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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419790/the-roles-of-three-types-of-knowledge-and-perceived-uncertainty-in-explaining-risk-perception-acceptability-and-self-protective-response-a-case-study-on-endocrine-disrupting-surfactants
#1
Hien Ho, Tsunemi Watanabe
The ubiquitous surfactants nonylphenol (NP) and its ethoxylates (NPEOs), which are known as endocrine disrupters, have appeared in the lists of restricted chemical substances, monitoring programs, and environmental quality standards of many countries due to their adverse effects. Recent studies have reported alarming levels of NP, as the final metabolite of NPEOs, in Vietnamese urban waters, whilst response to this issue is negligible. With the aim of addressing how the public perceives and expects to avoid the risk of endocrine disrupting surfactants (EDSs), the study tested the hypothesized roles of specific knowledge, general knowledge, and perceived uncertainty using structural equation modelling...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407699/enhanced-removal-of-se-vi-from-water-via-pre-corrosion-of-zero-valent-iron-using-h2o2-hcl-effect-of-solution-chemistry-and-mechanism-investigation
#2
Chao Shan, Jiajia Chen, Zhe Yang, Huichao Jia, Xiaohong Guan, Weiming Zhang, Bingcai Pan
Although the removal of Se(VI) from water by using zero-valent iron (ZVI) is a promising method, passivation of ZVI severely inhibits its performance. To overcome such issue, we proposed an efficient technique to enhance Se(VI) removal via pre-corrosion of ZVI with H2O2/HCl in a short time (15 min). The resultant pcZVI suspension was weakly acidic (pH 4.56) and contained abundant aqueous Fe2+. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that pcZVI mainly consisted of Fe0 (66.2%), hydrated ferric oxide (26.3%), and Fe3O4 (7...
January 19, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402665/malpractice-litigation-in-the-endovascular-era
#3
Kenny Oh, Goda Savulionyte, Satish Muluk
OBJECTIVE: The standard of care in the treatment of vascular disease continues to evolve as endovascular therapies develop. Currently, it is unclear how medical malpractice litigation has adapted to the "endovascular era." This retrospective case review is the most comprehensive analysis to date of malpractice actions involving endovascular procedures performed by vascular surgeons (VSs), interventional radiologists (IRs), interventional cardiologists (ICs), and cardiothoracic surgeons (CTSs)...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388195/vaccines-for-preventing-influenza-in-healthy-children
#4
REVIEW
Tom Jefferson, Alessandro Rivetti, Carlo Di Pietrantonj, Vittorio Demicheli
BACKGROUND: The consequences of influenza in children and adults are mainly absenteeism from school and work. However, the risk of complications is greatest in children and people over 65 years of age. This is an update of a review published in 2011. Future updates of this review will be made only when new trials or vaccines become available. Observational data included in previous versions of the review have been retained for historical reasons but have not been updated because of their lack of influence on the review conclusions...
February 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387154/slow-and-temperature-mediated-pathogen-adaptation-to-a-nonspecific-fungicide-in-agricultural-ecosystem
#5
Meng-Han He, Dong-Liang Li, Wen Zhu, E-Jiao Wu, Li-Na Yang, Yan-Ping Wang, Abdul Waheed, Jiasui Zhan
The spread of antimicrobial resistance and global change in air temperature represent two major phenomena that are exerting a disastrous impact on natural and social issues but investigation of the interaction between these phenomena in an evolutionary context is limited. In this study, a statistical genetic approach was used to investigate the evolution of antimicrobial resistance in agricultural ecosystem and its association with local air temperature, precipitation, and UV radiation. We found no resistance to mancozeb, a nonspecific fungicide widely used in agriculture for more than half a century, in 215 Alternaria alternata isolates sampled from geographic locations along a climatic gradient and cropping system representing diverse ecotypes in China, consistent with low resistance risk in many nonspecific fungicides...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386638/methylation-based-enrichment-facilitates-low-cost-noninvasive-genomic-scale-sequencing-of-populations-from-feces
#6
Kenneth L Chiou, Christina M Bergey
Obtaining high-quality samples from wild animals is a major obstacle for genomic studies of many taxa, particularly at the population level, as collection methods for such samples are typically invasive. DNA from feces is easy to obtain noninvasively, but is dominated by bacterial and other non-host DNA. The high proportion of non-host DNA drastically reduces the efficiency of high-throughput sequencing for host animal genomics. To address this issue, we developed an inexpensive capture method for enriching host DNA from noninvasive fecal samples...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379382/indicators-for-medical-mistrust-in-healthcare-a-review-and-standpoint-from-southeast-asia
#7
REVIEW
Hew Hei Choy, Aniza Ismail
The relationship based on trust is exceptionally important in healthcare, where life or death and quality of health are major concerns. Relational crack jeopardises the provision of quality healthcare when trust is taken for granted. Trust is believed to be the vital key to minimise medical negligence, lawsuits and patient complaints towards healthcare providers while acting as an empowering agent to significant clinical outcomes. Trust is indispensable to healthcare. However, to identify its deterioration is not a simple feature...
December 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367047/iron-based-subsurface-arsenic-removal-technologies-by-aeration-a-review-of-the-current-state-and-future-prospects
#8
REVIEW
Vu T Luong, Edgardo E Cañas Kurz, Ulrich Hellriegel, Tran L Luu, Jan Hoinkis, Jochen Bundschuh
Arsenic contamination in groundwater is a critical issue and one that raises great concern around the world as the cause of many negative health impacts on the human body, including internal and external cancers. There are many ways to remove or immobilize arsenic, including membrane technologies, adsorption, sand filtration, ion exchange, and capacitive deionization. These exhibit many different advantages and disadvantages. Among these methods, in-situ subsurface arsenic immobilization by aeration and the subsequent removal of arsenic from the aqueous phase has shown to be very a promising, convenient technology with high treatment efficiency...
January 4, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364295/ab-initio-calculations-and-kinetic-modeling-of-thermal-conversion-of-methyl-chloride-implications-for-gasification-of-biomass
#9
Mallika Singla, Morten Lund Rasmussen, Hamid Hashemi, Hao Wu, Peter Glarborg, Matteo Pelucchi, Tiziano Faravelli, Paul Marshall
Limitations in current hot gas cleaning methods for chlorine species from biomass gasification may be a challenge for end use such as gas turbines, engines, and fuel cells, all requiring very low levels of chlorine. During devolatilization of biomass, chlorine is released partly as methyl chloride. In the present work, the thermal conversion of CH3Cl under gasification conditions was investigated. A detailed chemical kinetic model for pyrolysis and oxidation of methyl chloride was developed and validated against selected experimental data from the literature...
January 24, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353188/mechanism-of-anaerobic-bio-reduction-of-azo-dye-assisted-with-lawsone-immobilized-activated-carbon
#10
Daniel Olivo-Alanis, Refugio Bernardo Garcia-Reyes, Luis H Alvarez, Alcione Garcia-Gonzalez
Lawsone redox (LQ) mediator was covalently bound to granular activated carbon (GAC) by Fischer esterification. A high LQ adsorption capacity on GAC was achieved (∼230 mg/g), and desorption studies showed strong chemical stability. Furthermore, kinetic experiments with solid-phase redox mediator (RM) and their controls (soluble RM, GAC and anaerobic sludge) were tested for decolorization of congo red dye at initial concentration of 175 mg/L. Benzidine, a by-product of complete congo red reduction, was also measured by HPLC analysis along the kinetic experiments...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348614/noise-induced-bistability-in-the-fate-of-cancer-phenotypic-quasispecies-a-bit-strings-approach
#11
Josep Sardanyés, Tomás Alarcón
Tumor cell populations are highly heterogeneous. Such heterogeneity, both at genotypic and phenotypic levels, is a key feature during tumorigenesis. How to investigate the impact of this heterogeneity in the dynamics of tumors cells becomes an important issue. Here we explore a stochastic model describing the competition dynamics between a pool of heterogeneous cancer cells with distinct phenotypes and healthy cells. This model is used to explore the role of demographic fluctuations on the transitions involving tumor clearance...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348047/effects-of-inorganic-ions-and-natural-organic-matter-on-the-aggregation-of-nanoplastics
#12
Li Cai, Lingling Hu, Huahong Shi, Junwei Ye, Yunfei Zhang, Hyunjung Kim
The aggregation of nanoplastics (NPs) is a key issue in understanding the dynamic nature of NPs in the environment. The aggregation of NPs under various environmental conditions has not yet been studied. We investigated the influences of inorganic ions and natural organic matter (NOM) on polystyrene (PS) NPs aggregation in solutions. Results showed that PS NPs remained stable in wide ionic strength solutions of NaCl (1-100 mM) and CaCl2 (0.1-15 mM), and only in low ionic strength FeCl3 solutions (0.01 mM)...
January 12, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321265/contribution-of-low-temperature-single-molecule-techniques-to-structural-issues-of-pigment-protein-complexes-from-photosynthetic-purple-bacteria
#13
REVIEW
Alexander Löhner, Richard Cogdell, Jürgen Köhler
As the electronic energies of the chromophores in a pigment-protein complex are imposed by the geometrical structure of the protein, this allows the spectral information obtained to be compared with predictions derived from structural models. Thereby, the single-molecule approach is particularly suited for the elucidation of specific, distinctive spectral features that are key for a particular model structure, and that would not be observable in ensemble-averaged spectra due to the heterogeneity of the biological objects...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316094/integrated-multifunctional-micelles-co-self-assembled-from-polypeptides-conjugated-with-natural-ferulic-acid-and-lipoic-acid-for-efficient-and-bioresponsive-doxorubicin-delivery
#14
Zhiyuan Zhong, Tao Chen, Min Qiu, Jian Zhang, Huanli Sun, Chao Deng
How to develop safe, easily accessible, and multifunctional nanocarriers is a big theme for nanomedicine research. Here, integrated multifunctional micelles (IMM) were developed by co-self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lysine) derivatives with natural ferulic acid or lipoic acid. FA confers IMM with intrinsic antitumor activity, improved loading of doxorubicin (DOX) via π-π stacking, and reduced DOX cardiotoxicity. LA provides IMM with reversible crosslinking property which leads to a high colloidal stability with inhibited drug leakage and triggered intracellular DOX release...
January 9, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299916/towards-eco-friendly-and-highly-efficient-solar-water-splitting-using-in2s3-anatase-rutile-tio2-dual-staggered-heterojunction-nanodendrite-array-photoanode
#15
Jih-Sheng Yang, Jih-Jen Wu
The TiO2-based heterojunction nanodendrite (ND) array composed of anatase NPs (ANP) on the surface of rutile ND (RND) array is selected as the model photoanode to demonstrate the strategies towards eco-friendly and efficient solar water splitting using neutral electrolyte and seawater. Compared to the performances in alkaline electrolyte, non-negligible potential drop across the electrolyte as well as impeded charge injection and charge separation are monitored in the ANP/RND array photoanode with neutral electrolyte, which are respectively ascribed to the series resistance of neutral electrolyte, the fundamentally pH-dependent water oxidation mechanism on TiO2 surface, as well as the less band bending at the interface of TiO2 and neutral electrolyte...
January 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298058/is-water-at-the-graphite-interface-vapor-like-or-ice-like
#16
Yuqing Qiu, Laura Lupi, Valeria Molinero
Graphitic surfaces are the main component of soot, a major constituent of atmospheric aerosols. Experiments indicate that soots of different origins display a wide range of abilities to heterogeneously nucleate ice. The ability of pure graphite to nucleate ice in experiments, however, seems to be almost negligible. Nevertheless, molecular simulations with the monatomic water model mW predict that pure graphite nucleates ice. According to Classical Nucleation Theory, the ability of a surface to nucleate ice is controlled by the binding free energy between ice immersed in liquid water and the surface...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240966/sustainable-carbon-carbon-supercapacitors-operating-down-to-40%C3%A2-c-in-aqueous-electrolyte-made-with-cholinium-salt
#17
Qamar Abbas, François Béguin
Cholinium chloride at a concentration of 5 mol kg-1 in water is proposed as low cost and environmentally friendly aqueous electrolyte enabling to extend the operating range of carbon/carbon supercapacitors (SCs) down to -40°C. This solution exhibits a pH close to neutrality (pH = 6.1) and high conductivity of 88 mS cm-1 at 24°C. The supercapacitors demonstrate a high capacitance of 126 F g-1 (per mass of one electrode) and long life span at voltages up to 1.5 V. At -40°C, the carbon/carbon SCs display excellent electrochemical characteristics featured by slightly reduced capacitance of 106 F g-1 and negligible ohmic losses...
December 14, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236082/low-cost-plastic-optical-fiber-pressure-sensor-embedded-in-mattress-for-vital-signal-monitoring
#18
Demetrio Sartiano, Salvador Sales
The aim of this paper is to report the design of a low-cost plastic optical fiber (POF) pressure sensor, embedded in a mattress. We report the design of a multipoint sensor, a cheap alternative to the most common fiber sensors. The sensor is implemented using Arduino board, standard LEDs for optical communication in POF (λ = 645 nm) and a silicon light sensor. The Super ESKA® plastic fibers were used to implement the fiber intensity sensor, arranged in a 4 × 4 matrix. During the breathing cycles, the force transmitted from the lungs to the thorax is in the order of tens of Newtons, and the respiration rate is of one breath every 2-5 s (0...
December 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225384/the-role-of-sulfur-dioxide-in-stratospheric-aerosol-formation-evaluated-using-in-situ-measurements-in-the-tropical-lower-stratosphere
#19
A W Rollins, T D Thornberry, L A Watts, P Yu, K H Rosenlof, M Mills, E Baumann, F R Giorgetta, T V Bui, M Höpfner, K A Walker, C Boone, P F Bernath, P R Colarco, P A Newman, D W Fahey, R S Gao
Stratospheric aerosols (SAs) are a variable component of the Earth's albedo that may be intentionally enhanced in the future to offset greenhouse gases (geoengineering). The role of tropospheric-sourced sulfur dioxide (SO2) in maintaining background SAs has been debated for decades without in-situ measurements of SO2 at the tropical tropopause to inform this issue. Here we clarify the role of SO2 in maintaining SAs by using new in-situ SO2 measurements to evaluate climate models and satellite retrievals. We then use the observed tropical tropopause SO2 mixing ratios to estimate the global flux of SO2 across the tropical tropopause...
May 16, 2017: Geophysical Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173039/engineered-aglycosylated-full-length-igg-fc-variants-exhibiting-improved-fc%C3%AE-riiia-binding-and-tumor-cell-clearance
#20
Migyeong Jo, Hyeong Sun Kwon, Kwang-Hoon Lee, Ji Chul Lee, Sang Taek Jung
FcγRIIIa, which is predominantly expressed on the surface of natural killer cells, plays a key role in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), a major effector function of therapeutic IgG antibodies that results in the death of aberrant cells. Despite the potential uses of aglycosylated IgG antibodies, which can be easily produced in bacteria and do not have complicated glycan heterogeneity issues, they show negligible binding to FcγRIIIa and abolish the activation of immune leukocytes for tumor cell clearance, in sharp contrast to most glycosylated IgG antibodies used in the clinical setting...
November 27, 2017: MAbs
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