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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634770/medical-negligence-determinations-the-right-to-try-and-expanded-access-to-innovative-treatments
#1
Denise Meyerson
This article considers the issue of expanded access to innovative treatments in the context of recent legislative initiatives in the United Kingdom and the United States. In the United Kingdom, the supporters of legislative change argued that the common law principles governing medical negligence are a barrier to innovation. In an attempt to remove this perceived impediment, two bills proposed that innovating doctors sued for negligence should be able to rely in their defence on the fact that their decision to innovate was "responsible...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622531/explaining-transgression-in-respiratory-rate-observation-methods-in-the-emergency-department-a-classic-grounded-theory-analysis
#2
Tracy Flenady, Trudy Dwyer, Judith Applegarth
BACKGROUND: Abnormal respiratory rates are one of the first indicators of clinical deterioration in emergency department(ED) patients. Despite the importance of respiratory rate observations, this vital sign is often inaccurately recorded on ED observation charts, compromising patient safety. Concurrently, there is a paucity of research reporting why this phenomenon occurs. OBJECTIVE: To develop a substantive theory explaining ED registered nurses' reasoning when they miss or misreport respiratory rate observations...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611420/a-guide-to-design-functional-molecular-liquids-with-tailorable-properties-using-pyrene-fluorescence-as-a-probe
#3
Fengniu Lu, Tomohisa Takaya, Koichi Iwata, Izuru Kawamura, Akinori Saeki, Masashi Ishii, Kazuhiko Nagura, Takashi Nakanishi
Solvent-free, nonvolatile, room-temperature alkylated-π functional molecular liquids (FMLs) are rapidly emerging as a new generation of fluid matter. However, precision design to tune their physicochemical properties remains a serious challenge because the properties are governed by subtle π-π interactions among functional π-units, which are very hard to control and characterize. Herein, we address the issue by probing π-π interactions with highly sensitive pyrene-fluorescence. A series of alkylated pyrene FMLs were synthesized...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607188/analysis-of-electro-permeation-of-hydrogen-in-metallic-alloys
#4
A Raina, V S Deshpande, N A Fleck
A reaction-diffusion type modelling framework is presented to analyse both electro-permeation (EP) and thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS) measurements of hydrogen in metallic alloys. It is assumed that the kinetics of hydrogen motion is governed by diffusion through the lattice, along with trapping/detrapping at specific sites such as dislocations, grain boundaries, etc. It is shown that the trapping and detrapping rates are typically much faster than the diffusion rate, and consequently a simplification of the governing equations suffices such that local equilibrium exists between lattice and trapped hydrogen...
July 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586081/bed%C3%A3-mning-av-neuro%C3%A2-logisk-prognos-efter-hj%C3%A3-rtstopp-uppdaterade-rekommendationer-fr%C3%A3-n-svenska-hlr-r%C3%A3-dets-expertgrupp
#5
Christian Rylander, Hans Friberg, Elna-Marie Larsson, Lars Johan Liedholm, Sten Rubertsson, Tobias Cronberg
Assessment of neurologic prognosis after cardiac arrest. Updated recommendations from the Swedish CPR Council Expert Group European Resuscitation Council (ERC) issued updated guidelines for postresuscitation care in 2015. This paper provides updated Swedish recommendations for neurological prognostication of patients remaining unconscious after cardiac arrest (CA). The prognostication should be based on independent methods; clinical and neurophysiological examinations, imaging and biomarkers. It should not be performed earlier than three days after CA and any influence from sedatives must be negligible...
June 2, 2017: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566756/layer-dependent-semiconductor-metal-transition-of-sno-si-001-heterostructure-and-device-application
#6
Chengcheng Xiao, Fang Wang, Yao Wang, Shengyuan A Yang, Jianzhong Jiang, Ming Yang, Yunhao Lu, Shijie Wang, Yuanping Feng
As the downscaling of electronic devices continues, the problems of leakage currents and heat dissipation become more and more serious. To address these issues, new materials and new structures are explored. Here, we propose an interesting heterostructure made of ultrathin SnO layers on Si(001) surface. Our first-principle calculations show that a single layer of SnO on Si(001) surface is a semiconductor, but a bilayer SnO on the same surface is metallic. This metal-semiconductor dichotomy allows construction of single-2D-material-based electronic devices with low contact resistance and low leakage currents...
May 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553686/legal-hurdles-for-gastroenterologists-in-india
#7
REVIEW
Neeraj Nagpal
Litigation and compensation claims have started occurring with increasing frequency against gastroenterologists in India. A study of few such cases decided by Indian Courts shows that commonest reason for allegations of negligence being upheld by Indian Courts is an improper consent being taken. Professional organisations need to focus on these issues more aggressively than has been done in the past. Judgments which do not appear to be in conformity with standard medical practices need to be challenged in higher courts, failing in which they would become precedents for future similar judgments...
May 29, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546632/bonfire-of-the-verities
#8
P Batchelor
The emphasis on ensuring improved governance within the UK dental care system continues to rely on the identification of poorly performing individuals. Such an approach, while addressing certain political expediencies, fails to take into account both the wider system issues and the extensive literature on how to influence performance in a positive way. If sustainable improvements in the qualities of care are to occur, an acknowledgement of the system's shortcomings by the main parties must be made and where individual performance has fallen below that regarded as acceptable, the contribution of the delivery system in general needs to be noted...
May 26, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542540/elevation-as-a-proxy-for-mosquito-borne-zika-virus-transmission-in-the-americas
#9
Alexander G Watts, Jennifer Miniota, Heather A Joseph, Oliver J Brady, Moritz U G Kraemer, Ardath W Grills, Stephanie Morrison, Douglas H Esposito, Adriano Nicolucci, Matthew German, Maria I Creatore, Bradley Nelson, Michael A Johansson, Gary Brunette, Simon I Hay, Kamran Khan, Marty Cetron
INTRODUCTION: When Zika virus (ZIKV) first began its spread from Brazil to other parts of the Americas, national-level travel notices were issued, carrying with them significant economic consequences to affected countries. Although regions of some affected countries were likely unsuitable for mosquito-borne transmission of ZIKV, the absence of high quality, timely surveillance data made it difficult to confidently demarcate infection risk at a sub-national level. In the absence of reliable data on ZIKV activity, a pragmatic approach was needed to identify subnational geographic areas where the risk of ZIKV infection via mosquitoes was expected to be negligible...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540211/delayed-enhancement-cardiac-computed-tomography-for-the-assessment-of-myocardial-infarction-from-bench-to-bedside
#10
REVIEW
Gaston A Rodriguez-Granillo
A large number of studies support the increasingly relevant prognostic value of the presence and extent of delayed enhancement (DE), a surrogate marker of fibrosis, in diverse etiologies. Gadolinium and iodinated based contrast agents share similar kinetics, thus leading to comparable myocardial characterization with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and cardiac computed tomography (CT) at both first-pass perfusion and DE imaging. We review the available evidence of DE imaging for the assessment of myocardial infarction (MI) using cardiac CT (CTDE), from animal to clinical studies, and from 16-slice CT to dual-energy CT systems (DECT)...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534785/efficient-hardware-implementation-of-real-time-low-power-movement-intention-detector-system-using-fft-and-adaptive-wavelet-transform
#11
Alireza Chamanzar, Mahdi Shabany, Alireza Malekmohammadi, Sara Mohammadinejad
The brain-computer interfacing (BCI), a platform to extract features and classify different motor movement tasks from noisy and highly correlated electroencephalogram signals, is limited mostly by the complex and power-hungry algorithms. Among different techniques recently devised to tackle this issue, real-time onset detection, due to its negligible delay and minimal power overhead, is the most efficient one. Here, we propose a novel algorithm that outperforms the state-of-the-art design by sixfold in terms of speed, without sacrificing the accuracy for a real-time, hand movement intention detection based on the adaptive wavelet transform with only 1 s detection delay and maximum sensitivity of 88% and selectivity of 78% (only 7% loss of sensitivity)...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533464/the-colours-of-humanity-the-evolution-of-pigmentation-in-the-human-lineage
#12
REVIEW
Nina G Jablonski, George Chaplin
Humans are a colourful species of primate, with human skin, hair and eye coloration having been influenced by a great variety of evolutionary forces throughout prehistory. Functionally naked skin has been the physical interface between the physical environment and the human body for most of the history of the genus Homo, and hence skin coloration has been under intense natural selection. From an original condition of protective, dark, eumelanin-enriched coloration in early tropical-dwelling Homo and Homo sapiens, loss of melanin pigmentation occurred under natural selection as Homo sapiens dispersed into non-tropical latitudes of Africa and Eurasia...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529027/management-of-postneurosurgical-meningitis-narrative-review
#13
REVIEW
Khetam Hussein, Roni Bitterman, Ben Shofty, Mical Paul, Ami Neuberger
BACKGROUND: Infections complicating neurosurgery pose unacceptable mortality and morbidity. AIMS: To summarize what is known about the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of post-neurosurgical meningitis (PNM). SOURCES: PubMed, references of identified studies and reviews, and personal experience when evidence was lacking. CONTENT: The incidence and pathogen distribution of PNM is highly variable. A shift towards Gram-negative bacteria has been observed with use of antibiotic prophylaxis and antibiotic-coated devices directed mainly against Gram-positive bacteria...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528940/macromolecular-agents-with-antimicrobial-potentialities-a-drive-to-combat-antimicrobial-resistance
#14
REVIEW
Muhammad Bilal, Tahir Rasheed, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Hongbo Hu, Wei Wang, Xuehong Zhang
In recent years, the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) or multidrug resistance (MDR) has become a serious health concern and major challenging issue, worldwide. After decades of negligence, the AMR has now captured global attention. The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains has threatened the achievements of science and medicine since it inactivates conventional antimicrobial therapeutics. Scientists are trying to respond to AMR/MDR threat by exploring innovative platforms and new therapeutic strategies to tackle infections from these resistant strains and bypass treatment limitations related to these pathologies...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521129/integrating-results-across-methodologies-is-essential-for-producing-robust-neuronal-taxonomies
#15
Mark S Cembrowski, Nelson Spruston
Elucidating the diversity and spatial organization of cell types in the brain is an essential goal of neuroscience, with many emerging technologies helping to advance this endeavor. Using a new in situ hybridization method that can measure the expression of hundreds of genes in a given mouse brain section (amplified seqFISH), Shah et al. (2016) describe a spatial organization of hippocampal cell types that differs from previous reports. In seeking to understand this discrepancy, we find that many of the barcoded genes used by seqFISH to characterize this spatial organization, when cross-validated by other sensitive methodologies, exhibit negligible expression in the hippocampus...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504326/preoperative-colonization-in-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-and-its-impact-on-postoperative-infections
#16
Simona Silvetti, Marco Ranucci, Giuseppe Isgrò, Valentina Villa, Elena Costa
BACKGROUND: Patients with congenital heart defects are frequently hospitalized before surgery. This exposes them to a high risk for pathogen colonization. There are limited data on colonization prevalence in the pediatric cardiac population, and limited data concerning its potential role in the risk of developing infections after cardiac surgery. AIM: This study aimed to verify the impact of preoperative colonization on postoperative infections in a population of pediatric cardiac surgery patients coming from Italy and developing countries...
May 15, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503788/indicators-of-inappropriate-tumour-marker-use-through-the-mining-of-electronic-health-records
#17
Massimo Gion, Giulia Cardinali, Chiara Trevisiol, Marco Zappa, Giulia Rainato, Aline S C Fabricio
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Although the issue of monitoring appropriateness of tumour markers (TMs) request in outpatients remains crucial, proper indicators are still demanding. The present study developed and explored indicators of inappropriate TM ordering in outpatients through the data mining of electronic health records (EHRs). METHODS: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alfa-fetoprotein (AFP), carbohydrate antigen (CA)125, CA15.3, CA19.9, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ordered in outpatients during a year were examined by mining EHRs of a Local Health Authority in Italy...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496125/enhancing-specific-disruption-of-intracellular-protein-complexes-by-hydrocarbon-stapled-peptides-using-lipid-based-delivery
#18
D Thean, J S Ebo, T Luxton, Xue'Er Cheryl Lee, T Y Yuen, F J Ferrer, C W Johannes, D P Lane, C J Brown
Linear peptides can mimic and disrupt protein-protein interactions involved in critical cell signaling pathways. Such peptides however are usually protease sensitive and unable to engage with intracellular targets due to lack of membrane permeability. Peptide stapling has been proposed to circumvent these limitations but recent data has suggested that this method does not universally solve the problem of cell entry and can lead to molecules with off target cell lytic properties. To address these issues a library of stapled peptides was synthesized and screened to identify compounds that bound Mdm2 and activated cellular p53...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480018/elements-of-metacommunity-structure-in-amazonian-zygoptera-among-streams-under-different-spatial-scales-and-environmental-conditions
#19
Leandro Schlemmer Brasil, Thiago Bernardi Vieira, José Max Barbosa de Oliveira-Junior, Karina Dias-Silva, Leandro Juen
An important aspect of conservation is to understand the founding elements and characteristics of metacommunities in natural environments, and the consequences of anthropogenic disturbance on these patterns. In natural Amazonian environments, the interfluves of the major rivers play an important role in the formation of areas of endemism through the historical isolation of species and the speciation process. We evaluated elements of metacommunity structure for Zygoptera (Insecta: Odonata) sampled in 93 Amazonian streams distributed in two distinct biogeographic regions (areas of endemism)...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472580/gps-perspectives-on-prescribing-intrauterine-contraceptive-devices
#20
Gabrielle Lodge, Lena Sanci, Meredith J Temple-Smith
BACKGROUND: Globally, 14% of women use intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) for prevention of unplanned pregnancy. In Australia, the use of IUCDs is negligible at METHODS: GPs participated in qualitative interviews in February-May 2016, exploring their knowledge, attitudes and practice around IUCDs. Data were thematically analysed. RESULTS: Overall, 17 GPs were interviewed. They identified key barriers to prescription of IUCDs as misconceptions brought to the consultation, lack of current GP inserters, and issues in referral of patients for insertion...
2017: Australian Family Physician
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