the pancreatic stump must be connected with the small bowel where pancreatic juice can play its role in food digestion. Pancreatojejunostomy (PJ) and pancreatogastrostomy (PG) are surgical procedures commonly used to reconstruct the pancreatic stump after pancreatoduodenectomy...
September 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889761/safety-issues-associated-with-using-medication-to-treat-overactive-bladder
#16
George Araklitis, Linda Cardozo
The mainstay of overactive bladder treatment is the use of anticholinergic medication with its common side effects well known. This review focused on three less well-known safety issues when treating OAB. Areas covered: Patients with increased anticholinergic load are at risk of cognitive decline, dementia or even death. The elderly are particularly at risk due to polypharmacy. Botulinum toxin carries the risk of high urinary residuals, urinary tract infection and need to self catheterise. The use of vaginal oestrogens may improve OAB symptoms, but there is concern in those with a history of breast cancer...
November 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889480/why-do-surgeons-receive-more-complaints-than-their-physician-peers
#17
Holly M Tibble, Nigel S Broughton, David M Studdert, Matthew J Spittal, Nicola Hill, Jennifer M Morris, Marie M Bismark
BACKGROUND: Compared with other doctors, surgeons are at an increased risk of medicolegal events, including patient complaints and negligence claims. This retrospective study aimed to describe the frequency and nature of complaints involving surgeons compared with physicians. METHODS: We assembled a national data set of complaints about surgeons and physicians lodged with medical regulators in Australia from 2011 to 2016. We classified the complaints into 19 issues across four domains: treatment and procedures, other performance, professional conduct and health...
September 9, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881134/modeling-%C3%AF-bond-activations-by-nickel-0-beyond-common-approximations-how-accurately-can-we-describe-closed-shell-oxidative-addition-reactions-mediated-by-low-valent-late-3d-transition-metal
#18
Lianrui Hu, Kejuan Chen, Hui Chen
Accurate modelings of reactions involving 3d transition metals (TMs) are very challenging to both ab initio and DFT approaches. To gain more knowledge in this field, we herein explored typical σ-bond activations of H-H, C-H, C-Cl, and C-C bonds promoted by nickel(0), a low-valent late 3d TM. For the key parameters of activation energy (ΔE(‡)) and reaction energy (ΔER) for these reactions, various issues related to the computational accuracy were systematically investigated. From the scrutiny of convergence issue with one-electron basis set, augmented (A) basis functions are found to be important, and the CCSD(T)/CBS level with complete basis set (CBS) limit extrapolation based on augmented double-ζ and triple-ζ basis pair (ADZ and ATZ), which produces deviations below 1 kcal/mol from the reference, is recommended for larger systems...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862003/light-regulated-electrochemical-sensor-array-for-efficiently-discriminating-hazardous-gases
#19
Hongqiu Liang, Xin Zhang, Huihui Sun, Han Jin, Xiaowei Zhang, Qinghui Jin, Jie Zou, Hossam Haick, Jiawen Jian
Inadequate detection limit and unsatisfactory discrimination features remain the challenging issues for the widely applied electrochemical gas sensors. Quite recently, we confirmed that light-regulated electrochemical reaction significantly enhanced the electrocatalytic activity, and thereby can potentially extend the detection limit to the parts per billion (ppb) level. Nevertheless, impact of the light-regulated electrochemical reaction on response selectivity has been discussed less. Herein, we systematically report on the effect of illumination on discrimination features via design and fabrication of a light-regulated electrochemical sensor array...
September 20, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857057/health-sector-responses-to-address-the-impacts-of-climate-change-in-nepal
#20
Meghnath Dhimal, Mandira Lamichhane Dhimal, Raja Ram Pote-Shrestha, David A Groneberg, Ulrich Kuch
Nepal is highly vulnerable to global climate change, despite its negligible emission of global greenhouse gases. The vulnerable climate-sensitive sectors identified in Nepal's National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change 2010 include agriculture, forestry, water, energy, public health, urbanization and infrastructure, and climate-induced disasters. In addition, analyses carried out as part of the NAPA process have indicated that the impacts of climate change in Nepal are not gender neutral...
September 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
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